View All Photos

Harry Miller.

Photo courtesy of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives.

Miller, Harry Willis (1879–1977) and Marie Elizabeth (Iverson) (1884–1950); later Mary Elizabeth (Greer) (1919–1994)

By Ruth Crocombe, Dionisio Valdez Tuapin, and Bruce W. Lo

×

Ruth Crocombe lives in Brisbane, Australia. Her research examines the connections between Seventh-day Adventist missionaries and the political and financial elite during the Chinese Republican Period.

Dionisio Valdez Tuapin, Jr. is a registered librarian and a licensed professional teacher in the Philippines. He finished a degree in education, with specialization in library and information science at the Adventist University of the Philippines. He is currently working at Leslie Hardinge Library, AIIAS, Silang, Cavite. His previous work employment was at South Philippine Adventist College. He is married with two children. His passions are researching about Seventh-day Adventist history and trail running.

Bruce W. Lo is the ESDA assistant editor for the Chinese Union Mission.

First Published: April 6, 2023

Harry Willis Miller, affectionally known to many as the “China Doctor,” is renowned for his long period of service as a medical missionary, church minister, and church administrator in China; for pioneering the publishing ministry in that country; and for being instrumental in the establishment of Seventh-day Adventist hospitals in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, the Philippines, and other East Asian countries. In addition to his hospital building work, he also served as a visiting doctor to Adventist hospitals around the globe including Malaysia, Trinidad-Tobago, Libya, Indonesia, and Japan. More broadly, Miller is recognized as the inventor of large-scale production and commercialization of soy milk and soybean-based protein product around the globe, particularly in the United States and East Asia.1

Early Life

Harry Willis Miller was born in Ludlow Falls, Ohio on July 2, 1879, to Amanda Ehlers (1856-1946) and John Oliver Miller (1856-1918). He was the oldest of five children. His siblings were Clarence (1882-1956), Mabel (Childs) (1888- ), Alice (1897-1988) (married Harold H. Morse), and Esta Leroy (1885-1912).2 The Miller family converted to Seventh-day Adventism when Harry was about 15. A year later, in August 1895, Harry himself was baptized by Elder Lovell Iles during the Ohio Campmeeting, Newark. In later years, John Miller would become president of the Canadian Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. Harry Miller studied at Mount Vernon Academy and then went on to study at the American Medical Missionary College in Battle Creek, Michigan. He graduated from this institution in June 1902.3

On July 2, 1902, Miller married fellow doctor Maude Amelia Thompson (1880-1905), whom he had met while studying at the American Medical Missionary College (AMMC). Following their wedding, both Maude and Harry began working as physicians at the Chicago Branch Sanitarium, a Seventh-day Adventist institution.4

China 1903-1911

In 1903, the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists reorganized the church organization and calibrated its financial management to more effectively and efficiently carry its mission from the homeland to foreign mission fields.5 At around this time, Miller heard the appeal for medical missionaries in China through an impassioned speech from Dr. William Malcom, a Baptist missionary to China, at the commencement ceremony of AMMC Class of 1902.6 He also heard of the appeal through Erik Pilquist, another missionary in China, which was conveyed to him by Stella Houser, a former secretary of Foreign Mission Board.7 He and his wife became interested and volunteered to answer this mission call. During the August 1903 campmeeting, the Ohio Conference voted to support the Millers for one year. Harry Miller was ordained by Elder D. E. Lindsey during this occasion.8

In October 1903, Miller and Maude, together with their college friends Drs. Arthur and Bertha Selmon and accompanied by nurses Carrie Erickson and Charlotte Simpson, left the United States and travelled to China as missionaries. Their ship, Empress of India, arrived at Shanghai, where Jacob Anderson was waiting to welcome them. They then travelled upstream the Yangtze River to Hankow and then by land to Sin Tsai Hsien (now Xincai) in the province of Honan (modern day Henan), where another missionary couple, Eric and Ida Pilquist, were laboring. The Millers spent a year in this city engaged in language study and running a dispensary. The Millers believed that they could be more effective in sharing the gospel by assimilating the Chinese ways of life. Thus, they wore Chinese robes and Harry kept a queue hairstyle as they served their patients in Honan. During this time, Maude Miller gave birth to twin boys. Sadly, these children only lived for a few hours after birth. In August of 1904, the couple moved 75 miles north of Sin Tsai Hsien and opened a new mission ministry in the town of Shang Tsai Hsien. On March 14, 1905, Maude Miller died from tropical sprue, a disease caused by vitamin deficiency, at the age of 25. Despite the loss of his wife, Miller remained in China for several years. He was joined by his brother Esta about 1906. Esta remained in China until his death in 1913.9

In May 1905, in addition to his medical work in Shang Tsai Hsien, Miller also set up a printing press using the Franklin hand printer he solicited from Barnhart and Spindler Company earlier, and published a hymnal and two tracts in Mandarin, which were followed by two issues of a monthly magazine called Gospel Herald. The magazine was later renamed Signs of the Times,10 but remained under his editorship until 1911.11 This magazine developed into the flagship Chinese-language publication among Chinese Seventh-day Adventist believers even until today.

In 1907, Harry Miller was given early furlough to the United States, it was strongly suggested to him that he use this time in the United States to find a wife. During his furlough, Miller met and married Marie Elizabeth Iverson, who was a nurse at that time. Harry and Marie Miller returned to China in 1908, accompanied by Marie’s widowed aunt, Bothilde Miller (no relation to Harry Miller) and Bothilde’s adopted son, Percy. The Millers did not return to Harry’s previous mission station in Henan. The church leaders felt that it was important that the work of the church be centred in a large city, and so it was decided that Harry Miller would establish the work of the Church in Shanghai.12

During his time in Shanghai, Miller was heavily involved in both medicine and the publication of Christian literature. In his later life, Miller was well-known in Seventh-day Adventist circles for his close relationships and personal friendship with many of China’s political and financial elite. The first of these connections was established through a business relationship with Charlie Soong (宋嘉樹 Song Jiashuin), who in 1896 founded one of the leading publishers in China at the time, the Commercial Press Publishing Company, which printed Bibles, religious tracts, and textbooks. In 1908, Miller rented part of the printing premises from Soong to run the Adventist Church own publishing house. Soong was a supporter of Sun Yat-sen, the first president of the new Republic of China, who married one of Soong’s daughters, Soong Qingling (宋庆龄). In fact, all of Soong’s children were related to the political elites in the Republic of China. Their eldest daughter, Soong Ailing (宋蔼龄), married H. H. Kung (孔祥熙 Kong Xiangxi), at one time the finance minister of China, and the youngest daughter, Soong Meiling (宋美齡), married Chiang Kai-shek, who became the president of the Republic of China, while their son, T. V. Soong (宋子文 Song Ziwen) became the finance minister of the Republic of China in 1925.13

Miller would become very skilled at leveraging these connections into political and financial advantages for the Seventh-day Adventist Church’s work in China. In November 1908, Marie Miller gave birth to the first of the couple’s four children, a daughter named Maude. A second daughter, Ethel, was born in 1910. In the winter of 1908, Harry was appointed the leader of the Seventh-day Adventist mission in China when J. N. Anderson returned to the United States to take care of his own wife, Emma. The Miller family then relocated back to Henan.14 They established an educational institution, the China Union Training School, in 1910, which was China’s first central training institute for evangelists, colporteurs, and medical workers.15 Miller assumed the post of principal and instructor of medical subjects while E. A. Hall handled the Bible subjects.16 This school would go on to become the China Training Institute, the flagship of Seventh-day Adventist education in China. Unfortunately, in 1911, Miller contracted tropical sprue – the disease that had claimed his first wife. Grave concern for Miller’s health led to his being returned to the United States in the same year.17

The United States 1911-1925

Following a period of recovery at his wife’s parents’ home in Portland, Maine, and his own parents’ home in New Brunswick, Canada, Miller began part-time work shingling houses.18 According to Moore, this was followed by some time spent caring for the farm of an elderly relative. Then in 1912, Miller took up a temporary teaching job at Mount Vernon Academy, a Seventh-day Adventist institution in Ohio which, from 1905, had been operating as a college and offering four-year courses which led to Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees. It was during this time that the Miller’s third child, Harry Willis, Jr. (1912), was born.

In 1913, due to the influence of I. H. Evans, the president of the North American Division of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and an old friend, Harry Miller was elected as medical secretary for the Seventh-day Adventist General Conference. This led to an appointment of medical superintendent at the Washington Sanitarium (Takoma Park, Maryland). As a result of this appointment, Miller is alleged, by his biographer Moore19, to have treated a number of prominent Americans including Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan and Alexander Graham Bell. Crocombe notes that, according to Moore, “Miller was also consulting physician to Presidents Taft and Wilson and during World War I, had been appointed by Wilson to the American Relief Administration.”20 However, it has not been possible to find documentation outside of the Seventh-day Adventist Church to confirm these claims.

While medical superintendent at the Washington Sanitarium, Miller also enrolled in postgraduate study at the John Hopkins University Hospital in Baltimore in order to keep his medical skills updated and current. Miller would become famous for his work as a goiter surgeon. He perfected his skills while working at the Washington Sanitarium, and it was his goiter work that led to the growth and financial success of this institution during Miller’s tenure there. On a personal front, Harry and Marie’s fourth and final child, Clarence, was added to the family in 1915.

Following the American entry into World War I in 1917, the U.S. government restricted the supply of cow’s milk from local farms to military hospitals, causing a shortage for the Washington Sanitarium. This sparked Miller’s interest in plant-based alternatives to milk, and in 1921, he began experimenting with soy milk and tofu using soybeans grown on his own farm. He was influenced by the soy and tofu he had tasted while in the Far East.

Miller remained at the Washington Sanitarium until 1925 when he was asked to return to China in order to facilitate the building of the Seventh-day Adventist Sanitarium in Shanghai.

China 1925-1938

Upon arrival in Shanghai, Miller led the building project to establish the Seventh-day Adventist Shanghai Sanitarium and Hospital. The first step was to acquire the land deeds of the property where the Church wished to use in the construction of the hospital. Miller approached Alfred Sao-ke Sze (施肇基Shi Zhaoji), China’s ambassador to the United States whom he knew when he was at Washington Sanitarium, and asked Shi to introduced him to Kuo T’ai-chi (郭泰祺 Guō Tàiqí), the mayor of Shanghai, who was also in charge of the land office.21 When Miller returned to Shanghai in 1925, he quickly made his way to the mayor, who in a matter of minutes placed the necessary seal on the deed.22 Without the intervention of Shi Zhaoji, it is likely that the building of the Shanghai Sanitarium would have taken much longer. This is an example of how Miller was skillful in leveraging his connections with Chinese officials to help the furtherance of the Church’s development projects in China. The Shanghai Sanitarium was to bring several Seventh-day Adventist missionaries into close contact to the Guomindang elite and other prominent Chinese.23

The Shanghai Sanitarium treated both the poor and the very wealthy of Shanghai. The fees from the wealthy patients were used to subsidise the treatment of those living in poverty. This use of fees from wealthy patients to subsidise the treatment of those less fortunate would remain a feature of the hospitals Miller helped establish throughout his life.

Many of the Sanitarium’s wealthy clientele became friends of Miller and regular donors to the denomination’s work in China. One of the closest relationships Miller formed with during this period was with Zhang Xueliang (張學良), known in the West as the Young Marshal. Seventh-day Adventist contact began with Zhang when he financed the building of a Seventh-day Adventist hospital in Mukden (now known as Shenyang). Moore states that Zhang wanted Seventh-day Adventist involvement in this project as a result of the good reports he had heard about the Shanghai Sanitarium from Soong Meiling (more commonly known in the west as Madame Chiang Kai-shek).24 This institution was completed following Zhang’s withdrawal from Manchuria due to the Japanese invasion in 1931, and the Church continued to operate the hospital during the Japanese occupation. The relationship with Zhang did not cease with the building of this institution. Zhang Xueliang, his wife, and concubine were both addicted to opium. In 1933, Miller was contacted by Zhang’s Australian advisor W. H. Donald. Soong Meiling suggested to Donald that Miller would be able to cure Zhang’s opium addiction.25 The treatment was successful, and Zhang would go on to finance the building of several Seventh-day Adventist hospitals.26 Moore’s biography, China Doctor, and other writings about Miller’s life made the claim that during the Xian Incident, when Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped by his own generals who were determined to force him to fight the Japanese, Miller was asked to go and negotiate for Chiang’s release with the leader of this group, Zhang Xueliang.

Crocombe elaborated on this incident noting that,27 “The close association between Miller and Zhang was to haunt the church in later years. In 1951 the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists obtained transcripts (translated from Chinese into English), from the ‘Struggle’ meetings against the Seventh-day Adventist Church in China. Among the accusations made by Pen Siang Sheng (彭湘生) was a statement noting that, when Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped during the Xian incident, Soong Mayling [sic] sent Miller “a telegram asking him to save her husband by all means.”28 Moore claims Miller was asked because of his close relationship with Zhang Xueliang. However, Miller felt it was not appropriate for a missionary to take on a political role of this nature and so suggested that W. H. Donald, T. V. Soong, or Soong Meiling herself would be better situated to make the negotiations.29

In his work for the denomination, Miller served as the first president of China Division of the Seventh-day Adventist Church from 1931 to 1936.30 Prior to this, administration of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in China had fallen under the auspices of the Far Eastern Division. However, the Church in China had grown to a point where a separate division was warranted. Miller’s appointment to his role may have been influenced by his long service in China, his fluency with the language, and his connections with those in political power. During his presidency of the China Division, Miller’s emphasis was to preach the gospel into all parts of China. To achieve his goal, he organized more mission stations, making every province of China into a Mission. As a result, more potential leaders bloomed in his presidency.31

While in China, Miller continued his experimentation with soy milk products which he had begun in the United States. In 1932, he opened the Vetose Nutritional Laboratory to conduct more research. He used the clients at the Shanghai Seventh-day Adventist Clinic, mostly young children and infants, to run tests on the effectiveness of the soy milk as a nutritional substitute for cows’ milk. Miller and his fellow researcher Wen published their research “in the April 1936 issue of the prestigious Chinese Medical Journal, an English language publication read widely in the United States and China.”32 In 1936, he opened a full-scale soy “dairy” in Pingliang Road in Shanghai, close to the Seventh-day Adventist clinic. The “dairy” produced a product called Vetose Soya Milk. Shurtleff and Aoyagi claim that this was the world’s first soya milk factory.33

Miller’s soy milk research and production was a private venture, neither funded nor sponsored by the Seventh-day Adventist administration. It was carried out in addition to his duties to the Church, which included administration of the China Division, as its president, working as medical secretary for the China Division and as the medical superintendent for the Shanghai Sanitarium-Hospital and Clinic. This led to some tension between Miller and the local Church administration. He also continued to practice medicine and frequently performed operations. Miller’s focus on the soy milk research and development, and his leadership style led to strained relations with the other members of the Church’s administration team in China and, in 1937, Miller was transferred to Wuhan in Hebei Province to construct a sanitarium there.

Tension appeared to surface in the China mission field at this time. Miller was an excellent self-promoter, apparently at the expense of the sanitarium. By 1938, although the Shanghai Sanitarium had many prominent patients, this was due more to Miller’s own reputation than that of the hospital. An internal Church letter notes, “It seems that our Sanitarium in itself is not well known in Shanghai. Dr. Miller’s name is, and it was his name that gave us the standing and enabled us to do the work which he did. Now that he is gone, we will have to build a good reputation for the Sanitarium itself.”34 At this time, Miller had been tasked with establishing a Seventh-day Adventist sanitarium in Wuhan. The letter noted that Miller was repeating his behavior in Wuhan.35 From this correspondence, one can surmise that there had been some difficulty between Miller and the Shanghai Sanitarium, although this is not made clear in the text. Significantly, there is no mention of any difficulties, financial or otherwise, in either of the biographies written about Miller.36

Miller was in charge of the Sanitarium in Wuhan when the Japanese invaded the city in 1938. Miller kept the Sanitarium functioning and provided shelter to 20,000 Chinese in the Sanitarium compound. With the help of the Red Cross, the Sanitarium provided food for the refugees.37 Miller used his finely honed negotiating skills to convince the Japanese to allow the hospital to remain open and largely untouched by Japanese soldiers. Miller’s bravery, along with that of his staff, is credited with saving many lives during this time.

Although Miller was an exceptional surgeon and extremely generous when it came to finances, turning over tens of thousands of dollars in fees and gifts to the Seventh-day Adventist Church, there were some difficulties in his personal life. Miller was recalled from China in 1938 due to “immoral” conduct. A letter between W. H. Branson (president of the China Division at the time) and J. L. McElhany (president of the General Conference) reveals that “for many years unsavoury rumors had been circulated through the field concerning Dr. Miller’s relationships with some of his associate women workers, and that now the thing had come to a head… there was only one step to take, and that was to request the General Conference to permit us to return him to the homeland.”38 As a result of this, Miller returned to the United States in 1938. On February 24,1939, the General Conference formally withdrew his missionary and ministerial credentials.39

Soy Milk Research and Return to The United States 1938-1953

As he travelled to different parts of China, Miller was alarmed by the problem of infants in average Chinese households that did not have a reliable means for dairy milk as a supplement to mothers’ milk. He saw an opportunity in the soybean soup produced in the process of making tofu. Though it was already used as part of the Chinese menu, it did not gain popularity because of its poor taste and indigestibility. In Shanghai, he followed the basic processes of the Chinese and developed his own through experimentations.

Methodically, he eliminated first the bitter taste, then improved its digestibility, testing his formulated soy milk to the hospital employees, patients, and infants with no means for mother’s or formula milk (early 1930s). He fine-tuned his processes in his own Vetose Nutritional Laboratory (1932). Doing further research, he conducted a two-year controlled comparative study on the effect of soy and dairy milk to infants. He published it in the Chinese Medical Journal (April 1936). He made soy milk affordable through commercial production (1936). He popularized it by making a viable model of distribution (1936). Lastly, he patented his process of making soy milk to share it with others. Miller submitted the application to patent his soy milk formula and manufacturing process to the United State Patent Office in 1935. 40 He was awarded patent 2078962 in 1937. 41

On his return to the United States in 1938, Miller returned to his home state of Ohio and went into private business establishing a production plant to produce Soyalac, the soy milk product he patented earlier. With a loan from his brother Clarence and income from his current medical practice, Miller worked with his sons Clarence and Willis in running a health food business company called International Nutrition Foundation. His business venture produced and marketed liquid, powdered, flavored, and acidophilus soy milk, canned soybeans, canned gluten cutlets, tofu, soy milk ice cream, sausages, soy sauce, soy curd, soya loaf, soya spread, whole soya bean flour, soy cheese, soy coffee, and a line of vegetarian meat substitutes. His market included the United States, Philippines, and China. He also licensed other overseas soy milk factories at South China Union College, Hong Kong; Mountain View College, Philippines; Philippine Union College (now Adventist University of the Philippines); Japan Junior College (now Saniku Gakuin College); Spicer Memorial College, India; Universitas Advent Indonesia etc. He worked with the government of Japan and Taiwan in establishing several soy dairies. Soy milk was part of his outreach activity, an act of love and compassion.42 This led to Miller’s regular travel to Asia.

During this period, he made another breakthrough in his soy-based infant formula. Backed with research, he obtained approval from the American Medical Association as a substitute milk for infants with allergies.43 This resulted in a sales surge, but instead of expanding his business, he sold the soy processing plant to the Seventh-day Adventist-operated Loma Linda Food Company of Arlington, California (1950),44 and non-soy products to Worthington Foods. “This is my gift to the Adventist Church” he said, “second to hospitals.”

Miller was to remain in private employment until the early 1950s. He continued to attend his local Seventh-day Adventist church and remained supportive of the Church’s goals and mission.

In 1949, the political situation in China changed with the success of the Communist Party in the Chinese civil war. The Nationalist government retreated to the island of Taiwan, and there was great concern within the Seventh-day Adventist Church over the fate of its institutions, missionaries, and members in what was now the People’s Republic of China. “Miller’s political connections in China aided greatly in his rehabilitation” within the Seventh-day Adventist Church.45 Miller, now age 70, returned to Shanghai. He sent a report of his findings and discussions with the Communists to the General Conference. It may have been due to his alleged medical treatment of Communist officials, most notably Zhou Enlai during the 1920s and 1930s, that Miler was seen “by church administrators as having the necessary connections on both sides of the political fence to be able to influence the political landscape in favour of the church.”46 However, it has not been possible to locate any evidence showing official endorsement of Miller’s participation in Church affairs in China at this time and this suggests that Miller was acting in an unofficial capacity at this time. The Millers spent a few months in China before returning to the United States in 1950. They do not appear on any General Conference lists of returning Church employees, thus reinforcing the understanding that Miller was acting in a private capacity at this time. Sadly, following their return to the United States, on October 9, 1950, Miller’s second wife, Marie, who had worked faithfully alongside Miller in the mission field holding various posts, passed away.47 Miller continued with private employment developing his soy milk business and conducting surgery tours in Asia.

Post 1950 Years Still Active

In 1953, Miller was asked by his former colleague in China, Ezra Longway, to establish a Seventh-day Adventist Sanitarium on the island of Taiwan. The Church did insist that, if Miller was to take up this role, he be married. Miller, now 74 years old, married Mary Elizabeth Greer, a school teacher from Mount Vernon, Ohio, who was more than 40 years his junior.48 In Taiwan, Miller was able to re-establish his connections with influential Chinese in order to facilitate the importation of goods and establish the hospital quickly,49 and it may well have been for this reason that Longway asked Miller to take on the task. The Taiwan Sanitarium opened in 1955. In 1956, Miller asked to step down from his duties, intending to retire. Prior to his departure from Taiwan, Miller was invited to have a meal with the Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Meiling. At this luncheon, Miller was surprised with the awarding of the Blue Star of China, the highest civilian decoration that could be awarded. It was given in recognition of medical work in China and Taiwan.

Miller did not have the quiet retirement he was anticipating. In 1954, he was a visiting doctor to Penang Adventist Hospital. In 1956, he was again asked to go and assist with surgeries at Port-of-Spain Clinic in Trinidad and Tobago. 50 Miller’s possession of a British medical license was a significant part of this call. Following this, in 1957, Miller also worked for Benghazi Adventist Hospital in Libya for five months due to the illness of the medical director and sole physician there. 51 In the same year, he was a visiting doctor at Bandung Adventist Hospital, Indonesia, 52 followed by Tokyo Sanitarium and Hospital in Japan (1958). 53

Miller officially retired in 1972,54 but remained active even in retirement. At the age of 81, he returned to Hong Kong to help establish the Tsuen Wan Adventist Hospital. He did this largely through fundraising. Miller was exceptional in being able to solicit donations from wealthy patrons. In 1966, Miller and Longway went to the Philippines to build additions to crowded hospitals. According to Seventh-day Adventist sources, this was done under the auspices of Philippine Vice President Fernando Lopez.55 Miller was also approached by the Hong Kong industrialist Chan Shun to build a hospital for wealthy patients on Victoria Island. Miller agreed as this followed the pattern of using income from a hospital in a wealthy area to subsidise less-privileged cliental such as those of the Tsuen Wan hospital. Miller took on a mostly fundraising role and was 91 when the Stubbs Road Adventist Hospital in Hong Kong was opened. He remained in Hong Kong until 1974 and was still performing surgery and seeing patients at a weekly clinic until his departure. He did his last goiter operation in 1973 at age of 94,56 wrapping up his career with approximately 6,000 goiter and 30, 000 general operations.57

In 1974, he and Mary returned to Riverside California, where he continued to be active in nutrition research and solicitation for the completion of Hong Kong Adventist Hospital.58 He walked two miles each working day in the food laboratory and with two fingers on the typewriter, ended his day with his correspondences. At an advanced age, he mused on the Great Commission, “There is a great deal of work yet to be done and I want to have a part in it.”59 Harry Willis Miller died of a heart attack while on his way to church on January 1, 1977, at the age of 97 and was laid in Montecito Memorial Park.60 Miller was survived by his wife Mary and four children.

Distinctions

In recognition of his exemplary life of service, humanitarian projects, devotion to research, and accomplishments, Miller was awarded the Certificate of Honorary Degree of Master of Arts from Washington Missionary College in 1926 (now the Washington Adventist University); Order of the Brilliant Blue Star, highest civilian honor in Taiwan, pinned by Generalissimo Chang Kai-shek (1956); Honorary Life Membership and a gold medal by the Board of Directors of the American Soybean Association (1958); Alumnus of the Year Award by the Alumni Association School of Medicine, Loma Linda University (1968)61; U.S. National Medal of Science (year not identified);62 Certificate of Appreciation for 66 years of devoted medical services to the Orient by the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventists, Far Eastern Division (1969); Certificate of Commendation from the State of Ohio, Executive Department, Office of the Governor Columbus (1969); Dr. Harry Willis Miller day proclamation by the Council of the Villages of Wet Milton, Ludlow Falls and Laura, Ohio (1970); Ohio House of Representative Resolution No. 250 to honor him for “doing God’s will on earth” (1970);63 Certificate of Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws from Andrews University (1970); Certificate of the Honor of Colone, Aide de-Camp from the governor of New Mexico (1972); Certificate of Merit, in recognition of his service to mankind as a medical missionary from the Office of the Governor of the State of Arizona (1974); 64 Proclamation on Harry Miller’s 97th birthday by the mayor of the City of Riverside (1976); La Sierra Citizen of the Year (1976);65 presidential commendation for his humanitarian work by Richard Nixon (1974);66 Outstanding Citizen of the Year from La Sierra, California Chamber of Commerce (1976); Memorial of Dr. Harry Willis Miller from Ohio House of Representatives (1977); Official Red Carpet of the State of New Mexico (no date);67 Proclamation of the month of December as “Dr. Harry W. Miller Month” from the Office of the Mayor, Loma Linda, California;68 Dr. Harry W. Miller International Fund created in his honor by the International Student Organization, Loma Linda University;69 and consultant to the World Health Organization and United Nations’ Children Fund and Food and Agriculture Organization.70

Legacy

Harry Willis Miller, MD, FACS, wore many hats in China and East Asia as a medical mission pioneer, church administrator in Mission, Division, and General Conference level, minister, author, editor, publisher, food technician, nutritional researcher, entrepreneur, educator, hospital founder and administrator, politician, fundraiser, and philanthropist in his remarkable 70 years of service from his homeland of the United States of America to China, Hong Kong, Philippines, Japan, Malaysia, Australia, Europe, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Libya. Miller’s 97 years of fruitful life was a witness to the advantages of embracing the Seventh-Adventist healthy lifestyle.

He published two books: The Way to Health (1920, repeatedly revised and republished, translated into English, Japanese, and Korean) and Tuberculosis: A Curable Disease (1954, translated in Cebuano, English, Panayan, Tagalog). He also contributed many articles in Adventist Review, Signs of the Times, The LifeBoat, Life and Health, Soybean Digest and other Church periodicals.

His choices to reach out to Chinese and Asians resulted in his involvement in the establishment of 16 medical institutions in China,71 five in the Philippines,72 two in Hong Kong,73 and one in each of Japan, Penang, and Taiwan.74 Even the collaboration between the first modern western-style hospital in The People’s Republic of China (the Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital) with Loma Linda University in California in the 1990’s was inspired by Dr. Miller, who had left a lasting impression on philanthropist Shaw, who funded that hospital building project.75

He is “credited for almost single-handedly popularizing the use of soya milk on a large scale around the world, especially for feeding infants suffering from allergies, malnutrition, for starting the first large scale commercial soy dairy in East Asia and assisting in the foundation of many subsequent ones, and for producing the first major commercial fiber-free soy milk in America.”76 He also pioneered Seventh-day Adventist publishing work in China. From a humble beginning with a donated hand printer, he developed the Chinese Signs of The Times Publishing House into, not just an important arm of the Chinese Adventist ministry, but also a leading publisher among the different Christian groups in China at the time.77

His heroic deeds were celebrated in the inclusion of his portrait, among the Seventh-day Adventist pioneers, in a mural commissioned by Ellen G. White Estate, entitled, “The Christ of the Narrow Way (1989).”78 Richard Nixon commended him in 1974, writing, “You leave an admirable legacy of compassion and accomplishment.”79 Chiang Kai-shek decorated him with their nation’s highest honor, The Blue Star of China.

Sources

“About us.” Signs of the Times Association website, accessed August 14, 2022, http://www.stpa.org/content/about/about07.aspx.

Appel, G. J. “Work for refugees at the Wuhan Sanitarium.” The China Division Reporter, September 15, 1939.

Beeler, Charles R. “‘China Doctor’ is honored.” Columbia Union Visitor, August 6, 1970.

Branson, W. H. Letter to J. L. McElhany, November 23, 1938, Box WH 3038 - Miller, Harry W. MD Collection. General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives, Silver Spring, Marylad, U.S.A.

Branson, Roy. “Harry Miller: Adventist Hero of Social Reform, A dedicated doctor changed the ways the world eats” ARH, accessed August 14, 2013, www.adventistreview.org/2000-06/story2.htm.

“‘China Doctor’ active in research.” Columbia Union Visitor, February, 26, 1976.

“China doctor decides against retirement.” Loma Linda Bulletin, July 18, 1973, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

Chow, Christie Chui-Shan and Lee, Joseph Tse-Hei. “The Seventh-day Adventist Century of China: Prophecy, Publishing, and Print Culture.” Paper presented at the 2014 Joint AIC-ASDAH Conference, Hong Kong Adventist College, Hong Kong China. Accessed June 20, 2020. http://www.sdahistorians.org/conference-papers.html.

Conard, Helen C. “Awakening of China,” North Pacific Union Gleaner, March 11, 1908.

Craig Collie, The Reporter and the Warlords. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, (2013).

Crocombe, Ruth. The missionaries and the Guomindang: an exploration of the Seventh-day Adventist experience in Republican China. M.Phil. Thesis School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry, the University of Queensland (2015). https://doi.org/10.14264/uql.2015.681.

“December proclaimed Miller month by Loma Linda mayor.” Loma Linda University Observer, 5, no. 25, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California, U.S.A.

Doggett, Jill. “All men are his friends: a career solely dedicated to relief of pain and sorrow.” South China Sunday Post Herald, October 17, 1965, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

Edwardy, Fredrik W. to Spuehler, Norman, June 9, 1959, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

“February 11, 1938 Letter to McElhany.” Griggs Collection, Box 2, Fld 4, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, U.S.A.

General Conference Committee, May 24, 1956, 596, General Conference Archives. Accessed June 12, 2022. https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1956-05.pdf.

General Conference Committee, May 29, 1957, 894, General Conference Archives. Accessed June 12, 2022. https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1957-05.pdf;

“Miller returns.” Unpublished biography of Dr. Harry Willis Miller, February 15, 1959, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California, typescript.

General Conference Committee, March 13, 1958, 1129, General Conference Archives. Accessed June 12, 2022. https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1958-03.pdf.

Harry Miller (Collection 252), Awards, Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, U.S.A.

“China Doctor cited,” Columbia Union Visitor, July 29, 1976.

“Harry Willis Miller.” ARH, January 13, 1977.

“Harry Willis Miller.” Secretariat Appointee Files, Biographpical Information Bank, RG 21, File 000 3849, Record ID 114932, Box No. 7301, Creatopm Date” 12/31/1950. General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.A.

“Hong Kong Adventist Hospital, Stubbs Road.” Adventist Health, accessed July 31, 2022, https://www.hkah.org.hk/en/about/milestone.

“In memory of Harry Willis Miller, MD.” Funeral program, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

Jones, Lanie Jones. “Dr Harry Miller presented 1976 La Sierra Citizen of the Year award.” University Observer, June 10, 1976, Bio File, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

Lawson, Ron. “Broadening the Boundaries of Church-Sect Theory: Insights from the Evolution of the Nonschismatic Mission Churches of Seventh-day Adventism,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 37, no. 4 (1998).

Lee, Elfred. The Christ of the Narrow way: a heroic mural based on the first vision of Ellen G. White. Maryland: Ellen G. White Estate, 1991.

Lewis, Virgil K. “Dr. Miller visits Madison.” SDA Document File, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

Longway, Ezra. “Harry Willis Miller, MD.” The Messenger, January-February 1977.

Luke, Handel. “A history of Seventh-day Adventist higher education in the China Mission, 1888-1980.” Dissertations (1982), Andrews University: Berrien Springs, Michigan. U.S.A.

Miller, Harry W. A legacy of long life, unpublished biography of Dr. Harry Willis Miller, WDF 443 EGW Estate Branch Office, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University.

Miller, H. W. “Shang Tsai Tsien, Honan, China.” Life and Health, July 1905.

Miller, H. W. “Beginning of our printing work in the interior of China.” Signs of the Times, October 21, 1908.

Miller, H. W. “China Union Training School.” ARH, June 1, 1911.

Miller, H. W. ‘Multiplying our agencies, and entering new territory.” The China Division Reporter, February and March 1932.

Miller, H. W. “Wuhan Sanitarium and Clinic.” ARH, June 16, 1938.

Miller, H. W. “Two new medical institutions.” Far Eastern Division Outlook, May 1956.

“Miller, John Oliver obituary.” ARH, March 28, 1918.

“Miller, Marie Elizabeth Iverson obituary.” ARH, November 30, 1950.

Montalban, V. M. “The Miller Sanitarium and Hospital.” Far Eastern Division Outlook, May 1956.

Moore, Raymond S. China Doctor: The Life Story of Harry Willis Miller. Mountain View, California: Pacific Press, 1969.

Ng, Lilian and Lo, Bruce W. “The China Doctor - Harry Willis Miller 米勒耳 (1879 - 1977), Maude Amelia Thompson Miller 米莫娣 (1880 - 1905), Marie Elizabeth Iverson Miller 米瑪麗 ( 1984 - 1950), Mary Elizabeth Greer 米瑪莉 (1919 - ).” In Adventism in China, Bruce W. Lo, (Project Director). Accessed June 20, 2019. https://www.adventisminchina.org/individuals/1-expatriates/millerhw.

“Nutrition consultant for Southwest Asia visits Riverside.” Pacific Union Recorder, August 7, 1972.

Pen Siang Sheng, “To Accuse the American Imperialists Used S.D.A to Invade China, 1951.” Thiele Collection, Box 32, Fld 2, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University.

Pilquist, Erik. “A Letter from Honan China.” ARH, July 21, 1903.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association. Various years. https://www.adventistyearbook.org/.

Shurtleff, William and Aoyagi, Akiko. “Dr Harry W. Miller: Work with Soy” – A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History of Soybeans and Soyfoods, 1100 B.C. to the 1980s (2004), accessed October 19, 2019, http://www.soyinfocenter.com/HSS/harry_miller.php; also available Shurtleff, William and Akiko Aoyagi, History of soybeans and soyfoods: past, present and future. Lafayette, California: Soy Foods Center, 1999.

Shurtleff, William and Akiko Aoyagi. History of Seventh-day Adventist work with soyfoods, vegetarianism, meat alternatives, wheat gluten, dietary fiber and peanut butter (1863-2013). Lafayette, California: Soyinfo Center, 2014.

Shurtleff, William and Akiko Aoyagi. History of soy ice cream and other non-dairy frozen desserts (1899-2013): extensively annotated bibliography and sourcebook. Lafayette, California: Soyinfo Center, 2013.

Shurtleff, William. “Dr. Harry Miller: taking soymilk around the world.” Soyfoods, Winter 1981, 31, Biofile M, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

Staple, Russell L. “Harry Willis Miller” in Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity, 2009. Accessed August 13, 2013, from https://bdcconline.net/en/stories/miller-harry-willis.

Tan, James. “Nixon awards China Doctor.” East West Communique, June 1974. Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California, U.S.A.

Teltsch, Kathleen. “Benefactor of Asia’s hungry favors recognition of Peiping.” The New York Times, May 9, 1961, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

“Three Hundred Twenty-Fourth Meeting General Conference Committee February 24.” 1939, 1055, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.

Yuen, Nancy and James Ponder. “Remembering Sir Run Shaw Shaw, philanthropist.” ARH, February 12, 2014. Accessed August 6, 2022. https://adventistreview.org/news/remembering-sir-run-run-shaw-philanthropist/.

Notes

  1. Roy Branson, “Harry Miller: Adventist Hero of Social Reform, A dedicated doctor changed the ways the world eats” ARH, accessed August 14, 2013, www.adventistreview.org/2000-06/story2.htm.

  2. Miller Appointee File, GCA, File No. 0114932, Secretariat Appointee Files, RG 21, Box WH 2514.

  3. Raymond S. Moore, China Doctor: The Life Story of Harry Willis Miller (Mountain View, California: Pacific Press, 1969).

  4. Ibid.

  5. A. G. Daniells, “General Conference proceedings,” The General Conference Bulletin, March 31, 1903, 18-22.

  6. William Malcom, “The practical medical missionary,” ARH, July 29, 1902, 10.; “Commencement exercises of the American Medical Missionaries College,” ARH, July 29, 1902, 10.

  7. Moore, China Doctor, 35,36; Erik Pilquist, ““A Letter from Honan China,” ARH, July 21, 1903, 15-16.

  8. R. A. Underwood, “The Ohio camp meeting,” ARH, August 27, 1903, 13-14; Personal, Miller, 2.

  9. Moore, China Doctor, 41-51.

  10. Helen C. Conard, “Awakening of China,” North Pacific Union Gleaner, March 11, 1908, 3.

  11. “About us,” Signs of the Times Association website, accessed August 14, 2022, http://www.stpa.org/content/about/about07.aspx.

  12. Moore, China Doctor, 60-61.

  13. Ruth Crocombe. The missionaries and the Guomindang: an exploration of the Seventh-day Adventist experience in Republican China. MPhil Thesis, School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry, The University of Queensland (2015): 19. Italics added for clarity.

  14. Moore, China Doctor, 64.

  15. H.W. Miller, “China Union Training School,” ARH, June 1, 1911, 13.

  16. Luke, Handel, "A history of Seventh-day Adventist higher education in the China Mission, 1888-1980" (1982). Dissertations. 534. https://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/dissertations/534.

  17. Moore, China Doctor, 65.

  18. Moore, China Doctor, 67.

  19. Moore, China Doctor, 73-74.

  20. Crocombe, The missionaries and the Guomindang, 20.

  21. Moore, China Doctor, 80.

  22. Moore, China Doctor, 80. Moore misidentified Kuo T’ai-chi. At this time, he was not the mayor, but rather the commissioner for Foreign Affairs in Shanghai.

  23. Crocombe, The missionaries and the Guomindang, 20.

  24. Moore, China Doctor, 2.

  25. Craig Collie, The Reporter and the Warlords (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2013), 200.

  26. For more information regarding the support by Zhang Xueliang for Seventh-day Adventist Sanitariums and Hospitals see Crocombe, The missionaries and the Guomindang, 21-22.

  27. Crocombe, The missionaries and the Guomindang, 35.

  28. Pen Siang Sheng, “To Accuse the American Imperialists Used S.D.A to Invade China, 1951,” 1, Thiele Collection, Box 32, Fld 2, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University.

  29. Moore, China Doctor, 110-111.

  30. Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1931-1937.

  31. Miller, H. W. “Multiplying our agencies, and entering new territory,” The China Division Reporter, February and March 1932, 5.

  32. Shurtleff, William and Aoyagi, Akiko. Dr Harry W. Miller: Work with Soy – A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History of Soybeans and Soyfoods, 1100 B.C. to the 1980s (2004) http://www.soyinfocenter.com/HSS/harry_miller.php, accessed 19/10/2019.

  33. Shurtleff, William and Aoyagi, Akiko. Dr Harry W. Miller: Work with Soy – A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History of Soybeans and Soyfoods, 1100 B.C. to the 1980s (2004), http://www.soyinfocenter.com/HSS/harry_miller.php, accessed 19/10/2019.

  34. “February 11, 1938 Letter to McElhany,” Griggs Collection, Box 2, Fld 4, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University.

  35. “February 11, 1938 Letter to McElhany.”

  36. Crocombe, The missionaries and the Guomindang, 76-77.

  37. Moore, China Doctor, 115.

  38. Branson, “23 November, 1938 Letter to J. L. McElhany,” 4, Box WH 3038 - Miller, Harry W. MD Collection, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives.

  39. “Three Hundred Twenty-Fourth Meeting General Conference Committee February 24,” 1939, 1055, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.

  40. William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi, History of soy ice cream and other non-dairy frozen desserts (1899-2013) : extensively annotated bibliography and sourcebook (Lafayette, California : Soyinfo Center, 2013) 167; Harry Willis Miller, Process of making vegetable milk, accessed June 12, 2022, https://www.freepatentsonline.com/2078962.html.

  41. Miller submitted the application to patent his soy milk formula and manufacturing process to the United State Patent Office in 1935. He was awarded patent 2078962 in 1937. Accessed August 18, 2022, https://pdfpiw.uspto.gov/.piw?Docid=2078962&idkey=NONE&homeurl=%252F%252Fpatft.uspto.gov%252Fnetahtml%252FPTO%252Fpatimg.htm.

  42. Raymond Moore, The China Doctor, Chapter 23 “Soy Milk Research and Its By-products,” 193-210 (page numbers from Chinese edition).

  43. William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi, History of Seventh-day Adventist work with soyfoods, vegetarianism, meat alternatives, wheat gluten, dietary fiber and peanut butter (1863-2013) (Lafayette, California: Soyinfo Center, 2014), 417.

  44. General Conference Committee, January 21, 1951, 272, General Conference Archives, accessed June 12, 2022, https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1951-01.pdf.

  45. Crocombe, Ruth. A Troubled Legacy: Seventh-day Adventist Writings About China After 1950, Conference paper presented at the Association of Seventh-day Adventist Historians (ASDAH) meetings at La Sierra University in January 2016.

  46. Crocombe, A Troubled Legacy: Seventh-day Adventist Writings About China After 1950, Conference.

  47. “Miller, Marie Elizabeth Iverson obituary.” ARH, November 30, 1950.

  48. Moore, China Doctor, 134.

  49. Ibid., 134-135.

  50. General Conference Committee, May 24, 1956, 596, General Conference Archives, accessed June 12, 2022, https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1956-05.pdf.

  51. General Conference Committee, May 29, 1957, 894, General Conference Archives, accessed June 12, 2022, https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1957-05.pdf; “Miller returns,” unpublished biography of Dr. Harry Willis Miller, February 15, 1959, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California, typescript.

  52. General Conference Committee, January 3, 1957, 795.

  53. General Conference Committee, March 13, 1958, 1129, General Conference Archives, accessed June 12, 2022, https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1958-03.pdf.

  54. “Harry Willis Miller,” ARH, January 13, 1977, 32.

  55. Moore, China Doctor, 151.

  56. “China doctor decides against retirement,” Loma Linda Bulletin, July 18, 1973, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  57. “Nutrition consultant for Southwest Asia visits Riverside,” Pacific Union Recorder, August 7, 1972, 1.

  58. Ezra Longway, “Harry Willis Miller, MD,” The Messenger, January-February 1977, 11.

  59. “China Doctor’ active in research,” Columbia Union Visitor, February, 26, 1976, 2.

  60. “In memory of Harry Willis Miller, MD,” Funeral program, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California. A massive heart attack claimed his life.

  61. The Alumni Association of College of Medical Evangelists (now Loma Linda University) gives full membership status to AMMC graduates in recognition of AMMC as the forerunner of the SDA medical education program. See Fredrik W. Edwardy to Norman Spuehler, June 9, 1959, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  62. Jill Doggett, “All men are his friends: a career solely dedicated to relief of pain and sorrow,” South China Sunday Post Herald, October 17, 1965, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  63. Charles R. Beeler, “‘China Doctor’ is honored,” Columbia Union Visitor, August 6, 1970, 8.

  64. “South China Island Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (1977), accessed August 11, 2022, https://documents.adventistarchives.org/Yearbooks/YB1977.pdf.

  65. Lanie Jones, “Dr Harry Miller presented 1976 La Sierra Citizen of the Year award,” University Observer, June 10, 1976, Bio File, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  66. James Tan, “Nixon awards China Doctor,” East West Communique, June 1974, 1, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  67. Harry Miller (Collection 252), Awards, Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.; “China Doctor cited,” Columbia Union Visitor, July 29, 1976, 1.

  68. “December proclaimed Miller month by Loma Linda mayor,” Loma Linda University Observer, 5, no. 25, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  69. “ISO concert to benefit Miller scholarship fund,” Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  70. Kathleen Teltsch, “Benefactor of Asia’s hungry favors recognition of Peiping,” The New York Times, May 9, 1961, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California; Virgil K. Lewis, “Dr. Miller visits Madison,” SDA Document File, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  71. Roy Branson, “Harry Miller: Adventist Hero of Social Reform,” ARH, accessed August 14, 2013, www.adventistreview.org/2000-06/story2.htm; Most of the hospitals in China were directly or indirectly established by Miller including Shanghai Sanitarium and Hospital (1928); Yengcheng Sanitarium and Hospital, Henan (1926); Wai On Hospital, Wai Chow, Guangtung (1926); Nanning Sanitarium and Hospital, Guangxi (1930); Shanghai Clinic, a 100 bed hospital for under privileged people (1930); Canton Sanitarium and Hospital (1931); Mukden Sanitarium and Hospital, Manchuria (1931); Shenyang Sanitarium and Hospital (1931); North China Sanitarium and Hospital, Kalgan, Hopei (1931); Shenyang Sanitarium and Hospital Branch (1933); Northwest China Sanitarium and Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu (1934); Wuhan Sanitarium and Hospital, Hankow, Hubei (1937); Chungking Wuhan Sanitarium and Hospital, Chongqing (1939); Tsingtao Sanitarium and Clinic, Shantung; Little Eden Hospital Dispensary, Fatshan, Kwantung; and Toishan Hospital Dispensary, Toishan, Kwantung. See Seventh-day Adventist Year Books, 1948, 1949.

  72. Ezra Longway, “Harry Willis Miller, The Messenger, January-February 1977, 11. The hospitals in which Miller was involved include Manila Sanitarium and Hospital (1928); Miller Sanitarium and Hospital (now Adventist Hospital Cebu) (1955); Cagayan Valley Sanitarium and Hospital (now Adventist Hospital Santiago City) (1969); Adventist Medical Centers in Iligan and Bacolod.

  73. The two are Tsuen Wan Adventist Hospital (1964, 1970) and Hong Kong Adventist Hospital-Stubbs Road (1971).

  74. These are: Tokyo Sanitarium-Hospital (now Tokyo Adventist Hospital) (1929), Penang Sanitarium and Hospital, and Taiwan Adventist Hospital.

  75. Nancy Yuen and James Ponder, “Remembering Sir Run Shaw Shaw, philanthropist,” ARH, February 12, 2014, accessed August 6, 2022, https://adventistreview.org/news/remembering-sir-run-run-shaw-philanthropist/.

  76. William Shurtleff, “Dr. Harry Miller: taking soymilk around the world,” Soyfoods, Winter 1981, 31, Biofile M, Heritage Research Center, Del E. Webb Memorial Library, Loma Linda University, California.

  77. Signs of The Times Publishing Association (China) Website, History of STPA, accessed June 20, 2020, http://www.stpa.org/content/about/about01_2.aspx.; Chow, Christie Chui-Shan and Lee, Joseph Tse-Hei, “The Seventh-day Adventist Century of China: Prophecy, Publishing, and Print Culture”, paper at the 2014 Joint AIC-ASDAH Conference, accessed June 20, 2020, http://www.sdahistorians.org/conference-papers.html.

  78. Elfred Lee, The Christ of the Narrow way: a heroic mural based on the first vision of Ellen G. White (Maryland: Ellen G. White Estate, 1991), 10.

  79. Tan, James. “Nixon awards China Doctor.”

×

Crocombe, Ruth, Dionisio Valdez Tuapin, Bruce W. Lo. "Miller, Harry Willis (1879–1977) and Marie Elizabeth (Iverson) (1884–1950); later Mary Elizabeth (Greer) (1919–1994)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 06, 2023. Accessed May 23, 2024. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=48JQ.

Crocombe, Ruth, Dionisio Valdez Tuapin, Bruce W. Lo. "Miller, Harry Willis (1879–1977) and Marie Elizabeth (Iverson) (1884–1950); later Mary Elizabeth (Greer) (1919–1994)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 06, 2023. Date of access May 23, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=48JQ.

Crocombe, Ruth, Dionisio Valdez Tuapin, Bruce W. Lo (2023, April 06). Miller, Harry Willis (1879–1977) and Marie Elizabeth (Iverson) (1884–1950); later Mary Elizabeth (Greer) (1919–1994). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 23, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=48JQ.