John Fulton 1922. Fulton was president of the Australasian Union Conference between 1909 and 1912.  Much of that time South East Asian territories were in the Australasian Union Conference.

From the collection of Julie and Barry Oliver.

Australasian Union Conference Involvement in Southeast Asia Before 1912

By Milton Hook

×

Milton Hook, Ed.D. (Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, the United States). Hook retired in 1997 as a minister in the Greater Sydney Conference, Australia. An Australian by birth Hook has served the Church as a teacher at the elementary, academy and college levels, a missionary in Papua New Guinea, and as a local church pastor. In retirement he is a conjoint senior lecturer at Avondale College of Higher Education. He has authored Flames Over Battle Creek, Avondale: Experiment on the Dora, Desmond Ford: Reformist Theologian, Gospel Revivalist, the Seventh-day Adventist Heritage Series, and many magazine articles. He is married to Noeleen and has two sons and three grandchildren.

The close proximity of Australia to Southeast Asia naturally led union conference officials in Australia to adopt responsibility for the establishment of Seventh-day Adventist missions in that region, first in Sumatra, then Singapore, followed by the Philippine Islands and Java. The period covers the years prior to 1912.

Introduction

Two independent forays by colporteurs had taken place in the area during the 1890s. The first was by an enterprising American, Mr. Senker, about 1893. He sold Home Hand Book in Singapore and India before returning to Tennessee.1 Later, a Mr. H. B. Meyers and his son, William, traveled from India to canvass for six months among Europeans in Singapore and the Malay States. They sold 564 books, titles including Man the Masterpiece, Ladies’ Hand Guide, The Great Controversy, and Patriarchs and Prophets.2

An unrelated series of events was happening in Singapore with Ralph and Carrie Munson conducting an orphanage and school sponsored by the Methodist Mission. The Munsons then took a furlough back in Ohio, where they converted to the Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) Church. They returned to the Orient in 1900, making their base at Padang on the west of Sumatra. Munson translated some tracts and a small hymnal, held an occasional baptism, and imported a mattress-making machine to begin a cottage industry.3 He was largely self-supporting, teaching English to Chinese boys who wanted to become clerks in the commercial world. He conducted worship services on weekends for the same boys and their friends. One youngster from his former Singapore orphanage, Tay Hong Siong, better known as Timothy Tay, transferred to Padang to help him.4

When Munson was establishing himself at Padang, a growing sense of mission toward the territory was developing in Australia. 5 Elder Edward Gates had sailed on the first and sixth voyages of the Pitcairn as its mission leader. His aim was to explore entry points in the Pacific and Orient for SDA evangelism. Initially, his missionaries for the Pacific were enlisted from America, but when he settled in Australia, his thinking shifted primarily to Australasian recruits. In 1899 he lectured on mission work at the Avondale School for Christian Workers and searched for potential missionaries. A Mission Committee was set up at union conference level with Gates as chairman.6 In 1901, when he presented his report to the Australasian Union Conference Session, he spoke of progress in the Pacific Islands and included Munson’s mission as one under his umbrella.7 At the end of the year 1901, Gates made an exploratory trip to Singapore.8

Sumatra, 1901–1911

In response to Munson’s appeals for assistance, George Teasdale and his American wife, Mattie, were appointed to transfer from Australia to Sumatra.9 They arrived in January 1902 but within weeks had left their post and returned home without consulting church officials. Administrators were bewildered and annoyed by this unprecedented move, and Teasdale’s reputation was dented.10

Munson persevered, producing more tracts and changing his location in order to teach English to the Dutch at Fort de Kock.11 The transition was brief. Within a few months, he was back in Padang. At the same time a nurse from New York, Marcelia Walker, was appointed to initiate some medical mission work in the area.12

Munson described Walker as stubborn, conceited, cranky, ignorant, untidy, lazy, uncouth, quarrelsome, short-tempered, untruthful, and crazy. She scalded three infants with hot water treatments, and her infamy spread rapidly.13 When she tried to poison the Munson family with bichloride of mercury in their teakettle and salt shaker, the police were called, and she was interred in Buitenzorg (Bogor) asylum, Java.14

Timothy Tay, Munson’s assistant, spent a few months in Amoy, China, to improve his use of the Chinese language with a view to returning as a missionary.15 In 1904 Munson reported the baptism of seven individuals, bringing the total membership to 12.16 In mid-1905 he took respite in Australia for the benefit of his children’s education.17 The small group of orphan children that he nurtured were removed to Singapore, where the SDA missionaries cared for them.18 Munson continued to do some translation work in Australia and returned to the territory later.

It was not for another 12 months after Munson departed before a replacement arrived in Padang. Teasdale’s brother-in-law and sister, Gustav and Margaret Wantzlick, were appointed to continue the mission.19 Wantzlick found most of the converts operated their commercial businesses on Saturdays,20 and it was difficult to establish rapport because he did not speak their language. Wantzlick virtually had to start all over again. His German background made it easier for him to communicate with the those among the Battaks in the mountains behind Padang who spoke Dutch.21 Six young Battak men showed interest, and the three older ones, Immanuel, Ezekiel, and Gaius, were sent to the Singapore mission for training.22 They returned to their homeland in 1909. Wantzlick was the ideal man to nurture them in mission work, but he was due for a furlough and sailed to Europe, leaving Bernard and Emma Judge in charge, neither of them being familiar with Dutch.23

Judge employed similar mission strategies to those used by Munson. He taught English to Chinese boys by using Gospel Primer and Christ Our Saviour. His sister, Tena “Teenie” Judge, arrived in November 1910 to assist with nursing and Bible work.24 Munson returned in 1911 under appointment to Java but visited Padang to advise Judge. During his brief stay, he baptized two individuals and found a better instructor for Judge to become conversant with the local language.25

On December 31, 1911, the Sumatra Mission was transferred from the Australasian Union Conference (AUC) to the Asiatic Division, enabling the AUC to concentrate their overseas mission efforts in the Pacific Islands.26 After more than a decade Sumatra had yielded few baptisms and no established SDA church.

The Malay Peninsula, 1901–1909

When Gates made his exploratory trip to Singapore late in 1901, he remained there for a few months to test the prospects for a mission footprint in the city. He converted and baptized a British soldier27 but then hurried to mission work on Norfolk Island.28 It would be another two years before any real attempt was made to establish mission work in Singapore. Elder Griffiths Jones and his wife, Marion, were appointed to pioneer the city together with colporteur Robert Caldwell.29 They arrived on October 28, 1904, and rented a home at 32 Sophia Road. Jones used Good Health magazines to introduce his mission. The first breakthrough came with the conversion and baptism of the Fox family, who later moved to Java.30 Fox was a Britisher married to an Asian. He conducted a private school for locals wanting to learn English. Caldwell met with a great deal of opposition from resident clergymen while selling The Desire of Ages and moved on to Siam, Manila, Hong Kong, and China.31

On January 10, 1905, an important planning session was held in the Joneses’ home. Elder George Irwin, president of the AUC, visited, along with Munson from Sumatra, and consulted with the newly arrived missionaries. They agreed that Singapore was ideally situated as their base of operations. They proposed to set up a small press in addition to requesting the Avondale Press to supply some larger translated books. They applied to receive two more colporteurs and a doctor and two nurses for medical missionary work and to establish a health food store.32 Most of these goals were fully met in the following years.

One press was sent from Australia and another from Samoa, and yet another was purchased for £40 in Singapore.33 Back in Australia, at the Avondale Press, work began on Munson’s translation of Christ Our Saviour, both in Singapore- or Baba-Malay and Javanese-Malay. These were delivered in 1907. Timothy Tay, who had started selling tracts in 1906, sold two thousand copies of Christ Our Saviour when it first arrived.34 After Caldwell moved further afield, Fred Parkin from Australia replaced him, disembarking on February 24, 1906, and remaining about two years, selling Daniel and The Revelation and Christ Our Saviour in Singapore and the Malay States. He was known to start the day early and sell up to eight books before breakfast.35 Some Chinese converts, Chan Teck Sung and Lee Chin Seng, witnessed by selling tracts.36

Edgar and May (Burgess) Davey, recent nursing graduates of the Sydney Sanitarium, pioneered hydrotherapy treatments in Singapore. They arrived on April 29, 1905.37 Their efforts did not attract a large clientele, and they transferred to America after two years in order for Edgar to pursue a medical degree.38 They were replaced by nursing graduate Mabel Lewes.39

A small health food store was attempted for a short time but discontinued because the goods quickly spoiled in the humid climate. Teasdale quipped that the Granose sprouted and the nut food took root.40

At the 1906 AUC Session two appointments were made to strengthen the Singapore mission.41 William Fletcher was designated to assist Jones in evangelism and oversee tract and book distribution.42 Joseph Mills was chosen to establish a missionary training school and take charge of the printing presses.43 A small school was first conducted in the mission home, but a search for a suitable property to develop into something bigger yielded a two-story building named “Mount Pleasant.” It was located, as the name suggested, on elevated ground at 147 Thomson Road.44 In August 1907 Jones leased it for two years, and there Mills taught a growing number of pupils, assisted initially by a convert, Miss Sim Gee Nio.45 When she transferred to Java, Kenelm Hungerford came from Australia in November 1908 to assist Mills.46 The institution became known as the Eastern Training School. Munson arranged for young people in Australia to send funds for the support of students.47

In addition to the standard book learning at the training school, Mills gave the young men the opportunity to learn carpentry and printing skills. They made furniture and helped to print the Malay language tracts, including issues on the Sabbath and the Second Coming.48 In 1907 other Protestant bodies in Singapore publicly accused the SDA church of teaching that Christ was born with a sinful nature and eventually overcame it. The mission team felt obliged to counter this misinformation and printed a tract to outline their belief in the sinless nature of Christ, citing The Desire of Ages that Caldwell had sold throughout Singapore.49 At the same time, plans were underway to publish a periodical. However, this goal was not realized until early 1909 when a four-page quarterly was first issued titled Zaman Pughadisan (Time of the End). Two versions, one in Dutch-Malay and another in Singapore-Malay, were printed.50

By 1909 Jones and his team were secure in Singapore despite opposition from other church groups. There was a core of approximately 45 baptized members with extras attending Sabbath School.51 In view of these results, the AUC allocated the first quarter 1909 Sabbath School offering to build a church.52 Government authorities allowed plans to go ahead for construction on Penang Lane near Fort Canning and the Methodist and Presbyterian churches. The local newspaper dubbed the area “Chapel Row.” Williams, Draper, and Steadman designed the attractive building. One thousand Singapore pounds were donated from America for the land and construction costs.53 A schoolroom at the back was included in the design.54 Jones had the satisfaction of opening and dedicating the building on August 21, 1909.55

The following month, September, it was announced at the AUC Council that the General Conference would assume control of missions in the Malaysian Peninsula and Philippine Islands. This move took effect at the end of 1909 with the AUC scrambling to transfer its regional headquarters to Java.56 Twelve months later, the AUC asked for the Malaysian Peninsula to be restored to Australasian administration, but the request was declined.57

The Philippine Islands, 1905–1909

In late 1904 Robert Caldwell, an Australian colporteur, sold copies of The Desire of Ages in Manila during a few months stopover en route to Hong Kong.58 He returned later for a major sales campaign. Elder Edward Gates visited Manila in late 1905 to explore mission possibilities.59 Subsequently, Americans James and Cora McElhany were appointed to sail from Australia to try to establish an SDA presence. They arrived in April 1906 and began to learn the Spanish language.60 They distributed the Spanish language magazine El Mensajero de la Verdad (The Messenger of Truth) and English language periodicals such as Good Health and Signs of the Times.61 McElhany also arranged for the translation and printing of tracts in the local Tagalog language.62

McElhany’s stay was comparatively brief, lasting less than two years before he was compelled to move to the cooler climate of New Zealand for health reasons.63 He had worked mainly with American servicemen who, of course, were a transient population and did not provide any long-term headquarters for SDA work.64

Caldwell returned to Manila about the same time as the McElhanys were leaving. For two years, he sold books in Manila and the hinterland with astonishing success.65 First, he used the Spanish translation of Patriarchs and Prophets, shipping his supplies from Pacific Press Publishing Association.66 Later, he covered some of the same ground with The Coming King in Spanish.67 He reported orders for 1,130 books. From his sales records, he obtained addresses and regularly posted Spanish tracts and periodicals to his customers.68

Lewis and Ella Finster arrived in Manila on December 17, 1908, to join Caldwell and continue evangelism well after the departure of the McElhaneys.69 Finster had many names from Caldwell’s lists to visit and generate further interest. Within the first year, he conducted his first public crusade in the city.70 As a result, Finster initiated a Sabbath School at Santa Ana, suburban Manila, of approximately twenty national members, which continued to grow.71

Finster quickly discovered that only 5 percent of the population spoke Spanish, so he decided to focus his attention on learning one of the chief local languages, Tagalog, and have literature translated into that and other local languages. He was fortunate to gain the services of Sofronio Calderon, translator of the Bible into Tagalog. Calderon translated Thoughts on Daniel for Tagalog readers and a number of tracts, including one on the Sabbath topic that persuaded him to convert to Adventism. Finster claimed Calderon was the first to be baptized as a Seventh-day Adventist in the Philippine Islands.72

When the General Conference assumed control of the Philippine Islands Mission on December 31, 1909,73 a robust start had been made that foreshadowed a bright future.

Java, 1906–1911

When the Fox family moved from Singapore to Surabaya in late 1905, they formed the nucleus of an Adventist mission in Java. Surabaya was a major metropolis with extreme humidity, little sanitation, and prevalent outbreaks of cholera and other deadly diseases. Fox was there to offer private tutorials to the many young men who wished to better their education. The family wished for some Adventist missionaries.74 Their hopes were realized with the appointment of George and Mattie Teasdale in addition to Petra (Tunheim) Skadsheim.75 The Fox family welcomed them and found lodgings for them. Teasdale had real fears about the tropics. With two little children in his family, he should never have been expected to risk their lives in a place like Surabaya.76 The dire circumstances were exacerbated by the widespread SDA view that drugs, even antimalarial tablets, should not be taken.

Language study was the first priority for Teasdale and Skadsheim. Dutch, of course, was the easier one to acquire. Skadsheim reverted to her maiden name of Tunheim. She found a few individuals willing to attend Bible readings in their home.77 Teasdale learned of an elderly Dutch woman, Miss Janz, living near Semarang, who kept the Saturday Sabbath. He visited her and found she wanted the SDA mission to take control of her established mission commune. She was situated in an elevated place called Pangoengsen, providing a cool and healthy rural environment. A core group observed the Sabbath with her. Tunheim lived in the commune for a few months, learning more of the Dutch language and waiting on Elders Gates and Jones to visit and decide on the takeover offer.78

Gates and Jones made the fateful decision not to accept the offer. Instead of using Pangoengsen as a ready-made mission headquarters, they chose to risk the perils of Surabaya. Within a few months, a deadly form of malaria raged in the city. One of the Fox children died. Teasdale lost one of his sons, Lawrence. Tunheim barely escaped with her life, and her skin was blotched purple and black. Thousands around them lost their lives.79 Teasdale’s initial fears of the region were reaized. He later published a defence of the hydrotherapy treatments they used without recourse to quinine. The Java Mission had publicly advocated this view but had to admit the error.80 It was a major tragedy for all and forced a change in strategies.

Mourning the loss of his son, Teasdale realized the enormity of his problem. He believed he was in a fight for his life and those of his fellow missionaries. He immediately began a desperate search for another property outside Surabaya, one with a cool climate like Pangoengsen.81 However, in a matter of weeks, his other son became so ill with malaria that he and Mattie fled back to America with him.82 A nurse, Anna Nordstrom, was despatched from Australia to provide medical assistance for Tunheim.83 Miss Sim Gee Nio, a convert from Singapore, joined the two women in their mission efforts.84

Tunheim and Nordstrom continued the search for a cool sanctuary in the mountains. They needed funds urgently, so they invested in quantities of The Ministry of Healing and sold them on the streets and in the business houses of Surabaya, salting away the profits in order to pay for a property.85 In mid-1908 they found an ideal home called “Soember Wekas” (Well of Blessing) at Prigen. They purchased it for £166 with visions that it would provide a haven from the humidity and disease of the city and perhaps be used as a small sanitarium one day.86 Indeed, nursing graduates Bert and Lily Thorpe were the first to make it their home in the closing months of 1908.87 They immediately began to give treatments in the local community, using packhorses to minister further afield. Lily related her brush with a tiger on one occasion. She dashed for the shotgun, but the animal slunk away.88 At another time a huge python slithered under a mat in their home. Lily emptied both barrels into the mat.89

The tragic loss of lives in Surabaya, among missionaries and converts alike, left an indelible mark on the hearts of church officials. Elder John Fulton, vice-president of AUC, was despatched to Java to make amends and lay plans for a safer future. He arrived in October 1908, visited Janz at Pangoengsen, and agreed to assume control of her enterprise. Tunheim was appointed to return to the commune and take charge temporarily.90 She conducted a school for over forty pupils. Teasdale himself received vindication when he and his family were welcomed back to Australia from America, and he was appointed in 1909 to tour the Java and Sumatra region in an advisory capacity.91

During the next three years, 1909–1911, there were a number of new arrivals, including George Wood, who married Nordstrom. The couple took the lead at Pangoengsen.92 Dorothy Knight came from Sydney to assist in Bible work for 18 months before moving to England for a cooler climate.93 Elder William Hofstra and his wife, Rolena, arrived from Michigan to superintend mission work among the Dutch but only stayed nine months before illness overtook him.94 Another Dutchman, Jacob van de Groep, sold the Dutch version of The Coming King throughout the island.95 When the General Conference assumed control of the Singapore Mission, the printing presses were taken to Soekaboemi in the Preanger district of Java, and Hungerford transferred in order to operate them.96 Munson returned to Java from Australia to continue his translation work and assist Hungerford but retired to America after less than two years because his wife became ill.97 The Thorpes returned to Australia when Lily was stricken with severe malaria.98 Only the Woods and Tunheim managed long-term mission work in Java, made possible by periodic spells at high and cool altitudes. Much seed was sown, but at the end of 1911, when Java and Sumatra were ceded to the Asiatic Division, the few baptized members were scattered, and no church was organized.

Sources

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———. “The Island Work.” Special No. 4, Union Conference Record, July 26, 1901.

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———. “Church Dedication at Singapore.” Union Conference Record, February 28, 1910.

———. “News from Battakland.” Union Conference Record, June 14, 1909.

———. “Progress in Singapore.” Union Conference Record, April 26, 1909.

———. “Singapore.” Union Conference Record, June 11, 1906.

———. “Singapore.” Union Conference Record, August 6, 1906.

———. “Singapore.” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906.

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———. “Singapore.” Union Conference Record, April 6, 1908.

———. “Singapore.” Union Conference Record, September 7, 1908.

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———. “Sumatra Mission.” Union Conference Record, October 24, 1910.

McElhany, J. L. “Philippine Mission.” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906.

———. "Philippine Mission.” Union Conference Record, March 25, 1907.

———. “Philippine Mission.” Union Conference Record, April 29, 1907.

———. “Seed-Sowing in Manila.” Union Conference Record, November 11, 1907.

———. “Some Interesting Letters from the Philippines.” Union Conference Record, September 9, 1907.

Mills, J. “Eastern Training School.” Union Conference Record, October 14, 1907.

———. “Our Singapore School.” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908, 2–3.

———. “Singapore School Work.” Union Conference Record, April 8, 1907.

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Munson, R. W. “A Month at Padang, Sumatra.” Australasian Record, February 13, 1911.

———. “ ‘Christ Our Saviour’ in the Malay.” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908.

———. “En Route to Batavia.” Union Conference Record, May 9, 1910.

———. “Good News from China.” Union Conference Record, November 15, 1904.

———. “Help Needed for the Sumatra Orphans.” Union Conference Record, July 13, 1908.

———. “In Sumatra.” The Missionary Magazine, December 1900.

———. “Letters: Sumatra.” The Missionary Magazine, August 1900.

———. “Mission Studies: The Island of Sumatra.” Union Conference Record, December 1, 1900.

———. “Our Mission Study.” Union Conference Record, March 9, 1908.

———. “The Land of Promise.” Union Conference Record, March 7, 1910.

———. R. W. Munson to G. A. Irwin, October 30, 1902. Letter collection. Ellen G. White Estate.

———. R. W. Munson to G. A. Irwin, September 6, 1903. Letter collection. Ellen G. White Estate.

———. R. W. Munson to G. A. Irwin, March 3, 1904. Letter collection. Ellen G. White Estate.

Nordstrom, A. “A Letter from Java.” Union Conference Record, March 23, 1908.

———. “Encouraging Letter from Java.” Union Conference Record, July 13, 1908.

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Osborne, H. E. H. E. Osborne to G. A. Irwin, April 2, 1902. Letter collection. Ellen G. White Estate.

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“Sister Caldwell, in writing . . .” Union Conference Record, August 31, 1908.

Skadsheim, P. T. “Pangoengsen, Tajoe, Java.” Union Conference Record, May 13, 1907.

Tay, Timothy. “Letter from Timothy Tay.” Union Conference Record, August 20, 1906.

Teasdale, Brother, and Sister Skadsheim. “Sourabaya, Java.” Union Conference Record, February 11, 1907.

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———. “Java.” Union Conference Record, January 7, 1907.

———.“Java” Union Conference Record, April 29, 1907.

———. “Java.” Union Conference Record, March 15, 1909.

———. “Our Mountain Home in Java.” Union Conference Record, March 22, 1909.

———. “Our Work in Singapore.” Union Conference Record, March 8, 1909.

———. “Singapore.” Union Conference Record, January 11, 1909.

———. “Sourabaya, Java.” Union Conference Record, June 17, 1907.

——— “Treatment of Malarial Fever.” Union Conference Record, July 6, 1908.

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“The last word from Pastor Munson . . .” Australasian Record, December 4, 1911.

“The many friends of Brother G. A. Wood . . .” Union Conference Record, January 31, 1910.

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Thorpe, Lily M. “A Letter from Sister Thorpe.” Union Conference Record, January 25, 1909.

Tunheim, P. “Back to Pangoengsen.” Union Conference Record, February 15, 1909.

———. “Experiences in Java.” Union Conference Record, February 10, 1908.

———. “Java Mission,” Special No. 1, Union Conference Record, September 7, 1908, 24–25.

Van de Groep, Jacob. “A Canvassing Trip to Bali and the Celebes.” Union Conference Record, December 19, 1910.

Wantzlick, Brother. “Letter from Sumatra.” Union Conference Record, March 25, 1907.

Wantzlick, G. A. “Padang, Sumatra.” Union Conference Record, May 20, 1907.

———. “Padang, Sumatra.” Union Conference Record, December 9, 1907.

Wantzlick, M. “A Visit to Europe.” Union Conference Record, January 24, 1910.

“Wednesday, September 28, Pastor G. F. Jones . . .” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1904.

“Word has just come from our workers . . .” Union Conference Record, August 19, 1907.

Notes

  1. E. H. Gates, “Mission Studies,” Union Conference Record, August 2, 1909, 7.

  2. G. F. Jones, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906, 63–64.

  3. E. H. Gates, “Malaysia Mission,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1901, 3.

  4. R. W. Munson, “ Mission Studies: The Island of Sumatra,” Union Conference Record, December 1, 1900, 4–6.

  5. “Items of Interest,” Union Conference Record, November 1, 1899, 9.

  6. “Officers and Standing Committees of the Australasian Union Conference,” Union Conference Record, July 31, 1899, 1.

  7. E. H. Gates, “The Island Work,” Special No. 4, Union Conference Record, July 26, 1901, 51–52.

  8. E. H. Gates, “Beginnings in Singapore,” Union Conference Record, December 21, 1908, 5.

  9. “Pastor Geo. Teasdale and family . . . ,” Union Conference Record, February 1, 1902, 15.

  10. H. E. Osborne to G. A. Irwin, April 2, 1902, letter collection, Ellen G. White Estate.

  11. R. W. Munson to G. A. Irwin, October 30, 1902, letter collection, Ellen G. White Estate.

  12. “Miss Marcelia Walker, a trained nurse . . . ,” Union Conference Record, January 1, 1903, 8.

  13. R. W. Munson to G. A. Irwin, September 6, 1903, letter collection, Ellen G. White Estate.

  14. R. W. Munson to G. A. Irwin, March 3, 1904, letter collection, Ellen G. White Estate.

  15. Ibid.

  16. “Pastor Munson baptised seven Chinese . . . ,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1904, 7; “Sumatra Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook 1904 (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1904), 59.

  17. “Pastor Munson and his family . . . ,” Union Conference Record, August 15, 1905, 8.

  18. Ibid.

  19. “Distribution of Labour,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906, 67.

  20. G. A. Wantzlick, “Padang, Sumatra,” Union Conference Record, May 20, 1907, 2–3.

  21. Brother Wantzlick, “Letter from Sumatra,” Union Conference Record, March 25, 1907, 3.

  22. E. H. Gates, “Our Battak Brethren,” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908, 2.

  23. B. Judge, “First Impressions,” Union Conference Record, August 2, 1909, 4; M. Wantzlick, “A Visit to Europe,” Union Conference Record, January 24, 1910, 2–3.

  24. B. Judge, “Sumatra Mission,” Union Conference Record, October 24, 1910, 29–31.

  25. R. W. Munson, “A Month at Padang, Sumatra,” Union Conference Record, February 13, 1911, 4.

  26. J. E. Fulton, “Union Conference Council,” Union Conference Record, October 2, 1911, 1–2.

  27. “Pastor E. H. Gates found a British soldier . . . ,” Bible Echo, June 30, 1902, 215.

  28. “Pastor E. H. Gates and wife . . .” Bible Echo, October 13, 1902, 335.

  29. “Wednesday, September 28, Pastor G. F. Jones . . . ,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1904, 8.

  30. G. F. Jones, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906, 63–64.

  31. E. H. Gates, “Mission Study,” Union Conference Record, August 16, 1909, 7.

  32. “Council of the Malaysian Mission,” Union Conference Record, June 15, 1905, 4.

  33. G. F. Jones, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, September 7, 1908, 21–23; E. H. Gates, “Mission Studies,” Union Conference Record, March 15, 1909, 7.

  34. “The first consignment of the handsome . . . ,” Union Conference Record, April 29, 1907, 7; R. W. Munson, “ ‘Christ Our Saviour’ in the Malay,” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908, 3–4.

  35. Gates, “Mission Study.”

  36. W. W. Fletcher, “ ‘Translations Diligently Compared and Revised,’ ” Union Conference Record, June 24, 1907, 4–5.

  37. E. C. and M. Davey, “Journeying to Singapore,” Union Conference Record, July 15, 1905, 2–3.

  38. “Brother and Sister Davey sailed . . . ,” Union Conference Record, vol. 11, no. 24, June 17, 1907, 7.

  39. “On Tuesday, October 1, Pastor Gates . . . ,” Union Conference Record, October 14, 1907, 7.

  40. G. Teasdale, “Canvassing in the Dutch Indies,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1909, 4.

  41. “Distribution of Labour,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906, 67.

  42. W. W. Fletcher, “Among the People of Singapore,” Union Conference Record, March 25, 1907, 2–3.

  43. G. F. Jones, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, January 14, 1907, 8.

  44. J. Mills, “Eastern Training School,” Union Conference Record, October 14, 1907, 4–5.

  45. G. F. Jones, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, April 6, 1908, 3–4.

  46. G. Teasdale, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, January 11, 1909, 2–3

  47. R. W. Munson, “Help Needed for the Sumatra Orphans,” Union Conference Record, July 13, 1908, 5–6.

  48. J. Mills, “Our Singapore School,” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908, 2-3.

  49. E. H. Gates, “Meeting Opposition,” Union Conference Record, May 20, 1907, 3.

  50. G. F. Jones, “Progress in Singapore,” Union Conference Record, April 26, 1909, 2–3.

  51. “Singapore Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook 1909 (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1909), 100.

  52. E. H. Gates, “Beginnings in Singapore,” Union Conference Record, December 21, 1908, 5.

  53. “The Straits Times on Our Work in Singapore,” Union Conference Record, April 5, 1909, 2–3.

  54. G. F. Jones, “Progress in Singapore,” Union Conference Record, April 26, 1909, 2.

  55. G. F. Jones, “Church Dedication at Singapore,” Union Conference Record, February 28, 1910, 3.

  56. “Actions Taken by the Union Conference Council,” Union Conference Record, October 4, 1909, 2–5.

  57. “Plans and Recommendations: Missions,” Union Conference Record, November 7, 1910, 61.

  58. “Monthly Summary of Australasian Canvassing Work,” Union Conference Record, January 1, 1906, 6.

  59. Brother Gates, “Arrival in Manila,” Union Conference Record, January 15, 1906, 7.

  60. J. L. McElhany, “Philippine Mission,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906, 62-63.

  61. J. L. McElhany, “Philippine Mission,” Union Conference Record, March 25, 1907, 4.

  62. J. L. McElhany, “Seed-Sowing in Manila,” Union Conference Record, November 11, 1907, 3.

  63. “Brother and Sister McElhany . . . ,” Union Conference Record, March 16, 1908, 7.

  64. J. L. McElhany, “Philippine Mission,” Union Conference Record, April 29, 1907, 3.

  65. E.g., “Monthly Summary of Australasian Canvassing Work,” Union Conference Record, November 2, 1908, 3.

  66. R. A. Caldwell, “Jottings from Manila,” Union Conference Record, December 14, 1908, 4.

  67. “Monthly Summary of Australasian Canvassing Work,” Union Conference Record, October 4, 1909, 6.

  68. “Sister Caldwell, in writing . . . ,” Union Conference Record, August 31, 1908, 7.

  69. Ella Finster, “Our Trip to Manila,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1909, 3–4.

  70. “On October 23 Pastor Finster . . . ,” Union Conference Record, December 13, 1909, 8.

  71. L. V. Finster, “Our Work in the Philippines,” Union Conference Record, December 6, 1909, 2–3.

  72. L. V. Finster, “Experiences During Our First Year in the Philippines—No. 1,” Union Conference Record, February 14, 1910, 3.

  73. J. E. Fulton, “President’s Address,” Union Conference Record, October 24, 1910, 1–5.

  74. G. F. Jones, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, August 6, 1906, 2–3.

  75. “Distribution of Labour,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906, 67.

  76. Geo. Teasdale, “Java,” Union Conference Record, January 7, 1907, 4.

  77. Brother Teasdale and Sister Tunheim, “Sourabaya, Java,” Union Conference Record, February 11, 1907, 2.

  78. Geo. Teasdale, “Java,” Union Conference Record, April 29, 1907, 2; P. T. Skadsheim, “Pangoengsen, Tajoe, Java,” Union Conference Record, May 13, 1907, 2.

  79. “Sad News from Java,” Union Conference Record, October 28, 1907, 3–4.

  80. Geo. Teasdale, “Treatment of Malarial Fever,” Union Conference Record, July 6, 1908, 3.

  81. P. Tunheim, “Experiences in Java,” Union Conference Record, February 10, 1908, 4–5.

  82. “On account of the state of health . . . ,” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908, 7.

  83. A. Nordstrom, “A Letter from Java,” Union Conference Record, March 23, 1908, 4–5.

  84. G. F. Jones, “Singapore,” Union Conference Record, April 6, 1908, 3–4.

  85. P. Tunheim, “Java Mission,” Special No. 1, Union Conference Record, September 7, 1908, 24–25.

  86. E. H. Gates, “Report of the Mission Secretary,” Special No. 1, Union Conference Record, September 7, 1908, 4–6.

  87. “Brother and Sister E. E. Thorpe . . . ,” Union Conference Record, October 19, 1908, 7.

  88. Lily M. Thorpe, “A Letter from Sister Thorpe,” Union Conference Record, January 25, 1909, 3.

  89. R. W. Munson, “The Land of Promise,” Union Conference Record, March 7, 1910, 3–4.

  90. J. E. Fulton, “Java Council Meeting,” Union Conference Record, January 4, 1909, 2.

  91. J. E. Fulton, “Our Work and Workers in the East Indies,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1909, 3-4.

  92. “The many friends of Brother G. A. Wood . . . ,” Union Conference Record, January 31, 1910, 8.

  93. “Our readers will remember . . . ,” Union Conference Record, June 13, 1910, 8.

  94. J. E. Fulton, “President’s Address,” Special No. 1, Union Conference Record, October 24, 1910, 1–5.

  95. “Monthly Summary of Australasian Canvassing Work,” Union Conference Record, October 3, 1910, 6.

  96. R. W. Munson, “En Route to Batavia,” Union Conference Record, May 9, 1910, 1–2.

  97. “The last word from Pastor Munson . . . ,” Union Conference Record, December 4, 1911, 8.

  98. “On Friday, December 1, Brother and Sister Thorpe . . . ,” Union Conference Record, December 11, 1911, 8.

×

Hook, Milton. "Australasian Union Conference Involvement in Southeast Asia Before 1912." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 10, 2021. Accessed January 25, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=57SQ.

Hook, Milton. "Australasian Union Conference Involvement in Southeast Asia Before 1912." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 10, 2021. Date of access January 25, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=57SQ.

Hook, Milton (2021, January 10). Australasian Union Conference Involvement in Southeast Asia Before 1912. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved January 25, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=57SQ.