ADRA Chile

By Rubén Salamanca Muñoz

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Rubén Salamanca Muñoz

The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is a global humanitarian organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that operates in 130 countries,1 including Chile–a country where there are 28 ADRA offices. ADRA Chile’s main headquarters is located at Cruz del Sur no. 150, Zip code: 7580122, in the city of Las Condes, Santiago province, Santiago metropolitan area, Chile.2

ADRA Chile, ADRA International affiliate, is a private law institution, created on January 10, 1990, as legal successor of the “Obra Filantrópica y Asistencia Social Adventista” (Adventist Philanthropic Work and Social Welfare) (OFASA). It was established as a non-profit, non-governmental organization (NGO), with its legal status and statutes approved by the Ministry of Justice, by decree no. 727 of May 23, 1990.3

This agency, according to its organizational vision, “works as a catalyst for change, [as] it inspires, pledges, and empowers people to fight together to overcome poverty and injustice, and to manage the risks and impacts of calamities.”4 Therefore, being a humanitarian agency, its assistance activities are focused on answering to emergencies caused by natural disasters and in programs focused on boys, girls, and teenagers in social risk situations and violations of rights through a partnership with the Servicio Nacional de Menores de Chile (Juvenile National Service of Chile) (SENAME). It has the collaboration of volunteers as well as its own and external resources network, as those of ADRA International and the Assistance Office for Overseas Calamities of the United States Agency of International Development (USAID/OFDA), among others. As a development agency, ADRA Chile focuses on entrepreneurialism and health in targeted groups and communities.

Currently, to comply with their mission of contributing to “a fair and sustainable world in which people can achieve well-being and live their lives fully, psychically, psychologically, and spiritually,” ADRA Chile has 400 professional servers who work in their many areas of expertise.5

Organization

ADRA Chile’s organizational history has its origins directly from OFASA, Social and Humanitarian Welfare Adventist Agency. This institution was created and officially acknowledged by the Chilean State in 1958,6 when the national territory was comprised by two conferences under the Austral Union Conference (presently Argentina Union Conference), headquartered in Argentina.7

According to its own founder record, pastor Orval R. Scully,8 then president of the South Chile Conference,9 the institution started in response to pastor W. H. Phillips, General Conference (GC) vice treasurer, invitation for the church to use the agreement signed by the USA with South American countries (“Alimentos para la Paz” [Foods for Peace]).10 This agreement opened options for the placement of staple food, medicines, equipment, and donated or acquired material aiming the distribution of it all to assistance or rehabilitation programs, under a special regime of tariff exemptions.

Pastor Scully, convinced by Phillips’ proposal, accepted the challenge and requested authorization from the Austral Union Conference Executive Board to start the initiatives aimed at the formation of a social and humanitarian assistance agency or institution with governmental acknowledgment, in order to work for the benefit of the social and moral welfare of the Chilean people. This agency of national scope was called OFASA, taking the same name as the church ministry dedicated to actions of assistance and charity, which operated traditionally under Dorcas Welfare Evangelism (presently Adventist Solidary Action-ASA) and annual collecting campaigns.11

History

OFASA's first humanitarian action was to manage a shipment of three tons of food, which, due to suspicions of Chilean Customs officials, was detained and released in the emergency caused by the earthquakes of May 21 and 22, 1960, in Concepción and Valdivia (southern Chile). The Valdivia earthquake, the largest ever registered on the planet,12 was followed by tidal waves in Valdivia and Ancud, and volcanic eruptions in the Andean region, causing massive destruction of road infrastructure, buildings, and homes (more than 150,000 ) from Talca to Chiloé.

The loss of human life exceeded 2,000 people, and the victims reached nearly two million. At this time the North American government made available to OFASA 200 tons of food; rice, milk, wheat flour, and corn, which were already in Chilean ports, and the government of Chile commissioned OFASA for its distribution. OFASA subsequently distributed 35 tons of clothing shipped from the General Conference headquarters of the SDA Church.13

From then on all the materials and food imported by OFASA had free entry to the country. The management of humanitarian aid provided by OFASA on that occasion was of such quality and commitment that it received the praise of the Chilean government. The prestige obtained made it easier for OFASA to continue its assistance work. So, in 1963 the Austral Union appointed Adam Mayer as the first administrator of OFASA in the national territory.14

In 1965 OFASA maintained two programs of significant impact on the population: the “Centros de Tratamiento” (Treatment Centers) and the “Huertos Indígenas” (Indigenous Gardens). The first were places where volunteers, trained by the State health service, supported the treatment of tuberculosis patients; and the second were places through which, with the support of State institutions such as the Livestock Agricultural Service (SAG), provided technical assistance to Mapuche families to implement orchards, whose products would serve for family consumption and the surplus for marketing.15 Similarly, between 1969 and 1970, OFASA maintained eight assistance programs, including school cafeterias, summer camps, day-care centers, and community development programs.

OFASA also responded to calamities, alleviating people’s suffering. An example of this took place when a new earthquake struck the center of the country in 1971. The emergency led OFASA to mobilize 10 tons of aid to the affected cities (La Ligua and Petorca) in Valparaíso region.16 Also in 1974, OFASA distributed 1,705 tons of food and provided assistance to more than thirty-eight thousand people, especially kids. Toward the eighties, OFASA came to annually disburse food to around one hundred ninety-five thousand children in the country, 80,000 of them in Santiago Metropolitan Region.17

From 1975 to 1981, OFASA was chosen by the government of Chile to monitor and supervise a government nutritional recovery program called the “Plan Nacional de Alimentación Complementaria” (National Complementary Nutritional Plan) (PNCA), which benefited more than six hundred forty-five thousand minors with food. From 1974 to 1989, in addition to PNCA, OFASA received and distributed approximately forty-three thousand tons of food that were used to aid more than one million five hundred thousand preschool kids through agreements kept with social foundations, including “Corporación para la Nutrición Infantil” (Child Nutrition Company) (CONIN) and “Ejército de Salvación” (The Salvation Army). In this regard, in 1983, OFASA established an Open Center, destined to fully feed kids under irregular situations in Putre, a city neighboring the Highlands in the extreme north of Chile.18

In September 1984 the name ADRA (Adventist Development and Relief Agency) was adopted to replace OFASA or SAWS (SDA Welfare Service), leaving this new name officially registered with the Chilean State.19 The following year the central region of Chile suffered a new earthquake, and ADRA's emergency assistance actions became once again necessary and were therefore intensified. In that tragedy 179 people died; 200,000 houses were damaged and 70,000 completely destroyed; more than 500 Adventist members' houses were also destroyed, and in addition, 29 chapels and temples were damaged. On that occasion, ADRA International distributed more than forty tons of food, clothing, and medicines by air; clothing for 165,000 people by sea; and donated U.S. $100,000.00 to build simple homes for those affected.20 Thus, they built 85 emergency houses of 36 m2 on average.21 Two years later, in 1987, ADRA supplied 3,877 metric tons of food to its “Programa de Ayuda Alimentaria” (Food Assistance Program)–focused on children.22

In another area ADRA maintains a strong clothing supply program, which is mostly distributed through Adventist Church agencies. In the period from 1971 to the first half of the 1990s, more than eight hundred sixty-one tons of clothing were received, equivalent to 15,600 bales of used clothing. These clothes were distributed in children's homes, nursing homes, religious communities, neighborhood groups, schools, and in emergency situations caused by natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, mudslides, volcanic eruptions, and other natural calamities.23

ADRA, or ADRA-OFASA as it was known for six years, institutionally continued being an assistance resources agency according to OFASA’s original legal figure. Nevertheless, in May 1990, it was legally established before the Chilean State as a non-governmental organization (NGO).24

In 1994 ADRA Chile amended its statutes to include among its objectives the care of minors in irregular situations, the disabled and the elderly, in addition to including the creation and maintenance of homes for minors. Thus, the preeminence of projects aimed at children and adolescents became more notorious when ADRA Chile began to "develop care programs for children and adolescents in situations of social risk and serious violation of rights through an alliance with the Chilean National Service for Minors (SENAME).”25

In 2007 ADRA Chile decided to focus on five areas–food security, economic development, primary health, training and response to disaster, and education–;26 and in 2009 it again changed its statutes to expand its activities to the residential consultation and to be established as an institution of Social Housing Management (EGIS). In fact, one of the effects of the institutional consolidation process was to move from the dispersion or diversification of its assistance and philanthropic action towards concentration in focused areas, such as: social action, economic development, disaster response, and public health.27 However, ADRA Chile’s current actions are focused on two main areas: emergencies and childhood.

Thus, from 2008 to2009, of the 26 projects that the agency developed in the country with institutions, 16 were carried out in partnership with the Chile National Service for Minors.28 In that partnership the following projects stand out: “Familia de Acogida Simple” (Simple Host Family) (FAS), “Familia de Acogida Especializada” (Specialized Host Family) (FAE),29 the “Programa Reparatorio en Maltrato” (Abuse Restoration Program) (PRM),30 and community protection projects.

Role and Position in the Country

With more than sixty years of experience, ADRA Chile is presently an Adventist organization well positioned within the many government institutions. It is also known and renowned all over the Chilean community as a humanitarian aid agency31 that in a nonstop, tireless, and constant way, has been concerned with helping to build a better country with more justice and where all people can be happier.”32

In that regard the main initiatives, interventions, and assistance activities and of responses to emergencies, carried out by ADRA Chile in the course of years,33 has been happening thanks to the “contribution of its workers and with the significant help of private and government collaborators.”34 Therefore, during the 1990s, ADRA Chile implemented protocols of activation and response to emergencies in collaboration with the National Office of Emergency (ONEMI). In addition, from 1992 to 1998, the agency developed a microenterprise support plan, which reached more than one hundred forty small businesses in different areas located, mainly, in the metropolitan region.35

Between 1992 and 1994, the agency developed and implemented several seminars, workshops, and courses in the metropolitan region and the V region. These included: the vocational training, focused on people who are not in the regular education system; six drug addiction courses for instructors; and 28 anti-drugs education pilot programs for academies and schools, which benefited 3,000 kids who received training inside the program called “Quiero mi Vida sin Drogas” (I Want a Drug-Free Life) from the Ministry of Health.36

In 1997 regarding the Anti-Drug Education Program, 1,210 anti-drug monitors were trained as multiplier agents in 29 schools in the communities of Lo Espejo and Chillán. Also, in June of the same year, ADRA Chile provided flood and windstorm flood assistance to affected families in regions V, VI, VII, VIII and the metropolitan region. With the support of ADRA South America and ADRA International, aid was provided for food, clothing, blankets, mattresses, portable kitchens, and construction materials. Some months later the agency acted again when it assisted families affected by the earthquake that affected region IV. On that occasion ADRA Chile proposed a housing reconstruction plan to serve low-income families in the area, directing aid to construction materials and other things with a value close to 15 thousand US dollars.37

In 1999 ADRA Chile implemented a health assistance project with med students from the River Plate Adventist University (Argentina) in three hospital institutions in Chiloé province. For ten months the students supported the medical work in hospitals in the area in the fields of community service, health, and prevention education. To carry out this project, there was a donation of US $10,000.00. Also, in that same year, other economic contributions helped implementing various support centers for the community, of which it is worth mentioning the contribution of US $23,000.00 that enabled the implementation of a dental medical center, in region II. Similarly, the agency received a donation of US $25,000.00 to build a community support center in Calbuco, Los Lagos region. The goal of that center is to assist physical, social, and/or spiritual needs, especially people of low economic income. And lastly, still in that same year, US $20,000.00 were entrusted to the organization to start the construction of a center for the training of health and nutrition monitors in the city of Quilpué, in the region of Valparaíso.38

As part of the new millennium, in 2001, ADRA Chile handled medical equipment donations for hospitals, clinics, and institutions valued at US $60.000,00. In addition, it collaborated in the nursing lab equipment of Santiago Humboldt Academy. Also, in that same year, for the third time the project with med students in Chiloé was implemented. The students of the seventh year of medicine from the River Plate Adventist University carried out, in the city of Quemchi, tasks of primary care in the office and in the city emergency centers, in addition to health prevention and promotion activities.39

In 2008 and 2009, ADRA Chile established agreements with some important Chilean institutions, among them: National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI),40 in order to provide technical assistance to development projects for Mapuche communities41 in the Araucanía region, reaching 1,020 direct beneficiaries and 4,850 indirect beneficiaries;42 and with Chile Deportes (Chile Sports) (present Chile National Sports Institute)43 to implement programs of sport and healthy lifestyle promotion, including: Racing for a healthy life in Antofagasta, Quilpué, Santiago, Temuco, and Osorno; Leadership in Sports and Leisure Seminars and, a training course in recreational sports, with the goal to train people in theoretical-practical knowledge and enable those who work in the area.

The bicentenary year of Chile, more specifically in the morning of February 27, 2010, an earthquake measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale shook the south central region of the country.44 For this reason, in response to the emergency caused by the second worst earthquake in the country, ADRA, fulfilling its mission, delivered primary assistance distributing water, food, clothing, and household goods to the population. And then it managed the resources and tasks to build and implement 1,100 semipermanent houses for the affected families from the VII and VIII regions.45

In the following year, ADRA Chile became part of the Chile Humanitarian Aid Network (RAHCh)–an organization that coordinates the actions of different humanitarian aid establishments and institutions facing the emergencies that often occur in the country. In August 2012 OTEC-Organismo Técnico de Capacitación (Technical Training Institute) and “Fundación ADRA Capacita” (ADRA Foundation Trains) were created. This is an organization oriented to the training of the agency workers.46

In 2013 ADRA Chile signed an agreement with OFDA (Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance), represented in Latin America and the Caribbean by the International Resources Group (IRG), under the project of isk management award by ADRA Chile along with OFDA amounting to US $30,000.00. Shortly, in 2014, with the participation of more than thirty volunteers, ADRA Chile assisted those affected by the fire in Valparaíso–which destroyed more than two thousand nine hundred houses in the city hills. The activities were focused on the removal of debris, installation of emergency houses, organizing and sorting of food, distribution of bunk beds to 311 families (donated by ADRA International), and distribution of clothing and belongings collected.47

As a first response to the earthquake that struck the Tarapacá region in April 2014, water and non-perishable food kits were provided to 291 families in the city of Alto Hospicio, financed with funds from the ADRA network. Thus, in that same year, the “Un Niño Una Cama” (One Kid One Bed) Campaign was carried out, which benefited 50 kids with complete beds, contributing to improve the quality of life of those families and to effectively reduce their vulnerable situation. With funds from the Chile Government Ministry of Social Development, ADRA Chile implemented, in 2014, bakery, goldsmithing, and business plan workshops for 27 FAE Peñalolén beneficiary families. In addition, a toy store and business plan workshop were carried out for youth deprived of freedom with the goal of giving them tools for their social-working reintegration.48

In the beginnings of 2017, Chile underwent one of the worst forest fires in many years. This disaster shocked the population and caused great loss to many families. On that occasion more than four thousand firefighters, volunteers, and military personnel worked to fight 60 great fires in an area of about two hundred thirty-eight thousand acres, which reached the south of the country.49 The disaster caused by the events led ADRA teams to take fast action to serve the affected families. Thus, the agency distributed medicines, water, isotonic drinks (which helped replacing the liquids and mineral salts), personal hygiene, and cereal bars. They also created “plant analysis and water treatment, in addition to debris and rubble disposal.” Those activities were carried out with the local church members’ help.50

Finally, in 2020, ADRA Chile with its entire team of professionals and volunteers scattered throughout the Chilean territory, once again making themselves available to the most vulnerable to help in the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the same that affected not only the country but also the entire world. Thus, one of the first actions of ADRA Chile to combat the number of infections caused by the coronavirus was to join, through its ADRA Innovation Center, with a graphics company for the production of facial masks using 3D technology. These were distributed free of charge in health facilities and through rescue teams for the direct benefit of health personnel and volunteers from various regions.51

Among other actions taken by ADRA during the COVID-19 crisis, there is the assistance offered to the city of Chillán in the Nelson Oyarzún City Stadium. There, from April 6, 2020, ADRA Chile Humanitarian Aid Mobile Unit, coordinated with the Ñuble Health Service, is assisting with cooking and laundry in the Specialized Medical Care Post (PAME) installed by the Chilean army for helping the COVID-19 patients who eventually arrive at the place.52 At the same time, until the last week of May, through the “Caja Familiar” (Family Box)53 initiative, ADRA Chile has provided more than seven thousand food baskets, benefiting more than twenty-nine thousand people.54

In short, Chile Adventist Development and Relief Agency shows that this institution has sought to faithfully fulfill its mission of assisting those who need it most, doing it with fairness, compassion, and love.55 In its 62 years, the institution has managed to develop various alternatives to assist in a fast and effective way in the difficult and often unexpected situations that the Chilean population faces. Thus, ADRA Chile continues to work so that more and more people may know God’s love while being served through humanitarian service acts of compassion.56

ADRA Chile Directors

O. R. Scully (1958); Adán Mayer (1963-1965); F. J. Kuntz (1966, 1967); O. R. Scully (1968-71); Richard O’Ffill (1972-1977); O. R. Scully (1979-1982); Paul J. Sánchez (1983, 1984); Walter Britton (1985-1989); Baruc Lagos (1990, 1991); Leonard Westermeyer (1993-1998); Juan Fernández (1999-2001); Raúl Medina (2002, 2003); Carlos Astete (2004, 2005); Milton Alaña (2006-2009); Jorge Alé (2010-2016); Rodrigo Cárcamo (2016-Present).57

Sources

ADRA Chile. “Decenas de personas duermen en las calles después de terremoto en Chile” [Dozens of people sleep on the streets after earthquake in Chile]. Noticias Adventistas [Adventist News] (Online), April 8, 2014.

ADRA Chile. Facebook post, March 30, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/.

ADRA Chile. Facebook post, April 16, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/.

ADRA Chile. Tweet, May 25, 2020. https://twitter.com/.

ADRA Chile Website. https://adra.cl/.

ADRA South America Website. https://www.adrasudamerica.org/.

[ADRA Chile] Administration Archives. 2008-2009 information leaflet.

Barbosa, Vanessa. “Fotos do pior incêndio florestal do Chile são de partir o coração” [Photos of the worst forest fire in Chile are heartbreaking]. Revista Exame [Exame Magazine] (Online), January 26, 2017.

Biblioteca del Congresso Nacional de Chile [National Congress of Chile Library]. https://www.bcn.cl/.

Caja Familiar [Family Basket]. https://cajafamiliar.cl/.

Chile Union Mission Executive Board, May 02, 2013, agreement no. 2013-103.

Chile Union Mission Executive Board, May 29, 2002, agreement no. 2002-159.

Cooperativa.cl. “ONG dispuso camión con lavandería y cocina para ayudar al hospital de campaña en Chillán” [NGO provided a laundry and kitchen truck to assist the field hospital in Chillán]. Cooperativa (Online), April 7, 2020.

Corporación Nacional de Desarollo Indígena [National Corporation for Indigenous Development] - CONADI. http://www.conadi.gob.cl/.

Icarito. http://www.icarito.cl/.

“Informe de ADRA Chile” [ADRA Chile report]. IX Congreso de la Unión Chilena: Unidos en Comunión y Misión [9th Congress of the Chile Union Mission: United in communion and Mission]. December 2007.

Instituto Nacional de Deportes [Chile National Sports Institute]. https://www.ind.cl/.

Kellner, Mark A. “Cuatro adventistas entre los muertos en el terremoto de Chile” [Four Adventists among those dead by the earthquake in Chile]. Adventist News Network (Online), March 8, 2010.

Mayr, Werner. “¡Terremoto!” [Earthquake!]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 7, no. 1 (January 1972): 17.

Memoria Chilena [Chilean Memory]. http://www.memoriachilena.gob.cl/.

Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino [Chile Museum of Pre-Columbian Art]. http://chileprecolombino.cl/.

Ofasa. “Al Instante” [Instantly]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 83, no. 11 (November 1983): 17.

“ONG apoyará con lavandería y cocina a Hospital de Campaña” [NGO will support the Campaign Hospital with a laundry room and kitchen]. Chillán Online (Online), April 6, 2020.

Peverini, Hector J. En las huellas de La Providencia [In the Footsteps of Providence]. Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988.

Scully, O.R. “Chile: Trece años de progreso y realizaciones” [Chile: Thirteen years of progress and achievements]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 72, no. 3 (March 1972).

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, ID.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1959, 1965-1966.

“¡Sí! Ven Señor Jesús, alcanzar a los no alcanzados” [Yes! Come Lord Jesus, reach the unreached]. Chile Union Mission Fifth Congress, January 1988.

Souza, Alana. “Damnificados por incendio en Valparaíso reciben ayuda humanitaria” [Affected by fire in Valparaíso receive humanitarian aid]. Noticias Adventistas [Adventist News] (Online), July 3, 2014.

Tonetti, Márcio. “Chile em chamas” [Chile on fire]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] (Online), January 30, 2017.

“Una catástrofe de tres minutos y 22 segundos: Terremoto en Chile Central, del 3 de marzo de 1985” [A three-minute and 22 seconds calamity: Earthquake in Central Chile, on March 3, 1985]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] (Online), July 1985.

U.S. Agency for International Development. https://www.usaid.gov/.

Notes

  1. ADRA South America Website, “ADRA Sudamérica” [ADRA South America], accessed on May 21, 2020, http://bit.ly/2xCMdd7.

  2. ADRA Chile Website, “Contáctanos” [Contact us], accessed on May 21, 2020, https://bit.ly/2Xj5b1z.

  3. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on May 21, 2020, https://bit.ly/2WPzGx3.

  4. ADRA Chile Website, “Conócenos” [About us], accessed on May 21, 2020, https://bit.ly/2ZwsK9Q.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Héctor J. Peverini, En las huellas de la Providencia [In the footsteps of Providence] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988), 392.

  7. “Austral Union Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1959), 150.

  8. O.R. Scully, “Chile: Trece años de progreso y realizaciones” [Chile: Thirteen years of progress and achievements], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 72, no. 3 (March 1972): 13-14.

  9. “South Chile Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1959), 153.

  10. On July 10, 1954, President Eisenhower enacted the legislation that finally became known as the Ley de Alimentos para la Paz [Foods for Peace Act]. As a result, the Food for Peace Act provided aid and hope to the ends of the world for more than 60 years, reaching over 4 thousand starving people from its beginning.” U.S. Agency for International Development, “Office of Foods for Peace,” accessed on May 21, 2020, https://bit.ly/36kzfOq.

  11. O.R. Scully, “CHILE: Trece años de progreso y realizaciones” [Chile: Thirteen years of progress and achievements], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 72, no. 3 (March 1972): 13.

  12. Icarito, “El Gran Terremoto de Chile,” accessed on May 21, 2020, https://bit.ly/3cRTpCb.

  13. Héctor J. Peverini, En las huellas de la Providencia [In the footsteps of Providence] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988), 392.

  14. Héctor J. Peverini, En las huellas de la Providencia [In the footsteps of Providence] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988), 392; “Austral Union Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1965-1966), 191-192.

  15. O.R. Scully, “CHILE: Trece años de progreso y realizaciones” [Chile: Thirteen years of progress and achievements], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 72, no. 3 (March 1972): 14.

  16. Werner Mayr, “¡Terremoto!” [Earthquake!], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 72, no. 1 (January 1972): 17.

  17. Héctor J. Peverini, En las huellas de la Providencia [In the footsteps of Providence] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988), 393.

  18. Ofasa, “al Instante” [Instantly], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 83, no. 11 (November 1983): 17.

  19. “¡Sí! Ven Señor Jesús, alcanzar a los no alcanzados” [Yes! Come Lord Jesus, reach the unreached], Chile Union Mission Fifth Congress, January 1988, 103.

  20. “Una catástrofe de tres minutos y 22 segundos: Terremoto en Chile Central, del 3 de marzo de 1985” [A three-minute and 22 seconds calamity: Earthquake in Central Chile, on March 3, 1985], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1985, 18-19.

  21. “¡Sí! Ven Señor Jesús, alcanzar a los no alcanzados” [Yes! Come Lord Jesus, reach the unreached], Chile Union Mission Fifth Congress, January 1988, 104.

  22. Ibid., 105.

  23. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2.

  24. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia de ADRA” [ADRA history], accessed on May 25, 2020, https://bit.ly/3egZ7O1.

  25. ADRA Chile Website, “Bienvenida/o” [Welcome], accessed on May 22, 2020, https://bit.ly/2TsSVKS.

  26. “Informe de ADRA Chile” [ADRA Chile report], IX Congreso de la Unión Chilena: Unidos en Comunión y Misión [9th Congress of the Chile Union Mission: United in communion and Mission], December 2007, 163-165.

  27. Chile Union Mission Executive Board, May 29, 2002, agreement no. 2002-159.

  28. [ADRA Chile] Administration Archives. 2008-2009 information leaflet.

  29. ADRA Chile Website, “Tenemos 20 Sucursales de Familia de Acogida” [We have 20 Host Family Branch Offices], accessed on May 25, 2020, http://bit.ly/3d1pBTV.

  30. ADRA Chile Website, “Tenemos 5 Programa Reparatorio en Maltrato (PRM)” [We have 5 Abuse treatment Restoration Programs], accessed on March 15, 2020, http://bit.ly/2WbCLYF.

  31. Cooperativa.cl, “ONG dispuso camión con lavandería y cocina para ayudar al hospital de campaña en Chillán” [NGO provided a laundry and kitchen truck to assist the field hospital in Chillán], Cooperativa, April 7, 2020, accessed on May 25, 2020, https://bit.ly/2AUcipK.

  32. ADRA Chile Website, “Bienvenida/o: Déjanos contarte una historia” [Welcome: Let us tell you a story], accessed on May 25, 2020, https://bit.ly/2U6XABU.

  33. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2.

  34. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia de ADRA” [ADRA history], accessed on May 25, 2020, https://bit.ly/3egZ7O1.

  35. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2.

  36. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2; Biblioteca del Congresso Nacional de Chile [National Congress of Chile Library], “Labor Parlamentaria: diario de sesiones” [Parliamentary Labor: daily record], accessed on May 25, 2020, https://bit.ly/3c3syl4.

  37. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2.

  38. Ibid.

  39. Ibid.

  40. Corporación Nacional de Desarollo Indígena [National Corporation for Indigenous Development] - CONADI, “Política de comunicación interna institucional” [Institutional internal communication policy], accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/3enpv8S.

  41. The Mapuche people “are direct descendants of the Pitrén (100 - 1100 A.D.) and El Vergel (1100 - 1450 A.D.) pre-Hispanic archaeological cultures, that developed in the region, between the BíoBío river and the Reloncaví bosom. [...] It is estimated that the pre-Hispanic Mapuche population was of about one million. Currently, the Mapuche totals over 600,000 people, which corresponds to 87.3% of the indigenous population in the country.” Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino [Chilean Museum of Pre-Columbian Art], “Pueblos Originarios: Mapuche” [Indigenous People: Mapuche], accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2X4B4wr.

  42. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2.

  43. Instituto Nacional de Deportes [Chile National Sports Institute], “Quienes Somos” [Who we are], accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2M5qhv7.

  44. Memoria Chilena [Chilean Memory], “Terremoto del día 27 de febrero de 2010” [Earthquake of February 27th, 2010], accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2M1ptHG.

  45. Mark A. Kellner, “Cuatro adventistas entre los muertos en el terremoto de Chile” [Four Adventists among those dead by the earthquake in Chile], Adventist News Network, March 8, 2010, accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2yCk2Ms.

  46. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2.

  47. ADRA Chile Website, “Historia completa de ADRA” [ADRA full history], accessed on April 07, 2020, https://bit.ly/39OFiv2; Chile Union Mission Executive Board, May 02, 2013, agreement no. 2013-103; Alana Souza, “Damnificados por incendio en Valparaíso reciben ayuda humanitaria” [Affected by fire in Valparaíso receive humanitarian aid], Noticias Adventistas [Adventist News], July 3, 2014, accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2B4vGk7.

  48. ADRA Chile, “Decenas de personas duermen en las calles después de terremoto en Chile” [Dozens of people sleep on the streets after earthquake in Chile], Noticias Adventistas [Adventist News], April 8, 2014, accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2THWixH.

  49. Vanessa Barbosa, “Fotos do pior incêndio florestal do Chile são de partir o coração” [Photos of the worst forest fire in Chile are heartbreaking], Revista Exame [Exame Magazine], January 26, 2017, accessed on April 09, 2020, https://bit.ly/34sbeUL.

  50. Márcio Tonetti, “Chile em chamas” [Chile on fire], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 30, 2017, accessed on April 09, 2020, https://bit.ly/3c2NWax.

  51. ADRA Chile, Facebook post, March 30, 2020 (12: 44 p.m.), accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2Aa4v73.

  52. “ONG apoyará con lavandería y cocina a Hospital de Campaña” [NGO will support the Campaign Hospital with a laundry room and kitchen], Chillán Online, April 6, 2020, accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2X3s3TZ.

  53. ADRA Chile, Facebook post, April 16, 2020 (6: 32 p.m.), accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/36vZuSh; Caja Familiar [Family Basket], “ADRA - Caja Familiar” [ADRA – Family Basket], accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/36vtsG0.

  54. ADRA Chile, Tweet, May 25, 2020 (9: 53 p.m.), accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/36vupOA.

  55. ADRA Chile Website, “Conócenos: Nuestros valores” [About us: Our values], accessed on May 25, 2020, https://bit.ly/3ejsAai.

  56. Caja Familiar [Family Basket], “ADRA,” accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/36vwB8R. More information about ADRA Chile in the Web site: https://adra.cl/, or in the social media–Facebook: @ADRAcl, Instagram: @adrachile, Twitter: @ADRACL, LinkedIn: ADRA Chile, and YouTube: ADRA Chile.

  57. “Austral Union Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1965-1966), 191-192; “Chile Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa: ID.), 234. For more detailed information about ADRA Chile administrative directors, see Yearbooks from 1965 to 2018.

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Muñoz, Rubén Salamanca. "ADRA Chile." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Accessed September 23, 2021. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=4GCU.

Muñoz, Rubén Salamanca. "ADRA Chile." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Date of access September 23, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=4GCU.

Muñoz, Rubén Salamanca (2021, April 28). ADRA Chile. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved September 23, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=4GCU.