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Community Centre and Ladies' Residence at University of Eastern Africa, Baraton.

Photo courtesy of West Kenya Union Conference.

University of Eastern Africa, Baraton

By Godfrey K. Sang, Rei Towet Kesis, and Yona Balyage

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Godfrey K. Sang is a historical researcher and writer with an interest in Adventist history. He is the co-author of the book On the Wings of a Sparrow: How the Seventh-day Adventist church came to Western Kenya

Rei Towet Kesis, Ph.D. in religion (Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya) is deputy vice chancellor in charge of Student Affairs, University of Eastern Africa, Baraton. He is a senior lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies and Applied Theology. He has also served in the University chaplaincy for many years. He is married to Clara and they have two children.

Yona Balyage, Ph.D. in education (Central Luzon State University, Philippines), is a professor in Educational Administration and Management. He serves as director of Quality Assurance at the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, Eldoret, Kenya. He has also served as department head and school dean at the same university. He is married to Eseza and they have three children.

The University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB), situated in Nandi County in the Rift Valley of Western Kenya, is the oldest Adventist university on the continent of Africa to offer a variety of degree courses in arts, applied sciences, and natural sciences.1 It first opened its doors in September 19792 to a very small number of students. Another twenty students were enrolled on January 28, 1980.3 On March 28, 1991, UEAB became the first private university to be chartered in the Republic of Kenya.4

Before the establishment of UEAB, Africa had three Adventist seminaries offering Bachelor’s degrees in either religion and/or theology with minors in other disciplines. Their primary role was to train Seventh-day Adventist Church workers. Hospitals and schools were served by personnel holding certificate and diploma qualifications from Adventist training institutions. The institutions offering degrees in religion were Solusi College (now University)5 in Zimbabwe, Adventist Seminary of West Africa (ASWA)6 in Nigeria, and Bugema Adventist College7 in Uganda. The Adventist University of Central Africa in Gisenyi, Rwanda, opened on October 15, 1984.8 Helderberg College9 in South Africa, which offered Andrews University programs, was not open to the rest of Africa. In 1998, UEAB started offering graduate programs beginning with the Master of Education. Thereafter, graduate programs in business, nursing, biological sciences, and public health were added, including a Doctor of Philosophy in education. By January 2020, the university offered sixty-five degree programs that were fully accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association (AAA), with 161 teaching faculty and a total enrollment of 3,819 students.

Brief History of the Adventist Work in Nandi Land

Adventism was first introduced to the Nandi region through the work of a European settler farmer named David Sparrow who arrived from South Africa in 1912.10 He settled among the Nandi people and began to share his faith with them. He established the first church and school on his farm in 1916, the same year he won his first Nandi convert to the Adventist faith, Caleb Kipkessio araap Busienei.11 In 1931, Sparrow helped establish the first Adventist church at Kaigat in the Nandi Reserve. This is also the oldest church in western Kenya and a school would soon follow. Kaigat is situated 34 kilometers north of Baraton. Starting in 1941, the pioneer members at Kaigat moved to various parts of Nandi establishing an Adventist church at Sironoi, 10 kilometers from Baraton, the same year. By the time it was decided to build the university in 1978, Adventism was quite well established in Nandi County, although there were few Adventists within the vicinity of the university.

Initial Discussions and Plans for Establishing the University

The establishment of the UEAB was a continuation of the mission of the Christian church to spread the gospel of salvation throughout the world, following the example of Jesus Christ’s12 earthly ministry and fulfilling His command13 through the avenues of teaching, preaching, and healing. The beginning of the Adventist education in East Africa dates back to the establishment of the Adventist Church in the region. The earliest church in the region was established in Tanzania in 1903, followed by more missionary work around Lake Victoria in Kenya in 1906. Kendu Mission Hospital,14 which was then known as Kenya Hospital15 and later as Kendu Hospital,16 was established in 1924 to treat patients and train nurses with certificate courses. In 1927, missionary work started in Uganda and in 1928 what is now known as Kamagambo Adventist College was established near Kisii town as the Kamagambo Training School17 for teachers. In 1948, Nchwanga Training School in Uganda was moved from Bunyoro to Buganda and established at Bugema Missionary College18 to train church ministers with certificate and diploma courses. Each of these institutions provided a specialized certificate and/or diploma course for the entire East African territory. In 1950, the Ethiopian Union Training School19 was established, also offering certificate and diploma courses for the union. None of the institutions offered a degree course. In addition, the Church established several elementary and high schools, clinics, and hospitals that needed better trained personnel. For this reason, before 1980 Adventist young men and women who completed high school and desired to pursue higher Adventist education had to enroll in universities outside of Eastern Africa.

From 197020 to 1981,21 when the Afro-Mideast Division was organized to serve the unions of East Africa (Kenya and Uganda), Ethiopia, Middle East, and Tanzania, Middle East College in Beirut, Lebanon, served as the senior college for the division. The college offered major degree courses in business administration, education, religion, and theology22 under affiliation with Loma Linda University in the United States.

One year after its establishment in 1971, church membership in the newly organized Afro-Mideast Division stood at 114,090.23 The East African Union alone had a total church membership of 74,27224 (65.1%) out of 114,090 (100%) for the entire division.

By 1978, when the executive committee of Afro-Mideast Division took action to establish25 the University College of Eastern Africa, the division church membership had significantly increased from 114,090 to 189,64826 and the East African Union alone had a church membership of 120,208 which made up 63.4% of the entire division.27

Most of the church membership on the African continent could not afford to send their children to Middle East College due to the distance and the political warfare which then prevailed in the Middle East. Thus, there was a great need for a full-fledged university in Eastern Africa to serve the ever-growing church membership of the entire division as already presented in tables 1 and 2 above.

Plans to Establish the University

The Afro-Mideast Division leadership re-deployed its two field secretaries from the division headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon, to respective unions in order to facilitate the establishment of a university college in Eastern Africa and to expand the work of the gospel. D. K. Bazarra28 was re-deployed as the president29 of East African Union, which comprised the republics of Kenya and Uganda, and Bekele Heye30 was re-deployed as president31 of the Ethiopian Union. Both D. K. Bazarra and Bekele Heye continued serving as Afro-Mideast Division field secretaries32 up to the year 198033 while serving as union presidents.

Due to the frequent and prolonged wars in the Middle East between 1977 and 1978, D. K. Bazarra and R. L. Koorenney,34 president of Middle East College, were mandated to set up a committee to search for a suitable place where a division college could be re-located, in line with Adventist philosophical guidelines. Among the committee members were Fredrick Wangai (secretary of the East African Union), Mutuku J. Mutinga (education director of the East African Union), Jackson Maiyo, Stephen Chesimet, Joseph Rono, and William Murgor.

The search was accelerated after the escalation of the war in the Middle East which became intolerable during autumn class sessions of September to November 1978. An anti-aircraft bullet hit a high-tension electrical line above a college security man. The electrical wire fell on him killing him instantly. This led to the closure of the Middle East College as a division institution and the transfer of Afro-Middle East Division headquarters from Beirut, Lebanon,35 to Nicosia in Cyprus.36 Students of Middle East College from foreign countries were transferred to various colleges around the world including Philippine Union College in the Far East, Newbold College in England, Spicer Memorial College in India, and North Caribbean Union College in Jamaica.37

The search committee investigated a number of locations. One of the places suggested was Ethiopia Adventist College located on 181 acres land. Unfortunately, the country of Ethiopia was politically unstable, did not allow freedom of religious expression, and had stopped the entrance of new Christian foreign missionaries into the country. Bugema Adventist College in Uganda, situated on 640 acres of land, was also considered, but President Idi Amin had banned over twenty Christian religious organizations including the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Theological Seminary for East Africa, which was operating at Bugema College had been transferred by the East African Union administration to a youth camp site at Watamu Beach near Malindi, Kenya. Early on, the search committee had visited sizable sites including the Nandi Hills in the Rift Valley province of Kenya38 and a 4,000-acre farm at Kibidula situated in Mafanga district of the Iringa region, 600 kilometers away from Dar-es- Salaam, Tanzania,39 which also failed to meet the criteria. At this time, the only option remaining was to search for land in Kenya.

The search committee had been asked by the office of the president of Kenya to look at a very fertile 339-acre piece of land in Kapsabet Municipality of the Nandi District of Kenya that once belonged to the Baraton Animal Husbandry Institute, 50 kilometers from Eldoret. There was an ancient saltlick nearby, which attracted many people and animals from far and wide. Consequently, the area received the name Baraa-to’n, which in the local Nandi language means “the place of many visitors.”40 It therefore seemed natural location for Kenya’s colonial government to establish a veterinary research station and training institute here to improve the livestock of the local Nandi people. Now abandoned, the committee liked the property and decided to establish the university there.

However, by the time the Afro-Mideast Division executive committee met in December 1978, the search committee had not yet secured a commitment letter from the government confirming that the property would be allocated to the Seventh-day Adventist Church for the establishment of a university college. Without this evidence, the executive committee would be unable to make an informed and binding decision to relocate Middle East College. Bazarra asked the East African Union education director, Mutuku J. Mutinga, who was in Nairobi, Kenya, to ensure that the letter from the office of the president of the Republic of Kenya was available at the meeting within a week’s time for a decision to be made. Through an involved process that included Mutinga meeting with both local and national government officials, as well as a trip from Nairobi to the Nandi District, the necessary letter was at last delivered on December 21, 1978. On the same day a decision was made to transfer Middle East College to the East African Union at Baraton in Kenya as a division college under the name of the University College of Eastern Africa (UCEA).41

Further decisions made during this Afro-Mideast Division executive committee, which met in Nicosia, Cyprus, formed the administration of the new university college. Under the chairmanship of C. D. Watson, division president, the new name, the University College of Eastern Africa, was chosen.42 Watson also became the first board chair of the university college.43 R. L. Koorenny,44 president of Middle East College, was transferred to the division as education director 45 to facilitate the transfer of the college to the African continent. Joseph Estephan,46 who had been division education director, was appointed Middle East College president.47

Founders of the University

By December 1978, when the action was made to transfer the Middle East College to Baraton in Kenya as the University College of Eastern Africa, the executive committee of the Afro-Mideast Division, in Nicosia, Cyprus, which owned the university, was composed of the following: C. D. Watson (chairman), F. G. Thomas (secretary), D. K. Bazarra, D. C. Beardsell, Joseph Estephan, Samaan Fangary, Gebre M. Felema, T. S. Flaiz, E. J. Gregg, Bekele Heye, R. L. Koorenny, Yohana Lusingu, Jack Mahon, P. C. Mairura, Gabriel Mbwana, M. Nazirian, F. N. Pottle, Borge Schantz, D. C. Oswan, R. C. Thomas, and Solomon Wolde-Endres.48

C. D. Watson chaired the board of directors until 1980. Bekele Heye was appointed division president in 198049 and became the chairman50 of the board of directors of the University College of Eastern Africa. In 1981, the Afro-Mideast Division was re-organized51 into the Eastern Africa Division.52 At this time, the division was reduced to three Eastern African Unions with a total church membership of 226,402.53

The division headquarters soon moved to East Africa, in Nairobi, Kenya, on Riverside Drive54 before it finally moved to Highlands in Harare, Zimbabwe.55 It supported the Seventh-day Adventist Church in eleven countries: Botswana, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.56 Membership numbered 4,872 organized churches and 1,106,988 baptized church members.57

When the University College of Eastern Africa finally opened, the board of directors was composed of C. D. Watson (chairman), Percy Paul (secretary), D. K. Bazarra, D. C. Beardsell, E. J. Gregg, Bekele Heye, R. L. Koorenny, James Manley, M. Mutinga, M. Nazarian, E. A. Okeyo, and F. G. Thomas.58 The initial administration of the university college was composed of Percy Paul, principal or president; James Manley, business manager; Wolfhard Touchard, librarian; and Jon Green, chaplain.59 By the time Beleke Heye became the chairman of the board of directors, the administration of the University College of Eastern Africa had added S. Eugene Cole, academic dean; Leonard L. Nelson, acting registrar and secretary of admissions; James R. Kilmer, chaplain; Joseph N. Karanja, dean of men; and Pattie S. Miller, dean of women.60 Keith Moses was in charge of physical plant.

The University was financed by the General Conference, division administration, and church members all over the division territory who gave freewill offerings to support the University.

Reasons for the Location of the University at Baraton

The Baraton location was ultimately chosen as the site for the new university for many reasons. It was located in the union with the greatest number of church members who could send their children to the university at an affordable cost. Its 339 acres provided ample space for the erection of school buildings, faculty and staff houses, and recreational and sports facilities as well as future expansion. The land was also fertile for farming and food production. The rural setting protected teachers, staff, and students from the pollution and ills of urbanization. At the same time, the property was easily accessible by road as it was only 9 kilometers from the Kisumu-Eldoret Highway. The moderately cool climate throughout the year provided a comfortable environment. Finally, Kenya was, at the time, politically and economically stable compared to other nations in the region.

Constructing the University Facilities

According to Harald Zinner, a Canadian missionary who was a lecturer of mathematics at the Middle East College, lecturers started arriving at Baraton site in February 1979. That same month, existing structures on the property began to be renovated under the supervision of Mr. Milken. The Baraton Animal Husbandry Institute and research station had used ten small houses and structures as cow sheds, offices, research center, and dormitory for the trainees. These structures were renovated and turned into the principal’s house (later a guest house), office of the president (principal) of the college, academic dean and business manager, and their secretaries. The former dormitories for the institute were turned into men’s and women’s residence halls. The cow sheds were renovated to serve as lecture rooms, science laboratories, chapel, library, and dining hall. There were no animals on the property at that time.61

In addition to the renovations of existing structures, construction of five standard faculty homes started right away on VC Drive, Walimu Drive, and Baraton Close. The plan was to build ten houses.62 Later, more houses were constructed on Dairy Drive to accommodate the ever-increasing number of lecturers. Meanwhile, some faculty members were commuting from Eldoret.63

Construction of standard university facilities for student use started in 1982 with the old men’s dormitory, followed by the student center in 1984, which housed the cafeteria on the first floor and some guest rooms in the rear in 1984. Quarters for married students started being constructed in 1985 and 1986. The library building, begun in 1988 and completed in 1989, housed the lecture rooms and offices for the departments of education and business administration, the Ellen G. White Center, and the amphitheater. The amphitheater served as a multipurpose space also used for church services and meetings.64

Intensive construction of modern university buildings in preparation for the government university charter started with the ladies’ dormitory in 1988, an auditorium in 1989, administration block, and more lecturers’ quarters. By March 28, 1991, when the government granted a charter and recognized the university’s degree offerings at the same level with those of public universities, the Adventist Church had demonstrated its ability to run a quality university education system in the country and the region. By 1995, the campus at Baraton was a landmark and its program a benchmark for both public and private universities.65

The time between 1995 and 2010 was another period of intensive infrastructural work that involved construction a new men’s dormitory, upgrading the women’s dormitories, tuition blocks, and faculty offices for School of Humanities and Social Sciences, laboratories for School of Science and Technology, Baraton-Jeremic Community Health Center, Community Development and Research Center, University Church and additional houses for academic faculty, senior and junior staff.66

Opening of the University

The University College of Eastern Africa at Baraton initially started recruiting graduates of high school, technical, vocational, certificate, and middle-level diploma programs, and transfer students from junior colleges who qualified to enter universities in their countries of origin. It also had an option for mature age examination as per the requirements of public universities at that time. First priority was given to the children of Adventist members and employees, but the door was open to members of other religious organizations since it was to serve as an avenue for spreading the gospel message through the teaching ministry.

The University College enrolled its first class of around twenty students in September 1979, and more students followed in January 1980. Aberash Haile of Ethiopia was the first student to register at Baraton.67 Enrollment increased again in 1981.68

On the weekend of June 10-12, 1983, the University College of Eastern Africa at Baraton held its first graduation ceremony. The area Member of Parliament, Samuel Ng’eny, was the chief guest during the ceremony.69 The college principal, Percy Paul, also invited Andrews University President J. Grady Smoot, who during the baccalaureate and consecration services, the day before the commencement, urged the graduating class to serve God and mankind. The 1983 graduation ceremony had a total of fifty-three candidate who graduated with Bachelor’s degrees in five disciplines of which five were in agriculture, six in biology, twenty-five in business administration, seven in English with education, and ten in religion with education and theology.70 The leadership of the first graduation class was composed of Paul Wahonya (chair), Isaac Bekalo (vice-chair), Jennifer Ongalo (secretary), Martin Mpyisi (treasurer), Lamech Miyayo (chaplain), and George Mutuku (parliamentarian).71

Initially, the university college was only provisionally licensed by the government of Kenya in 1979 and affiliated with Andrews University in the United States until March 28, 1991, when it was awarded a full government charter making it the first university to be chartered in Kenya.

Founding Programs and Faculty

According to Harald Zinner, the first three founding faculty families from Middle East College in Beirut, Lebanon, moved to the Baraton campus in February 1979. These were Percy and Ina Paul, Mr. and Nancy Milken, and Harald Zinner’s family. These were joined by three other families from the Middle East College in January 1980, which included David and Ethel Mayes, who were to teach at the Baraton Overseas School (BOS) for the children of the faculty; Per and Kristle Naesheim; and Jim and Fran Kilmer, both as theology instructors. James Manley was transferred from Kamagambo High School and Teachers’ Training College to Baraton as a business manager. Later, Wolfhard and Irene Touchard arrived, the former as librarian. In addition to being involved in the construction, Zinner also served as the initial registrar to prepare for prospective students.72

The university opened with five Bachelor’s degree programs73 taught by members of the eight families mentioned above. The five degree programs were education (with certifications in English, religion, biology, and agriculture), theology, business administration, agriculture, and biology.74

Initial Research Facilities

The University of Eastern Africa, Baraton’s research facilities started with the agricultural gardens, animal husbandry buildings, and related equipment. Subsequently, the university purchased equipment for agriculture, technology, biology, chemistry, nursing, home economics, and some cows.

In the 1980s, David Ekkens and Larry Siemmens equipped the biology laboratories, and in 1990, Conrad and Venus Clausen brought more laboratory equipment from Loma Linda University. The Clausens sent Fred Amimo75 to Loma Linda University to select the most relevant laboratory equipment and materials and ship them to Baraton. He selected equipment for the chemistry, medical laboratory sciences, and physics in addition to Baraton Jeremic Community Hospital. Baldur Pfeiffer, president of Support Africa in Germany, donated laboratory and hospital equipment between 1995 and 2010. He also supported community-based research.

The departments of medical laboratory science and public health set up laboratories between 2000 and 2010. These initially operated under the School of Science and Technology. Funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation enabled Jackie Obey, Zackaria Ngalo, and Fred Amimo to conduct malaria research.76

In the 1990s and 2000s, the university was the only private university in the region to offer programs in the sciences. Due to its competitiveness, it hired lecturers from public universities and companies, offering them ca good remuneration package. Its graduates in all areas of study excelled in both theory and practical work in the job market and were almost always the first ones to get hired wherever they were interviewed—a status the university has maintained to date.

Student Enrollment

Student enrollment steadily increased from twenty in 1980 to 1,500 by 1998.77 After the post-election violence of 2007-2008, enrollment began to fluctuate. By the 2010, university enrollment across the entire country had decreased leading to the closure of a number of universities. Universities started competing for students and opened satellite campuses in almost all of the large and small towns in order to be accessible students.

The UEAB recruited new students in churches and secondary schools. Like other universities, it established extension campuses at Kamagambo, Nairobi, Eldoret, Kisumu, and Nyanchwa. Establishment of extension campuses started when Nathaniel Walemba was the vice-chancellor and intensified under the leadership of Miriam B. Mwita. Unfortunately, these extension campuses did not attract sufficient enrollment to operate economically.

A review of the sustainability of extension campuses was constructed when Phillip K. Maiyo became the vice-chancellor in 2014. A financial analysis revealed that the extension campuses drained the university resources. In 2017, the administration recommended to the university council the closure of all extension campuses and the council voted in the affirmative on June 18, 2017. The administration also applied several other turnaround strategies to salvage the situation and return the university to solvency. Maiyo also, in collaboration with other private universities, negotiated with the Ministry of Education to allocate all government-sponsored students to chartered public and private universities. The government accepted the recommendation and opened up the space for students to choose from any of the chartered universities for their education. In 2018, the number of UEAB students rose to reach an all-time high of 3,141. By January 2020, student enrollment stood at 3,819, as presented in tables 4 and 5.

Student Enrolment trends from 2010 to 2020.

Year       Business               Education, Humanities  
 and Social Sciences  
Health
     Sciences    
  Nursing  Science and
    Technology    
 Total              
2010       705                708                177       396         420          2406    
2011 626 626 191 449 413 2305
2012 673 606 199 568 465 2513
2013 598 513 217 616 439 2383
2014 540 491 220 659 445 2355
2015 518 520 191 582 421 2232
2016 538 673 233 551 452 2445
2017 559 682 238 545 473 2552
2018 696 1136 266 454 589 3141
2019 783 1488 208 358 773 3610
2020 840 1601 203 356 819 3819

By January 2020, majority of students enrolled were male (2,205) and 2,097 were members of other religious faiths.

Break down of student Enrolment by gender and religious affiliations by 2020

School Adventists    Non-Adventists    Male           Female      Total      
Business 307 533 543 297 840
Education, Humanities and Social Sciences  700 901 885 716 1601
Health Sciences 136 67 127 76 203
Nursing 200 156 141 215 356
Science and Technology 379 440 509 310 819
Total 1722 2097 2205 1614 3819

The schools of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences housed the majority of students from both Adventist and non-Adventist faiths. The university established a strong chaplaincy which resulted in frequent baptisms. Many of the non-Adventist students who joined the university decided to be baptized before graduating.

Changes in Curriculum and Teaching Faculty

From September 1979 to September 1980, the university offered the five initial degree programs78 taught by the handful of lecturers who had transferred from Middle East College in Beirut, Lebanon, in addition to another from Kamagambo Adventist College. In subsequent quarters, as enrollment increased, nine more degree programs were introduced with requisite additions to the teaching staff. These included Thomas Chittick in agriculture, James Manley and Charles Miller in business,79 Jon Green and Gado Ongwela (who did not stay long), in education,80 Daniel Flinn and Leonard L. Nelson in Englihs, Per W. Naesheim and Joseph Karanja in religion,81 M. L. Golola in history,82 Mrs. Burgdorff in home economics,83 Merton Sprengel in chemistry,84 and Sosamma Lindsay85 who became the first nursing lecturer in 1989.

The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) program offered at the University College of Eastern Africa in 1989 was the first nursing degree program on the continent of Africa south of the Sahara and north of Limpopo. Prior to this period, African governments and many mission-based hospitals offered nursing at certificate and diploma levels only. Thus, nursing officers from within the region were required to travel to other regions and continents in order to acquire degree level education. The government officially approved the training program in May 1991 and Baraton nurses were thereafter recognized by the Nursing Council of Kenya. The first nursing graduates were Rachel Ochiel, Elijah Nyangena, and Sammy Lagat. They made history as the first degree-level nurses in Africa south of the Sahara and north of the Limpopo. Public and private universities in the region who later started similar programs had to benchmark with UEAB. Nursing continues to be a flagship program at Baraton.86

By the time the university received a charter from then president of the Republic of Kenya, H. E. Daniel Toroitich Arap Moi, on March 28, 1991,87 under the new name of the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB), there were almost forty fulltime lecturers holding Master’s and doctoral degrees.

When the university received the charter, all of the programs being offered were accredited by the Commission for Higher Education, which was created by the Ministry of Education under the instruction of President Moi.88 All other academic programs that followed had to be accredited individually through application to the Commission for Higher Education (which was later renamed Commission for University Education) that peer-reviewed the proposed program, inspected facilities and resources and, based on their assessment, approved or not disapproved the proposed program.

In 1998, the Master of Education program was accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association. The Master of Business Administration was accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association and the Commission for University Education in 2004 and 2005 respectively. The Doctor of Philosophy in Education was accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association in 2008 and the Commission for University Education in 2011. Other programs followed thereafter. Some of the people who assisted in the initial development of graduate programs were Benford Musvosvi, Joel Ogot, Miriam and Ruel Narbarte, Yona Balyage, Joseph Maranga, Joseph Masinda, Fanta Hotamo, and Elizabeth Role.

In 2008 and 2009, Fred Amimo and Zachariah Ngalo also developed a Master of Science degree program in biomedicine. Between 2001 and 2004, a Master of Public Health degree program was developed. A Master of Science in Global Health Care was developed between 2013 and 2018 in collaboration with universities in Finland.

By January 2020, the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton was offering sixty-five degree programs that were accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association. They include the Bachelor, Master, and doctoral degree programs as presented in table 6:

Academic Degree Programs Accredited by AAA January 202089

  Schools

Number of
Degree Programs

1 School of Business 13
2 School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences 22
3 School of Health Sciences 5
4 School of Nursing 2
5 School of Science and Technology 23
  Total 65

By January 2020, the university had a total of 161 teaching faculty as presented in table 7. The majority (54.7%) of them held Master’s degrees while the minority (21.7%) held Bachelor’s degrees, but were registered for a Master’s degree. Equally, the Master’s degree holders were registered for doctoral degree programs. The Bachelor’s degree holders only served as clinical instructors for science courses and others were laboratory technicians. They were destined to become lecturers after completing a second degree.

Teaching Faculty and their Qualifications by January 202090

Qualifications Full-time Part-time Male Female Total Percentage
Doctorate 37 1 21 17 38 23.6%
Masters 79 9 58 30 88 54.7%
Bachelors 28 7 14 21 35 21.7%
Total 144 17 93 68 161 100.0%

Accreditations

The university was inspected and accredited by the International Board of Education (IBE), the Adventist Accrediting Association of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1980, and the Commission for Higher Education (CHE)91 of the Republic of Kenya in 1991, and has since then, been recognized and accepted into the membership of several academic bodies including the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU), the Association of African Universities (AAU), the Kenya Association of Private Universities (KAPU), and the Inter-University Council for East Africa (IUCEA).

The university is also accredited by the Nursing Council of Kenya (NCK), the Kenya Nutrition and Dietetics Institute (KNDI), the National Commission for Science, the Technology and Innovations (NACOSTI), and the Kenya Universities Quality Assurance Network (KUQAN). On April 22, 2014, the university received membership into Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS), which allocates government-sponsored students to chartered universities across the nation.

Affiliations

The university affiliated the University of Arusha in Tanzania, Ethiopia Adventist College, and Malawi Adventist University until they all received recognition of the governments of their respective countries. It also offered Master’s degree programs at the Adventist University of Central Africa in Kigali, Rwanda, until they were able to develop similar programs and have them accredited by the AAA and the government of Rwanda. Currently, the university is assisting South Sudan Union Mission to establish an Adventist university in Juba.

The university hosted the Adventist University of Africa’s (AUA) first courses before its construction in Ongata Rongai was complete. Between 2013 and 2016, the university also provided facilities for the Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies (AIIAS)’s extension courses for the doctoral degree in business for students who could not easily attend the main campus in the Philippines.

Research Development at the University

Beginning in 1980, Jon Green recruited lecturers and students to carry out research addressing the environment and the entire community. Most of the research projects were sponsored by the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA). The research findings assisted in improving the lifestyle of the community around the university and also conserved the swamps as a habitant for the sitatunga and other wild animals and plants.92

In 1995, Gosnell Yorke and Zachaeus Mathema of the Department of Theology and Religious Studies conceived the idea to start an annual Journal of Adventist Theological Thought in Africa (JATA). Nehemiah Nyaundi was appointed editor-in-chief. The journal published five volumes between 1995 and 2005.93

Between 2009 and 2011, the university won a grant of US$200,000 from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for malaria research at Baraton.94 The investigators were Jackie Obey, Fred Amimo, Zachariah Ngalo, and Dickson Anjejo.95

In September 2011, during the leadership of Miriam Mwita as vice-chancellor, the university launched a peer reviewed scientific research journal known as Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal (BIRJ), which has since served as a vital platform for the publication and dissemination of research findings for the various schools at the university. At the time, the university was dealing with increasing competition. From being the first and only chartered university in 1991, there were some twenty-seven private universities in Kenya by 2012, fifteen of which were fully chartered. Three private universities were chartered in 2011 alone. There were also twenty public universities.96 Therefore, the launch of the research journal was a vital move towards keeping the university relevant.

In November 2011, the Center for Public and Social Research International released its rankings of 100 regional universities based on their adoption of ICT. They ranked Baraton as 24th out of a total of 100 universities drawn from Burundi, Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda, and Kenya. During this time, Baraton was identified as an important contributor to scientific research.97 The largest school by now was the School of Science and Technology, which also housed the departments of public health and medical laboratory science.

Some of the Prominent Alumni and Administrators of the University

Since the inception of the university, thousands have graduated and are serving the Adventist Church, governments, universities, and private companies.

Among those who served the Adventist Church were Steve Apola, associate publishing director, General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventists; Andrew Mutero, director of education, General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventists, East Central Africa Division; David Masinde, country director, ADRA Mozambique; and Elvis Bwambale Walemba, programs director, ADRA Thailand

In government, Nelson Sospeter Mwarwa was principal secretary of Kenya’s Ministry of Labor and Social Protection. Daniel Chemno became deputy governor of the county government of Uasin Gishu, Eldoret, Kenya. The Hon. Julius Kibiwott Melly was a member of parliament for Tinderet Constituancy and chairperson of the parliamentary committee on education in Kenya.

In education, UEAB graduates have served both their alma mater and other universities as well as other education-related organizations with distinction. Gerry Otieno Ayieko was a senior lecturer in Kenyatta University’s department of languages and linguistics. Seth Panyako was secretary general of the Kenya National Union of Nurses. Paul Wahonya was deputy vice-chancellor for student affairs and services at the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton. Rei Kesis was not only deputy vice-chancellor for student affairs and services, but also a prominent public evangelist, based at the University of Eastern Africa Baraton. Fred Amimo, professor of biological science and an international researcher, was the former deputy vice-chancellor of academic affairs at UEAB and dean of the School of Science and Technology at Jaromogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology in Kenya. David Mbungu became chairman of the department of biological studies at Andrews University. John Omambia Matiangi was treasurer of the Kenya National Union of Teachers. Elijah Nyangena, associate professor and dean of School of Nursing at Kabianga University was also a board member of the Nursing Council of Kenya. Pamela Kimeto was the dean of the School of Health Sciences at Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya. Gabre Worancha was dean of the School of Theology and Religious Studies at Bugema University. Elvin Muhindo Walemba was dean of the School of Sciences and Technology at Asia Pacific International University in Thailand. Jackie Obey was dean of the School of Health Sciences at UEAB.

In the business world, Bisrat Mandefro of Ethiopia was a very successful businessman and James Mugo became a notable United Kingdom-based lawyer. Kenneth Sisimwo was operating director of the Save the Children Fund for Kenya and Madagascar. Isaac Bekalo became president of the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) in the Philippines.

In health care, Angie Yator became senior nutrition officer for Moi Teaching and Referral

Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Honest Chirwa was managing director of the Healthcare Nutrition Center in Blantre, Malawi. Judy Atoni became country director for Food for the Hungry in Maputo, Mozambique. Ednah Tallam Kimaiyo was chief executive officer and registrar of the Nursing Council of Kenya. Adel Ottoman became chairman of the Kenya National Union of Medical Laboratory Officers. Hellen Ogola was director of the Kisumu Laboratory. Titus K. Taurus was director of nursing services at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Everlyne Nyangwaria Rotich worked for CECM-Health in Uasin Gishu County and was former chair of the Nursing Council of Kenya.

Out of UEAB’s many administrators, several have played significant roles in expanding the university’s infrastructure. Roland L. McKenzie, who was the third administrator after Percy Paul and Svein Myklebust, was the first vice-chancellor because it was during his tenure that the university obtained its charter (1991) and ceased to use the designation of “principal.” McKenzie’s administration ushered in a progressive period for the institution by expanding the physical facilities. His ambitious expansion program saw the construction of some of the large and iconic buildings at UEAB. These include the university library, amphitheater, dining facility, student center, auditorium, and administration buildings. He also led the university in initiatives to meet the strict government requirements for faculty and facilities in order to achieve the university charter.98

Mutuku John Mutinga, who had served at the International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Nairobi and been a longtime senior lecturer at the University of Nairobi, became the vice-chancellor of UEAB in January 1996. He had also previously served as an education director of the East African Union, member of the search committee for the establishment of UEAB, and sat at the university council—perhaps the longest serving member since inception in 1978.99 During his tenure a vice-chancellor, the university realized its greatest expansion in infrastructure.

Under Mutinga’s leadership many more buildings were constructed including the science tuition block, humanities building, the Baraton-Jeremic Community Health Center, new men’s dormitory, expansion of the ladies’ dormitory, and staff housing among others. He started building a modern 3,000-seat church and the Research and Community Center which were completed by Nathaniel Walemba’s administration. During Mutinga’s time, the university forged relationships with institutions in Kenya and abroad. He also cultivated the support of significant donors including John Jeremic from Australia, who donated for several projects including the initial 10 million Kenyan shillings towards the construction of Baraton Jeremic Community Health Center; Baldur E. Pfeiffer of Support Africa International in Germany, who provided equipment for research and the hospital; the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/American Schools and Hospitals Abroad Programs (ASHA), the East Central Africa Division (ECD), Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), and Andrews University in the United States. The Baraton Community Development and Research Center (BCDRC) which was completed on August 13, 2009.100

It was also during Mutinga’s time that the first graduate program was offered at UEAB, the Master of Education. This was a major milestone in the development of the University. Mutinga served as a vice-chancellor for eight years and, so far, he is the longest serving head of the university.101

The University and the Adventist Church Organization

The governance of the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton has changed over time. It was first managed by Afro-Mideast Division from December 1978 to 1980, then by the Eastern Africa Division from 1981 to 2003, and finally, the East-Central Africa Division from 2003 to May 2014.

Since June 1, 2014, the university is jointly managed by the East Kenya Union Conference in Nairobi and the West Kenya Union Conference in Kisumu. The president of the East-Central Africa Division has remained as the university chancellor through all of these transitions. The president of the West Kenya Union Conference is the chairman of the university council and the president of East Kenya Union Conference is the chairman of the board of trustees.

The Mission of the University and the Church

The University of Eastern Africa, Baraton has remained committed to its mandate of promoting and advancing wholistic Christian education that spreads the gospel message through the teaching ministry. It admits students from all walks of life and exposes them to the gospel message through regular church attendance. It employs qualified and competent administrators, teaching faculty, and support staff who are members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. It requires and trains its lecturers to integrate faith and learning through their lifestyle, class lectures, and examinations. Through this practice, it influenced the Commission for University Education to create a standard that requires all universities to have physical facilities serving as places of worship.102

The Relationship Between the University and the Community

The relationship between the university and the local community has always remained cordial. The community has consistently supported the university over the years. During and after the post-election violence of 2007 and 2008, which paralyzed the entire country, UEAB was the only university in the entire country that remained in session when all other universities were closed. Again, in 2017 and 2018 when the university administration down-sized its workforce as a turnaround strategy in order to salvage the financial situation of the institution, the majority of the personnel who were down-sized were members of the community around the university. They graciously accepted this step in support of the university’s continued operation.

The Envisioned Way Forward for the University

In the twenty-first century, the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton continues to pursue its mission. Increasing student enrollment has made a capital campaign for more affordable hostels a matter of urgency for Vice-Chancellor Phillip K. Maiyo. His administration has also supported and promoted the use of online instructional technology and is working to acquire International Standards (ISO) certification. Recruitment among Adventist church members also continues to be a matter of concern. The university plans to increase the number of Adventist students to at least 70% of the total enrollment.

Principals of the University College of Eastern Africa

Percy Paul (1979-1982), Svein Myklebust (1982-1988), Roland McKenzie (1989-1991, became first vice-chancellor following the charter granted March 28, 1991)103

Vice-Chancellors of the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton

Roland McKenzie (March 28, 1991-1992), Mishael S. Muze (1992-1995), Mutuku J. Mutinga (1995-2003), R. Timothy McDonald (2003-2006), Nathaniel M. Walemba (2007-2010), Miriam B. Mwita (2011-2014), Phillip K. Maiyo (2014-)

Sources

Adventist Accrediting Association, Regular Visit Report, January 14-16, 2020.

Commission for University Education. “University Standards and Guidelines.” June 2014.

Daily Nation [Nairobi], August 17, 1982.

Daily Nation [Nairobi], May 16, 1983.

Daily Nation [Nairobi], March 29, 1991.

Daily Nation [Nairobi], November 1, 2012.

Sang, Godfrey K. and Kili Hosea K. Kili. On the Wings of a Sparrow: How the Seventh-day Adventist Church came to Western Kenya. Nairobi: Gapman Publications, 2015.

Sang, Godfrey K. and Lois W. Ngenye, Baraton @40: The Story of a Great University. Nairobi: Gapman Publications Ltd., 2018.

Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1985-1990.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, DC: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1927-1984.

University of Eastern Africa. College Records.

Notes

  1. “University of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, vol. 11 (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996), 817-818.

  2. Huldah Amenya, one of the very first students, interview by author, April 24, 2020.

  3. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “University of Eastern Africa.”

  4. Daily Nation [Nairobi], March 29, 1991, 2.

  5. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Solusi College.”

  6. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Adventist Seminary of West Africa.”

  7. “Bugema Adventist College,” Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, vol. 10 (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996), 257-258.

  8. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Adventist University of Central Africa.”

  9. “Helderberg College,” Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, vol. 10 (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996), 686-687.

  10. Godfrey K. Sang and Kili Hosea K. Kili, On the Wings of a Sparrow: How the Seventh-day Adventist Church came to Western Kenya (Nairobi: Gapman Publications, 2015).

  11. Ibid.

  12. Matthew 4:23; Matthew 9: 35.

  13. Matthew 28:19, 20; Mark 16:15,16.

  14. “Kendu Mission Hospital,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957), 263-264.

  15. “Kenya Hospital,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1927), 301.

  16. “Kendu Hospital,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1933), 283.

  17. “Kamagambo Training School,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1948), 249.

  18. “Bugema Missionary College,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957), 206-207.

  19. “Ethiopian Union Training School,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957), 215.

  20. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1973-74), 93-101.

  21. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1973-74), 93-101; “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, vol. 10 (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996), 43-44.

  22. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Middle East College.”

  23. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1971), 97.

  24. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1971), 97-105.

  25. “University of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 411.

  26. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 109.

  27. Table 2 is drawn from the Church Membership for Afro-Middle East Division as reported in “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 109-117.

  28. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1972), 93.

  29. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association,1973-74), 93.

  30. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association,1973-74), 93.

  31. “Ethiopian Union,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association,1976), 108.

  32. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1976), 105.

  33. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 109.

  34. “Middle East College,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 369.

  35. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 109.

  36. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1979), 113.

  37. Beatrice Adegu and Lillian Arunga Kidenda, former students of Middle East College, telephone interview by author, April 13, 2020.

  38. Mutuku J. Mutinga, interview by author via WhatsApp, April 8, 2020.

  39. David M. Makohe, secretary of the North Tanzania Union Conference, email to author, April 9, 2020.

  40. Godfrey K. Sang and Lois W. Ngenye, Baraton @40: The Story of a Great University (Nairobi: Gapman Publications Ltd., 2018).

  41. Mutuku J. Mutinga, interview by author, April 7, 2020.

  42. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 108.

  43. “University of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 411.

  44. “Middle East College,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 369.

  45. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 109.

  46. “Middle East College,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 369.

  47. “Middle East College,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 373.

  48. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1979), 113.

  49. “Eastern Africa Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1982), 79.

  50. Ibid.

  51. Ibid.

  52. Ibid.

  53. Table 3 is drawn from the Church Membership for Afro-Middle East Division as reported in “Eastern Africa Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1982), 79-85.

  54. “Eastern Africa Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1983), 87.

  55. “Eastern Africa Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1984), 81.

  56. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Eastern Africa Division.”

  57. Ibid.

  58. “University College of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1980), 411.

  59. Ibid.

  60. “University College of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1982), 438.

  61. Herald Zinner, email message to author, April 11, 2020.

  62. Ibid.

  63. Job Kimeto, interview by author, April 8, 2020.

  64. Ibid.

  65. Ibid.

  66. Job Kimeto, interview by author, April 8, 2020; William Ondari, interview by author, April 9, 2020.

  67. Interview with Dr. Paul Wahonya and Mrs Hellen Osinde Ondari, on April 8, 2020.

  68. Daily Nation [Nairobi], August 17, 1982, 3.

  69. Daily Nation [Nairobi], May 16, 1983, 5.

  70. University of Eastern Africa, College Records.

  71. Ibid.

  72. Harald Zinner, email message to author, April 11, 2020 op. cit.

  73. “University College of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1980), 411.

  74. Hellen Osinde Ondari, interview by author, April 13, 2020.

  75. Fred Amimo, interview by author, April 14, 2020.

  76. Ibid.

  77. Sang and Ngenye.

  78. “University College of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1980), 411.

  79. “University College of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1981), 417

  80. Ibid.

  81. “University College of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1982), 438.

  82. “University College of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1983), 456.

  83. “University of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing, 1985), 472.

  84. “University of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing, 1986), 475.

  85. “University of Eastern Africa,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing, 1990), 453.

  86. Sang and Ngenye.

  87. Daily Nation [Nairobi], March 29, 1991, 2.

  88. The Commission for Higher Education was created purposely to process the awarding of a charter to the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton and other universities that were to come thereafter.

  89. Table drawn from Adventist Accrediting Association, Regular Visit Report, January 14-16, 2020, 7-11.

  90. Adventist Accrediting Association, Regular Visit Report, January 14-16, 2020, 7.

  91. The Commission for Higher Education (CHE) was later on changed to Commission for University Education (CUE).

  92. Fred Amimo, interview by author, April 13, 2020.

  93. Nehemiah Nyaundi, interview by author, April 15, 2020.

  94. Miriam Mwita, interview by author, July 4, 2017.

  95. Fred Amimo, interview by author, April 13, 2020.

  96. Changes in the law following the enactment of the Universities Act No. 42 of 2012 ushered in sweeping changes in higher education in Kenya.

  97. Daily Nation [Nairobi], November 1, 2012, 17.

  98. Daily Nation [Nairobi], March 29, 1991, 2.

  99. “Afro-Mideast Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 109.

  100. Nathaniel Walemba, telephone interview by author, April 24, 2020.

  101. Sang and Ngenye.

  102. Commission for University Education, “University Standards and Guidelines,” June 2014, 19.

  103. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “University of Eastern Africa.”

×

Sang, Godfrey K., Rei Towet Kesis, Yona Balyage. "University of Eastern Africa, Baraton." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 09, 2021. Accessed January 19, 2021. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=7FKM.

Sang, Godfrey K., Rei Towet Kesis, Yona Balyage. "University of Eastern Africa, Baraton." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 09, 2021. Date of access January 19, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=7FKM.

Sang, Godfrey K., Rei Towet Kesis, Yona Balyage (2021, January 09). University of Eastern Africa, Baraton. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved January 19, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=7FKM.