Green, Gertrude Mary (1907–2002)

By Gilbert M. Valentine

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Gilbert M. Valentine, Ph.D. has served internationally in teaching and senior administrative roles in Adventist higher education in Europe, Asia, the South Pacific and North America. He has written extensively in Adventist studies and has authored several books, including biographies of W. W. Prescott (2005) and J. N. Andrews (2019). The Prophet and the Presidents (2011) explored the political influence of Ellen White. He has also written for the Ellen G. White Encyclopedia (2013).

Gertrude Mary Green gave fifty-four-and-a-half years of her sixty-three-year nursing career to missionary nursing, teaching and nursing administration in China and the Far East. Her commitment to nurse education and Adventist health care during war-time and major political upheavals exposed her to danger and abandonment of home and loss of personal possessions on numerous occasions.1 Following evacuation from China during the communist revolution she accepted reassignment to Thailand where for more than forty years at the Bangkok Adventist Hospital she led first the school of nursing and then the midwifery program.

Early Life and Education (1907–1936)

Gertrude Green was born in Rochester, New York, on September 25, 1907 to George Green (d. 1940) and Lena Schwader Green (d. 1950). She was the second of four children, her siblings being Walter (b. 1900), Ruth (b. 1909) and Fred (b. 1912). Her family was nominally Lutheran. Her mother Lena was the daughter of German immigrants. Her father was involved in a small business enterprise making baby shoes, which involved him in significant travelling. Lena appreciated music and the arts but lamented her own lack of opportunity and thus ensured that her children had the opportunity to develop musical skills if they wished. Gertrude learned the piano and Ruth developed a reputation as a violinist.

With her younger siblings Gertrude attended the Virgil Grissom elementary school directly across the intersection where the family lived at 88 Bryan Street. During her early years Gertrude also developed a notable skill in ballet dancing and with her ballet teacher, Elizabeth Stemp, travelled to New York at age eleven to attend summer classes with the noted Russian dance instructor Theodor Kosloff (1882–1956). She soon developed a reputation with success in local performances and at the age of 12 began teaching her own ballet classes at home.2

Upon completing grade 7 at her local elementary school Gertrude moved to the neighborhood junior high school. Just after the commencement of Gertrude’s ninth grade year in the fall of 1921, her mother began attending evangelistic tent meetings conducted by Seventh-day Adventist evangelist Oscar D. Cardey. Gertrude was eventually persuaded to attend a “thirteenth Sabbath service” when the meetings moved to a local theatre. She was impressed by the emphasis on mission work. At the age of fourteen when her mother was baptized, she decided to give up her dancing and join her mother and younger siblings in attending the Browning Memorial Adventist Church at 60 Grand Avenue in Rochester, about one hour by bus from their Bryan Street home. Her alcoholic father did not join the church. At this time Gertrude also began to attend the church school held in the basement rooms of the Grand Avenue Church.

In 1922, at age fifteen, Gertrude left home to attend the recently established Union Springs boarding academy at Union Springs, about 70 miles from Rochester.3 She spent summers selling Life and Health magazines to help fund her education, and in the summer of 1924 she was baptized by Elder Cardey. She graduated from Union Springs in June 1926.4

Following graduation, Gertrude enrolled in the nursing program at New England Sanitarium and Hospital in Stoneham, Massachusetts, completing her three-year RN diploma in 1929. She began her full-time nursing career with a year-long appointment at Stoneham as a physical therapy nurse.5 In the fall of 1930 she undertook a six-month specialized course in obstetrics and gynecological nursing at the Harvard Medical School affiliated Boston Lying-in Hospital, and for the next two years practiced nursing there.6 During this time her sister Ruth, who had been an inspiration to Gertrude for her academic aspirations, completed medical school at Loma Linda but after suffering from polio found she could not practice her chosen specialty in ophthalmology and took up the practice of psychiatry.7 Ruth could no longer play her violin and stopped attending church in discouragement over these issues, which greatly distressed Gertrude.

In mid-1933, the New England Sanitarium called Green to serve as the Supervisor of the Hydrotherapy department and to teach hydrotherapy nursing in the Nursing School. During the next three years as her expertise expanded she was asked to supervise the Out Patient Department and Emergency Room as well, and to develop curriculum for teaching courses in this area. She also broadened her education to include X-ray technician skills and the administration of anesthesia in emergency room procedures. To fill a vacancy she also became involved in teaching gynecology nursing and began to complete work on her bachelor's degree at Simmons College. By 1936 she served as the senior charge nurse working closely with Dr. W. E. Ruble, the hospital medical director overseeing his and the other hospital doctor’s clinics.8

Missionary to China (1936–1941)

During a visit to the New England Sanitarium and Hospital in July 1936, Dr. Harry Miller (1880–1977), founder of numerous Adventist hospitals and clinics in China, interviewed Green and invited her to join him in China as a missionary nurse. Letters of inquiry and of formal invitation from the General Conference soon followed, explaining the five-year term and outfitting allowances.9 Confusion over the role she had been asked to accept (director of Nursing for the Shanghai Sanitarium), and the resistance of her mother to her going overseas led her to initially decline the call. A clarification that she would not have to carry sole charge at the Sanitarium led her to reconsider. However, only after China Division President Frederick Griggs made a personal visit to Rochester to reassure Green’s mother about security arrangements in China and to talk to her about the desperate need of the mission field did Green accept the call.10 She sailed from San Francisco aboard the Asamu Maru on November 23, and arrived in Shanghai December 20, 1936.11

Her service began with a three-week orientation to the two Adventist hospitals and several smaller clinics located both in the large foreign enclave territory along the banks of the Yangtze river in central Shanghai and in the free Chinese territory in the outer parts of the city. Then in mid-January Green traveled 200 miles west to Nanking where she joined a number of other newly appointed missionaries in full-time Chinese language study at the Schaffenburg Language School. During June and July she retreated from the oppressive summer heat and mosquitos of the plains to the hill-station in Guling for a concluding two months of study.

While Green was at Guling in July 1937 the second Sino-Japanese war broke out with the Japanese invasion and conquest of Shanghai. As Japanese forces advanced inland toward Nanking and other towns west on the Yangtze River it became impractical for her to return to the coast.12 Her belongings left in Nanking were looted. With Dr. Miller and other missionaries she travelled 170 miles further upriver, beyond the reach of Japanese warplanes, to work alongside Miller at a new clinic he was establishing in the business district of Hankou, an important cultural and transport city on the Yangtze. Miller also needed her to assist at a large new sanitarium and hospital being established at Wuchang, about five miles north of Hanchou.13 During this time increasing numbers of wounded soldiers and refugees began to crowd the clinics and wards. At times Green was also called upon to help entertain the staff and family members of General Chiang Kai-shek, the commander of the Chinese military.14 In the face of the continuing Japanese advance the United States State department advised evacuation and Green and other missionaries fled the fighting, arriving in Hong Kong on a special evacuation train on December 25, 1937.15 By the end of January 1938 fighting in Shanghai had subsided, and Green with other missionary evacuees returned to the fifty-bed Adventist hospital at 51 Rue Moliere in the International Enclave of Shanghai. There, Green headed up the operating room and taught classes in the nursing school.

Because the larger and older hospital on Rubicon Road in the Chinese territory had been heavily damaged in the fighting and could not quickly be rehabilitated, a new location was sought for the Rue Moliere hospital. In July 1938 the hospital relocated to a larger building at 526 Bubbling Well Road. As Superintendent of Nursing Services, Green played the lead role in overseeing the logistics of transferring patients and nursing services to the new facility even as the old continued to provide services.16

In July 1939, as conditions in the interior began to return to normal, Green was assigned the role of Director of Nursing at the denomination’s largest hospital in China, the 150-bed facility established in 1915 and located in Yencheng, Henan province, 500 miles northwest of Shanghai. She would assist Dr. Winston E. Nethery, the medical director of the Sanitarium. Not until nine-months later, however, did circumstances stabilize sufficiently enough at the remote location for her to make the transition. The March 1940 journey to the interior required a day-long train trip beyond Nanking to the railhead at Pengpu. From there, with Nethery, and Thelma Smith, a widowed returning business manager, and Smith’s twelve-year old son, Green embarked on a twelve-day, 250-mile bicycle journey to Yencheng. They took with them sixteen large hand carts of medical and food supplies pulled by coolies.17

Six months after Green’s arrival at Yencheng in September 1940, Nethery was called away to Shanghai to replenish supplies, and Green took responsibility for the administration of the hospital as well as the nursing school and nursing service. Wartime circumstances prevented Nethery from returning. On the morning of January 28, 1941, Japanese aircraft bombed the hospital compound based on incorrect intelligence that nationalist army officers were holding a council on the compound.18 The hospital had treated two wounded generals the week previously. Green’s apartment where she was having breakfast at the time was seriously damaged with blown out windows and doors and collapsed walls. Other hospital buildings were also so seriously damaged as to make them uninhabitable, although there were no casualties other than traumatized patients and staff.19 The wards were evacuated, and for three weeks Green and other staff took refuge in a student’s dirt floor home in the nearby rural village of Yao Chiao as the bombing and strafing continued in the countryside.20 In the confusion that followed the bombing, the hospital and homes were looted and the Japanese army took over the compound. “I escaped by the skin of my teeth before the Japanese army captured everything the Japanese air corps had not destroyed,” Green reported to her mother afterwards.21 Three weeks later Green and Thelma Smith and her son, with what few valuables they had been able to retain, made their way by Chinese wheelbarrow, forty miles through backroads to Xuchang, then through the Japanese frontlines to a railhead at Wangtien and thence to Shanghai, from where she was repatriated to America. She landed back in San Francisco in time to attend the General Conference session in May 1941 and was granted an open-ended furlough until the fighting stopped and it was safe to return. We will “just have to wait until the tension in the Far Fast is over, or until the political situation has cleared,” the General Conference informed her.22

In the United States, (1941–1946)

During the remainder of the war Green furthered her education and took a number of short-term nursing assignments. After visiting family and recovering from the trauma of her return she decided to attend Washington Missionary College to complete her Nursing degree.23 Graduating in June 1942 with a B.S. in nursing, she went back to Melrose Sanitarium in Boston for a year as assistant director of Nursing.24 Then in June 1943 she responded to an urgent need at the Portland Sanitarium and Hospital in the Pacific Northwest.25 As director of the School of Nursing she helped the Portland institution ease its nursing school through a potentially damaging accreditation process. With the help of colleague Anne Stratton, curriculum developments and staffing adjustments were implemented to meet accreditation requirements in spite of opposition from an older generation of doctors who thought all a nurse needed to know was “how to carry and empty a bedpan.” The loss of accreditation was subsequently averted.26 Then in September 1944 Green filled a seven-month medical-surgical nursing teaching vacancy at Porter Sanitarium and Hospital in Denver, Colorado before going to Long Beach, California where she stayed with former China missionary doctor Geneva Beatty and took interim work with a local private clinic. All the while, the General Conference kept in touch about her eventual return to China.27

In February 1946 the General Conference informed Green that with the end of the war and the stabilizing of matters in China missionaries would be returning in April. They requested her to again join Dr. Miller.28 Green, however, had planned on completing another six-month graduate certificate course in midwifery beginning that March at the prestigious Maternity Center Association in New York. She requested a deferral of the call, not sure that China was really where she should now be. Repeated requests eventually secured her commitment and following the completion of her course she traveled to San Francisco, where she joined a large group of returning missionaries who had been unable to travel earlier because of a prolonged dock strike. Green sailed for Shanghai again on December 2, 1946, this time on the recently decommissioned troop ship General Meigs.

In China during the Communist Revolution (1947–1949)

In February 1947, Green undertook a mid-winter journey back up the Yangtze to Hankou from where she again crossed overland to Yencheng Sanitarium in Henan province as director of nursing and chair of the hospital board working with national physician Dr. Paul Hwang as Medical Director. Her first priority was to repair buildings and re-establish the School of Nursing, reassembling as many of the former students as possible from before the war.29 By August the nursing school was functioning again, and the arrival of a new American doctor, Raymond McMullen, strengthened the provision of services although McMullen did not speak Chinese.

At this time increased communist agitation was observed in the community and active recruitment for the military was more noticeable in surrounding villages. In early December the communist army advanced from the north with hostile attitudes to foreigners. After several days of church council meetings the difficult decision was made to again evacuate. Green hastily packed remaining hospital drug supplies and equipment and shipped them south to the hospital at Wuchang.30 In mid-December, communist forces blew up the railway bridges just north of the Yencheng hospital and conducted raids into the surrounding villages. Green together with mission president Merritt Warren escaped south, leading a group of 51 vulnerable staff, including 14 nursing students, on a harrowing mid-winter flight across the countryside by foot and freight train to Suiping, 40 miles away, where fighting raged around them and for a time prevented further escape. Yencheng hospital was firebombed and totally destroyed by the invading forces.31 After a perilous three-weeks of furtive travel, including taking refuge with local Mennonite and Lutheran believers, the group eventually made their way to the safety of Hankou, where the fourteen students were enrolled at the nursing school at the Wuchang Sanitarium.32 Green and others proceeded to Shanghai for meetings at the division headquarters.

In March 1948 Green was called back to Wuhan to help teach her nursing students, eight of whom completed their course that summer. By August of that year she was called again to Shanghai, where she served for twelve months as both director of nursing and of the School of Nursing at the six-story Range Road Adventist Hospital. Six of her students whose education at Yenching had been interrupted by war followed Green to Shanghai and finally completed their studies, and graduated with the Shanghai senior class in the summer of 1949.33

When the communist forces broke out of the north and raided Shanghai in August 1949, expatriate church officials withdrew to Hong Kong, but it was thought that medical personnel would be given freedom to continue, and Green among others volunteered to stay. As political and military conditions deteriorated further, however, it was realized that the presence of foreign staff complicated the work of national administration and made them vulnerable. In early September the last of the medical personnel were advised to leave. Green was the last Adventist American nurse to withdraw from war-torn Shanghai when the last of the foreign medical staff left for Hong Kong, departing on September 20, 1949. By October she was settling into a new administrative position at the Youngberg Hospital in Singapore.34

Green returned home to Rochester urgently in early 1950, taking an extended furlough to care for her mother as she grappled with the last stages of terminal cancer. Mother Lena died in April and Green stayed on to wind up her mother’s affairs.35 Further furlough time was needed to care for Green’s own medical needs in Long Beach, California, back in the care of her friend Dr. Geneva.36 During this period she was requested to again return to the Far East, this time to the Adventist Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, where she would replace pioneering nurse-educator Ruth Monroe, who was returning permanently to America.37 The nursing school had a critical need for someone with midwifery qualifications to meet newly expanded government curriculum standards. A month-long sea voyage on a freighter ship out of New York placed Green in Thailand on March 14, 1951, five days before the opening of the new hospital on Pitsanulok Road.

Four Decades of Missionary Nursing in Thailand (1951–1992)

With the departure of a number of expatriates immediately after the opening of the hospital, Green found herself carrying many additional responsibilities in teaching and specialist nursing for many months, in addition to her responsibilities as director of the nursing school with its large student body. The critical lack of adequate clinical midwifery experience for nursing students soon threatened the loss of government registration for the nursing program, and led the Hospital Board to build its own midwifery building on the hospital campus. Green was assigned to plan the construction and fitting out of the building and the development of a new curriculum. The two-story, 30-bed facility, which also provided accommodation for twelve midwifery students, classrooms and mission offices, was opened on January 1, 1955 by Madame La-aid Pibul-Songgram, the wife of Thailand’s Prime Minister, and was immediately crowded with patients.38 To ensure sustainability Green organized for national staff to travel to New York to take the same training she had taken. In March 1956 Thailand’s Ministry of Public health recognized that the midwifery training program was not only meeting its new standards, but should serve as a model program for other institutions.39

The unique emphasis of Green’s midwifery program allowed babies to room with mothers and much emphasis was placed on the care and education of expectant mothers through special classes. Supervision of the midwifery program was demanding work because the clinic handled 100-135 deliveries per month and circumstances meant that no fees could be charged which restricted the number of regular staff that could be employed. Green was always on call for difficult cases and for the instruction of nurses in training. Often she had interrupted nights and the demands of overwork and lack of adequate sleep became a chronic problem. This fostered a reputation Green developed over time for her at times aggressive and confrontational manner and a notable short fuse. According to a friend and professional colleague of many years, her natural feistiness when crossed was “triggered primarily by overwork,” or when she was under “extraordinary strain.”40 Assurances from administration to “lighten up” her workload, however never seemed to materialize and administrators “understood the situation” under which she worked.41 Green’s expertise, her wide background of experience, and her deep compassion preserved the high respect in which she was held by staff and students. She became friends with the Thai royal family, was invited to attend significant royal birthday celebrations, and was visited on occasion in her hospital apartment by the queen of the sixth king, who contributed to her midwifery program.42 Green continued to head up the midwifery program for 37 years through many challenges and political upheavals, including ten army coup d’etats in the nation’s capital. During some of these she was called to help treat wounded student protesters.

In the mid-1950s Green delayed taking her furlough for a year to ensure the stability of the newly established midwifery program and hoped to use furlough time to complete further postgraduate work at Loma Linda. The study project had to be postponed until a later furlough when staffing resignations during her 1956 furlough necessitated an urgent return to the compound. Not until 1962, at the age of 55, was Green able to complete her Master’s degree at Boston University, where she had won a full tuition and salary scholarship.

In 1979, at 72 years of age and after almost 30 years of service to Bangkok Adventist Hospital, Gertrude Green formally retired, but then immediately, in the same hospital board meeting, she was voted a “Sustentee Overseas Service” (SOS) volunteer appointment back to the very same position. She recognized the value of freeing up another budget for the hospital, as did the grateful administrators. “It will not be possible to replace you in the Far East,” wrote Elder Duane Johnson from the General Conference secretariat.43 Green continued to serve as full-time director of the Midwifery program for another eleven years, teaching students and doing the difficult deliveries and problem cases. She claimed never to have “lost a mother” and her volunteer service kept being renewed.44

In 1992, friends eventually persuaded Green to let go of her work and return to the United States. Some traveled to Thailand to help the 84-year-old pack and work through the task of returning home.45 She settled in Hendersonville, North Carolina among friends, but still traveled back each year to Thailand to visit long-time friends or to help with special projects such as the preparation of statistical reports. In 1997 the Midwifery Clinic Building was named the Gertrude Green building in her honor. Green died on March 12, 2002 at age ninety-four.

Contribution

Gertrude Green gave “outstanding denominational service” as a nurse educator in the field of missionary nursing. She supervised the training of many hundreds of nursing and midwifery students across three generations, under conditions that were often less than ideal. In a remarkable demonstration of selfless service, she placed herself in situations of risk and danger in order to help others. In China through her leadership of Adventist nursing programs and her practice on hospital wards and in numerous clinics she helped introduce a generation of nurses to contemporary advanced nursing methods. In Bangkok she helped model modern maternity practice, which had a significant impact on the national nursing education, and she developed an international reputation as a teacher and practitioner that drew students to her training program from countries all around Southeast Asia. By the time she concluded her career at age 84, the clinic she supervised had seen approximately 45,000 babies delivered.46 She served as a model of sacrificial service and commitment to the highest standards of her profession.

Sources

General Conference Secretariat Records: File ID 19063, General Conference Archives. An electronic file of these records was created in 1992, (PDF 000119063) in the General Conference Archives. Page numbers given in the footnotes refer to the electronic page numbering of the PDF file. Much personal and professional correspondence with details of service are found in these records.

“Gertrude Green Retires after 41 Years,” The Messenger, September-October, 1992.

“Where are they?” The China Division Reporter, December 1, 1949.

Aamodt, Terrie Dopp. “A Lifetime is not Long Enough,” ARH, April 20, 1989.

Burchard, Bob. Life Sketch, “Comings and Goings of Gertrude M. Green,” FED Newsletter, April 1, 2002. GC Secretariat File 19063: [4-10].

Green, Gertrude. “Bicycling Through Anhwei and Honan,” The China Division Reporter, November 1, 1940, and December 1, 1940.

Hammonds, Max W. The Indomitable Gertrude Green (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 2010). Some of Green’s personal correspondence is reproduced in this volume. Hammonds describes his work as an historical novel. It has extensive recreated dialogue and imaginative recreations of many of the experiences of her early life and her missionary service in China. It does not cover the Thailand years.

Jepson, Clayton R. “New Medical Service in Thailand,” Adventist Review, April 7, 1955.

Miles, G. F. “Union Springs Academy,” Atlantic Union Gleaner, June 2, 1926.

Waddell, R. F. “Government Recognition of Midwifery School,” The Messenger, July-August, 1956.

Notes

  1. Terrie Dopp Aamodt, “A Lifetime is not Long Enough,” ARH, April 20, 1989, 14-16. Aamodt suggests eighteen occasions of such loss.

  2. General biographical details on Green’s life are drawn from service record files in the “GC Secretariat Records,” File ID 19063, from Bob Burchard’s Life Sketch, “Comings and Goings of Gertrude M. Green,” GC Secretariat File 19063: [4-10], and also from Max. W. Hammond’s, The Indomitable Gertrude Green (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 2010).

  3. Hammonds, 41-43. The Academy had been opened in 1921.

  4. G. F. Miles, “Union Springs Academy,” Atlantic Union Gleaner, June 2, 1926, 4.

  5. Burchard, [5]; Hammonds, 62-75.

  6. Gertrude Green to Ruth Green, April 28, 1929; October 5, 1930; March 15, 1933 cited in Hammonds, 75-78.

  7. Gertrude Green to Ruth Green, November 11, 1934, cited in Hammonds, 95.

  8. Ibid., see also Burchard, 6.

  9. A. W. Cormack to Gertrude Green, July 19, 1936, 137; August 13, 1936, 143. See also “Gertrude Green: Information Forms, July 26, 1936.

  10. Gertrude Green to A. W. Cormack, July 27, 1936 [138]; August 11, 1936, 142; September 1, 1936, 150; See also Lena Green to Gertrude Green, August 14, 1936 cited in Hammonds, 124.

  11. Gertrude Green to Family, December 29, 1936 cited in Hammonds, 15-153.

  12. Gertrude Green to Mother, June 27, July 31, August 24, 1937. Cited in Hammonds 180-185.

  13. Gertrude Green to Mother, October 16, 1937, cited in Hammonds 207-208.

  14. Gertrude Green to Mother, November 16, 1937, cited in Hammonds 216. Gertrude Green to Ruth Green, December 7, 1937, cited in Hammonds 219, 220.

  15. A. W. Cormack to Mr. and Mrs. George Green, et al, January 2, 1938. Gertrude Green to Mother, January 25, 1938, cited in Hammonds 224, 226.

  16. Gertrude Green to Mother, November 27, 1938 cited in Hammonds 261. See also Hammonds, 249-258.

  17. Gertrude Green, “Bicycling Through Anhwei and Honan,” The China Division Reporter, November 1, 1940, 7, 8 and December 1, 1940, 8. Gertrude Green to Mother, March 23, 1940, cited in Hammonds 329.

  18. Hammonds, 385.

  19. A. W. Cormack to Lena and Ruth Green, March 17, March 19, 1941, 163-164. Ruth Green to A. W. Cormack, March 17, 1941, 162.

  20. Gertrude Green to Mother, February 9, 1941 cited in Hammonds 385.

  21. Gertrude Green to Mother, April 21, 1941 cited in Hammonds 399.

  22. H. T. Evans to Gertrude Green, August 14, 1947, 173.

  23. Gertrude Green to A. W. Cormack, August 7, 1941, 172.

  24. H. T. Evans to Gertrude Green, January 20, 1942, 175.

  25. A. W. Cormack to Gertrude Green, August 30, 1944, 178.

  26. Burchard, 3.

  27. Ibid. Gertrude Green to W. P. Bradley, September 19, 1945, 188; A. W. Cormack to Gertrude Green, January 14, 1946, 196. See also Geneva Beatty Jones to Gertrude Green, May 30, 1945 cited in Hammonds, 431.

  28. A. W. Cormack to Gertrude Green, February 13, 1946 cited in Hammonds 439; W. P. Bradley to Gertrude Green, April 18, 1946, 198.

  29. Gertrude Green to Mother, June 14, 1947 cited in Hammonds, 471.

  30. Gertrude Green to Mother, December 6, 13, 1947 cited in Hammonds, 482, 491.

  31. N. W. Dunn to Walter Green, January 8, 1948, cited in Hammonds 618.

  32. Gertrude Green to Mother, March 28, 1948, cited in Hammonds, 624. Aamodt, 14. The story of the escape is recreated in detail in Hammonds 541-619.

  33. Hammonds, 359.

  34. “Where are they?” The China Division Reporter, December 1, 1949, 3, 4.

  35. W. P. Bradley to Gertrude Green, January 1, 1950, 209, April 14, 1950, [222]. W. P. Bradley to Gertrude Green to W. P. Bradley, May 27, 1950, 225.

  36. W. P. Bradley to Gertrude Green, November 12, 1950, 228.

  37. Ibid.

  38. Clayton R. Jepson, “New Medical Service in Thailand,” ARH, April 7, 1955, 22.

  39. R. F. Waddell, “Government Recognition of Midwifery School,” The Messenger, July-August, 1956, 8. See also Burchard, 4.

  40. Gertrude Green to N. W. Dunn, August 10, 1965, 288-291; August 17, 1965, 293-297. Geneva Beatty to A. E. Gibb, September 10, 1865, 368.

  41. D. S. Johnson to Gertrude Green, August 13, 1965, 292.

  42. Burchard, 4, 5.

  43. D. S. Johnson to Gertrude Green, January 11, 1980, 57.

  44. Burchard, 6.

  45. “Gertrude Green Retires after 41 Years,” The Messenger, September-October, 1992, 13.

  46. Burchard, 6.

×

Valentine, Gilbert M. "Green, Gertrude Mary (1907–2002)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 09, 2021. Accessed January 15, 2021. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=28DP.

Valentine, Gilbert M. "Green, Gertrude Mary (1907–2002)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 09, 2021. Date of access January 15, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=28DP.

Valentine, Gilbert M. (2021, January 09). Green, Gertrude Mary (1907–2002). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved January 15, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=28DP.