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Espirito Santo Academy (Educandário Espírito Santense Adventista) (EDESSA) School Building in 2015.

Photo courtesy of Educandário Espírito Santense Adventista (EDESSA) Archives, accessed on May 12, 2020, https://bit.ly/2T27Ag1.

Espirito Santo Academy

By Caiky Xavier Almeida

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Caiky Xavier Almeida

First Published: January 5, 2022

The Espirito Santo Academy (Educandário Espírito Santense Adventista or EDESSA) offers early childhood, elementary, and high school education to day and boarding students. It belongs to the Seventh-day Adventist Church and is part of the worldwide Adventist education network. It operates on the territory of the Southeast Brazil Union Conference (União Sudeste Brasileira or USeB) and is located on federal highway BR-259, kilometer 64, direction Colatina-Baixo Guandu, zip code 29709-300, neighborhood Columbia, in the city of Colatina, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

The school has girls and boys dormitories, a cafeteria, classrooms, a library, and sports facilities. Fifty-nine employees care about the students. In 2020, the academy had 254 students (97 boarding students and 163 day students).1

Development that Led to the School Establishment

Starting in 1915, Pastor F. R. Kümpel did evangelistic work in the north of Espírito Santo. At the same time, Professor Carlos Specht studied the Bible with people who were preparing for baptism.2 The first Adventist missionaries arrived in the city of Victoria, the capital of Espírito Santo, in 1919. With their arrival the first church services were organized for the believers in Victoria. By 1931, the Rio-Espirito Santo Mission (Missão Rio-Espírito Santo) was established, together with the city central church. By 1933, the Adventist message was further expanded to the north of the state, reaching the city of Colatina. There, an Italian immigrant called Sabino Nardi, housed an Adventist missionary in his house. Through this missionary, Nardi’s entire family got to know the Adventist message. The gospel was preached in other places such as Sabiá and Graça Aranha, around 30km from Colatina. Among the pioneers of the first Adventist congregations established in the region around Colatina were Lüktke Storch, Kühl, and Becker.3

In the 1930s, the church members took an important step towards the establishment of Adventist education in the state of Espírito Santo, and the first primary schools were opened. In the following years a need for a boarding school arose.4 Pastor Abraham Classen Harder, a pioneer of the Adventist education in Brazil, led in the efforts to establish an Adventist gymnasium in the region, a precursor of EDESSA. At the time, Pastor Harder was the Espirito Santo Conference (Associação Espírito-Santense or AES) president.5

In 1945, Harder organized a campaign in which all Adventist members in the Espirito Santo Conference territory would donate some money each month towards the new educational project. The campaign was well supported and around 70 percent of members actively contributed. In addition, Pastor Harder received donations from many of his friends and acquaintances who lived in the United States. In two years, the necessary financial resources for the purchase of property were ready. The East Brazil Union Mission (União Este Brasileira or UEB, presently known as União Sudeste Brasileira [Southeast Brazil Union Conference]) carried on the plans.6 Pastor Harder submitted two requests to be discussed at the East Brazil Union Mission meeting. The first requested authorization to purchase the land for the construction of the academy. The second requested that he be granted a vacation period. The pastor’s idea was “to have this vacation period to be able to travel to the United States and thus obtain more donations for the construction of the school.”7 However, at that meeting, the requests were not approved, and the project was postponed.8

Foundation of the School

In April 1961, the construction of a boarding school was discussed again. The delegates of the Espirito Santo Conference biennial assembly led by Pastor Ernesto Roth, the AES president, again asked the East Brazil Union Mission to establish an academy in the region of Espírito Santo. The agenda was approved, and it was defined that the school should be financially independent and could not request financial help for the “purchase of land, construction of the building, or for maintenance.”9 Aware of the challenges ahead, the Espirito Santo Conference leadership took the responsibility and chose a committee to seek a suitable ground. The intended purchase of the first location in the city of São Miguel da Palha failed because the seller overcharged the property.10

The search for another property was resumed. Within a short period, a farm was found in the vicinity of Colatina, with an area larger than the one of the previous property. The property was around nine kilometers from downtown. The land belonged to Dr. Fontenele, then the secretary of Agriculture of Espírito Santo.11 The price requested by the seller was Cr$ 5 million (around US$ 2.3 million), incurring an increase of Cr$ 945,984.70 (around US$ 430,000), due to the property transfer procedure and additional interest. The payment was to be made in three parts.12

The Adventist members from the region and beyond joined in a campaign to raise the money. Among the districts that collaborated were Colatina, Teófilo Otoni, Nova Venécia, and Afonso Cláudio. Members from other districts such as Vitória and Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, in Espírito Santo, Nova Friburgo, and Campos, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and Almenara and Aimorés, in the state of Minas Gerais, also joined the campaign. They collected Cr$ 2,168,303.00 (around US$ 986,000).13

In 1962, due to the lack of the necessary resources, the purchase of the property was not yet possible. Some friends of Pastor Harder from the United States donated the value of Cr$ 1.25 million (around US$ 568,000). Pastor Roth, then president of the Espirito Santo Conference, together with his administration, decided to subdivide the 250,000 m² of the conference land. With the sale of the lots, Cr$ 2,325,411.00 (around US$ 1,057 million) was raised. In order to complete the necessary amount, an advance payment was made of the reserves and operating capital of the conference. The amount gathered, along with this advance, plus the donations received from the United States, reached the amount of Cr$ 5,954,984.00 (around US$ 2.7 million), and the purchase of the land was finally made.14 The land had only two houses that were transformed into dormitories. There was also a kitchen, cafeteria, and classrooms. After some time, the former owner reported that someone was offering Cr$ 12 million (around US$ 5.5 million) if the conference administration had an interest in selling. The conference was not interested in selling the school property.15

The school began its activities on September 10, 1962. The first class was offered to the elementary school students by Professor Elza Gutzeit, who also exercised the role of dean in the institution. The first activities were only possible due to the voluntary work of the employees. From 1962 to early 1963, the academy was administered by Pastor Edward Kanna, then the pastor of the Colatina district. In 1963, Professor Waldomiro Berger was called to teach at the institution and serve as a dean. In June of the same year (1963), the academy formalized its operation with the Espírito Santo Department of Education. On October 3, 1963 there was an inspection of the school buildings. Following the inspection, the school was granted the license to operate for two years, on the condition that the academy had a brick building because it was not acceptable for a school building to be made only of wood.16

On July 25, 1963, the school faculty was approved to teach high school courses.17 Also at the end of 1963, the construction of the brickwork building required by the Department of Education was started. The building would serve as a male dormitory and residence for the principal and treasurer of the academy.18 That same year, Professor Herbert Kurt Weber received the invitation to be the academy principal for the following year. In 1964, the institution began to offer high school classes for the first and second grades, with 143 enrolled students.19

Professor Weber presented the academy priority needs during the sixth Biennial Assembly of the Espirito Santo Conference, which took place from April 13 to 17, 1965.20 The needs included the construction of the male dormitory; the adaptation of the cafeteria and kitchen (which was the former female dormitory); construction of three temporary residences for the academy administration; earthmoving; purchase of an engine and light generator, in addition to the purchase of various furniture such as new desks and beds. The Assembly approved the requests, and the Conference purchased the materials for the construction of the building, a water filter, a tractor, a cart, and animals for work.21 This investment cost around Cr$ 24.640.000, 00 (around US$ 11,2 million).22

History of the School

With the advances in the structuring of the school, on August 24, 1966, the cornerstone of the EDESSA school building was laid in the presence of ecclesiastical and civil authorities, including a representative of the State Department of Education, in Vitória. During the event, the guests went to the construction site, where the school director spoke about the institution's goals and purposes, reinforcing the mission and importance of an Adventist educational institution.23 The construction of the first four classrooms and the female and male dormitories began, honoring the commitment made with the State Department of Education. The houses of the old farm were intended for the professors. The power grid and the energy transformer had been installed and the stable also started to be constructed.24

In 1966, Pastor Weber, together with Raymond Machado, an influential member of the city of Ecoporanga, visited the students’ parents and some farmers, with the intention of obtaining cattle for the school farm. In a few days of the campaign, they collected 18 cows, which was half of what the school needed. On November 19 and 20, 1966 the Academy’s first graduation took place with 10 young people graduating high school.25

In the early 1970s, new plans were drawn with the goal of consolidating the institution. EDESSA received several improvements, both in its physical structure and in its faculty. In this decade, the Academy received help from the Central Evangelical Agency for Development Aid (Agência Central Evangélica para Ajuda ao Desenvolvimento; also known as EZE, the acronym in German), an entity from Germany that helped the school with 975,000 DM. The amount, however, was donated on one condition: for every three marks, the school should contribute Cr$ 1.00 (around US$ 0.45). There was also financial help from members of the church and the conference.26 All these contributions made it possible to finish the construction of the new male and female dormitories, the cafeteria, the kitchen, the bakery, two laboratories, and the library.27

The Academy’s farm had around 180 heads of cattle, which produced around 72,000 liters of milk per year. The academy also had its own vegetable garden and rice plantation, which produced around 800 bags of rice a year, answering well to the cafeteria needs. The school also grew cocoa, bananas, and corn. The farm work was done with the help of around 100 students, called industrial students. These students also worked in the laundry and in the kitchen. In 1980, the academy purchased another piece of land. This area had seven bushels and was used to form another pasture.28

In the 1980s, the Academy grew in space and physical structure, as well as in its academic programs. In 1983, the school had 420 students and for high school students, it offered courses in Accounting Technician; Agricultural Technician; Qualification for Teaching; Nursing Technician, and Assistant of Chemical Analysis Laboratory. These programs were duly authorized by the State Education Council (Conselho Estadual de Educação). In that same year, 140 students completed high school, of whom 56 went to college. In 1983, the graduation rate was 98 percent.29

In 1990, EDESSA celebrated its 27th anniversary. During its first 27 years, the school went from modest facilities to a complex of modern buildings, which offered comfort and security to boarding students. That year, the school also had a library, a laboratory, and a music conservatory with 76 students enrolled.30 Six new classrooms and the administrative office, which were inaugurated on August 25, 1991.31 During the 1990s, the institution continued to develop in all areas, reaching the turn of the millennium with an established name in the church and society.

In 2005, the celebrations of 110 years of Adventist education in Espírito Santo were anticipated. The State Legislative Assembly (Assembleia Legislativa do Estado) organized two sessions in December to commemorate the Seventh-day Adventist Church pioneers. Deputies emphasized Adventist principles in education and also paid tribute to EDESSA, which had been active then for 42 years in Colatina. The educational work carried out by the school was highlighted and its “difference in forming citizens for Brazil.” Some professors and former professors, former students, and the then Rector of the Universidade de Santo Amaro [Santo Amaro University] (UNISA), in the state of São Paulo, participated in the ceremonies.32

On the 45th anniversary of the academy, in 2008, the EDESSA Alumni Association held an alumni event to commemorate the occasion, recalling the stories from the Academy’s past. On the occasion, old and recent photos were exhibited for the visitors. On the first day of the celebration, 45 trophies were distributed to people who were part of EDESSA’s history, such as the case of Abraham Harder, who at the beginning of the school was considered “crazy” by some who did not accept the idea of buying the land where the school was currently located. Also honored was Mr. José Guilherme de Almeida, who donated all the machinery of his carpentry for the construction of the first pieces of furniture.33

In 2013, the academy celebrated its 50th anniversary, and once again there were celebrations. Celebrations were held on June 7-9, gathering around two thousand people. In the program, the Arautos do Rei [The King’s Heralds] quartet, local authorities, church leaders and the Adventist Education Network were present.34 In 2013, a need for a new academy church building arose. Through much prayer, support from the conference, and the dedication of the entire team of the school, a new church building was built. In 2015, the new EDESSA church was inaugurated, with a capacity for around one thousand people.35

In 2018, EDESSA inaugurated Zeferino Lauer Square (Praça Zeferino Lauer). The square was named after Professor Zeferino who dedicated 37 years of his life to the school, working as a teacher, tutor, advisor, and boarding director. His wife Juliana Lauer was also a dean and teacher at the academy for over 30 years. At the end of 2018, a partnership between EDESSA and Brazil Adventist University (UNASP), made the Academy one of UNASP distance education centers. Thus, EDESSA started to receive students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate courses, from different areas. The courses offered at this center received maximum marks in the institutional assessment of the Ministry of Education of Brazil and the mark of excellence of Adventist Education.36

A project started in 2018 was the construction of a mini farm with the objective of offering a space for students to interact with nature. The idea is that this environment can provide significant experiences in the development of early childhood education and full-time education offered by the institution. The place was inaugurated in the following year (2019), and had a playground, vegetable gardens, an aviary, and animals such as ponies and calves.37 There, students have learned more about the Creator and His creation.

Historical Role of the School

EDESSA operates based on the Christian biblical principles that prioritize the education extended throughout life, with the goal of the full development of students in their physical, intellectual, and spiritual capacities. Over the years EDESSA has managed to impact and transform the lives of many people, especially children, and young people. Since its establishment in 1962, its activities have been in harmony with the mission and educational guidelines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Thus, the institution has become a benchmark throughout the region served by USEB, especially for Adventist members.38

EDESSA has sought to be relevant for the community in general where it operates. EDESSA students carry out various social and community projects. An example is the project “Quebrando o Silêncio” [Breaking Silence]39 that mobilizes students for various social activities. Students, professors, and employees are also involved actively in the missionary actions of the “Impacto Esperança” [Hope Impact],40 carrying out the distribution of missionary books in the neighboring regions.41

EDESSA continues to offer holistic Adventist Christian education, so that the students are prepared for this life and for eternal life, thus witnessing a vision of the future full of hope in the soon return of Christ.42

Directors

Edvard Kanna (1962-1963); Herbert Curt Weber (1964-1968); Rolf Belz (1969); A. R. Waegele (1970-1971); Aluizio Gabriel (1972-1973); Zizion Fonseca (1974-1990); Josias C. Lacerda (1991-1997); Ervino Will (1998); Samuel Kuster (1999-2000); Jurandir Gomes de Lima (2001-2002); Elias Germanowic (2003-2006); Luiz Carlos Sprotte (2007-2010); Dalney Meckson (2010-2010); Jurandir Vicente de Carvalho Filho (2010-2013); Charles Dominiciano (2014-2018); Gladmir da Veiga Santos (2018- present).43

Sources

Almeida, Carlos. “Pr. Ernesto Roth – ‘Uma vida para Deus’” [Pr. Ernesto Roth - ‘A Life for God’]. Monograph, Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], June 1987.

Belz, Rodolpho. “Nótulas do Este” [Notes of the East]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 12, year 59 (December 1964).

Coelho, Américo. “O Templo de Victoria” [The Temple of Vitória]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 26, no. 4 (April 1931).

Costa, Miguel P. “EDESSA – Educandário Espírito Santense Adventista” [EDESSA - Espirito Santo Academy]. Monograph, Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 2009.

“Cresce o setor educacional” [The educational sector grows]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 86, October 1990.

EDESSA. https://edessa.educacaoadventista.org.br/.

“EDESSA – do Sonho à Realidade” [EDESSA - from Dream to Reality]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 78, November 1983.

“EDESSA inaugura prédio administrativo” [EDESSA inaugurates administrative building]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 87, November 1991.

Enéas, Jael. “Uma data mais que centenária” [A more than centenary date]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1, year 101 (January 2006).

Harder, Palmer. 62 anos missionários no Brasil [62 missionary years in Brazil]. Engenheiro Coelho, SP: Gráfica Lagoa Bonita [Lagoa Bonita Printing], 1994.

Harder, Palmer. “Ecos da VI Bienal da Associação Espírito-Santense da IASD” [Echoes of the SDA VI Biennial of the Espirito Santo Conference]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 8, year 60 (August 1965).

Kümpel, F. R. “Missão Rio-Espírito Santo” [Rio-Espirito Santo Mission]. Revista Mensal [Monthly Review] 10, no. 12 (December 1915).

Lüdtke, Mizael. Origem e desenvolvimento da igreja adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo]. São Paulo, SP: Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 1989.

Matos, Francis. “Encontro de gerações” [Encounter of generations]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1262, year 108 (July 2013).

Mendes, Patrícia Barta, Alex Landim, Cristiane Lüscher, Heloísa Zambianco, Jaqueline Herodek, Jefferson Paradello, Rosemeire Braga, Suellen Timm, Tales Tomaz and Guilherme Almeida. “EDESSA: festa dos ex-alunos” [EDESSA: former students party]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1206, year 103, (December 2008).

Minutes of the Laying of the Foundation Stone Solemnity of EDESSA – Educandário Espírito-Santense [Espirito Santo Academy], August 24, 1966.

“Por favor o irmão Pages...” [Please Brother Pages...]. Revista Mensal [Monthly Review] 14, no. 3, March 1919.

Seventh-day Adventist Church (Brazil) Website. http://www.adventistas.org/pt/.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2019.

Notes

  1. Heloísa Gomes de Paula (EDESSA school secretary), e-mail message sent to Êmili Viana dos Santos (ESDA writing assistant), May 12, 2020.

  2. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo] (São Paulo, SP: Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College, 1989), 123; F. R. Kümpel, “Missão Rio-Espírito Santo” [Rio-Espirito Santo Mission], Revista Mensal [Monthly Review] 10, no. 12 (December 1915): 4.

  3. Américo Coelho, “O Templo de Victoria” [The Temple of Vitória], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 26, no. 4 (April 1931): 7-8; “Por favor o irmão Pages...” [Please Brother Pages...]. Revista Mensal [Monthly Review], vol. 14, no. 3, March 1919, 9-10; Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo] (São Paulo, SP: Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 1989), 124-126.

  4. Carlos Almeida, “Pr. Ernesto Roth – ‘Uma vida para Deus’” [Pr. Ernesto Roth - ‘A Life for God’] (Monograph, Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], June 1987), 18-21.

  5. Palmer Harder, 62 anos missionários no Brasil [62 missionary years in Brazil] (Engenheiro Coelho, SP: Gráfica Lagoa Bonita [Lagoa Bonita Printing], 1994), 81.

  6. Ibid., 79.

  7. Ibid., 80.

  8. “EDESSA – do Sonho à Realidade” [EDESSA - from Dream to Reality], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 78, November 1983, 35.

  9. Palmer Harder, 62 anos missionários no Brasil [62 missionary years in Brazil] (Engenheiro Coelho, SP: Gráfica Lagoa Bonita [Lagoa Bonita Printing], 1994), 81.

  10. Ibid., 82.

  11. Carlos Almeida, “Pr. Ernesto Roth – ‘Uma vida para Deus’” [Pr. Ernesto Roth - ‘A Life for God’] (Monograph, Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], June 1987), 18-21.

  12. Palmer Harder, 62 anos missionários no Brasil [62 missionary years in Brazil] (Engenheiro Coelho, SP: Gráfica Lagoa Bonita [Lagoa Bonita Printing], 1994), 83.

  13. Miguel P. Costa, “EDESSA - Educandário Espírito Santense Adventista” [EDESSA - Espirito Santo Academy] (Monograph, Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 2009), 1-15.

  14. Ibid.

  15. Ibid.

  16. Ibid.

  17. Ibid.

  18. Rodolpho Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [Notes of the East], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 12, year 59 (December 1964): 31.

  19. Miguel P. Costa, “EDESSA - Educandário Espírito Santense Adventista” [EDESSA - Espirito Santo Academy] (Monograph, Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 2009), 1-15.

  20. Palmer Harder, “Ecos da VI Bienal da Associação Espírito-Santense da IASD.” [Echoes of the SDA VI Biennial of the Espirito Santo Conference], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 8, year 60 (August 1965): 20.

  21. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e desenvolvimento da igreja adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo] (São Paulo, SP: Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 1989), 152.

  22. Miguel P. Costa, “EDESSA - Educandário Espírito Santense Adventista” [EDESSA - Espirito Santo Academy] (Monograph, Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 2009), 1-15.

  23. Minutes of the Laying of the Foundation Stone Solemnity of EDESSA – Educandário Espírito-Santense [Espirito Santo Academy], August 24, 1966.

  24. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e desenvolvimento da igreja adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo] (São Paulo, SP: Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 1989), 152.

  25. “EDESSA – do Sonho à Realidade” [EDESSA - from Dream to Reality], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 78, November 1983, 35.

  26. Ibid.

  27. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e desenvolvimento da igreja adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo] (São Paulo, SP: Instituto Adventista de Ensino [Brazil College], 1989), 154.

  28. “EDESSA – do Sonho à Realidade” [EDESSA - from Dream to Reality], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 78, November 1983, 36.

  29. Ibid.

  30. “Cresce o setor educacional” [The educational sector grows], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 86, October 1990, 39.

  31. “EDESSA inaugura prédio administrativo” [EDESSA inaugurates administrative building], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 87, November 1991, 19.

  32. Jael Enéas, “Uma data mais que centenária” [A more than centenary date], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1, year 101 (January 2006): 28.

  33. Patrícia Barta Mendes, Alex Landim, Cristiane Lüscher, Heloísa Zambianco, Jaqueline Herodek, Jefferson Paradello, Rosemeire Braga, Suellen Timm, Tales Tomaz and Guilherme Almeida, “EDESSA: festa dos ex-alunos” [EDESSA: alumni party], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1206, year 103 (December 2008): 25.

  34. Francis Matos, “Encontro de gerações” [Encounter of generations], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1262, year 108 (July 2013): 31.

  35. Moisés de Oliveira (executive secretary of AES), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA assistant editor), September 10, 2019.

  36. Ibid.

  37. Ibid.

  38. EDESSA, “História” [History], accessed on March 31, 2020, https://bit.ly/30fkxq6.

  39. “Breaking the Silence is an educational and prevention project against abuse and domestic violence promoted annually by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in eight countries of South America (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) since 2002.” Seventh-Day Adventist (Brazil) Church, “Quebrando o Silêncio” [Breaking the Silence], accessed on February 4, 2020, https://bit.ly/2WoDfIW.

  40. “The Hope Impact Project encourages reading and provides a huge annual distribution of books by Seventh-day Adventists in the territory of South America.” Seventh-day Adventist (Brazil) Website, “Impacto Esperança” [Hope Impact Project], accessed on February 4, 2020, https://bit.ly/34dZROO.

  41. Moisés de Oliveira (executive secretary of AES), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA assistant editor), September 10, 2019.

  42. Ibid.

  43. Moisés de Oliveira (executive secretary of AES), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA assistant editor), September 10, 2019; “Espirito Santo Academy,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2019), 521. For more information about EDESSA, see the school website https://edessa.educacaoadventista.org.br/, or on social networks - Facebook: @edessaOficial, Instagram: @ edessa.oficial, Twitter: @EdessaOficial and YouTube: Colégio Edessa Oficial [Official EDESSA Academy]

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Almeida, Caiky Xavier. "Espirito Santo Academy." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 05, 2022. Accessed November 29, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=8IYO.

Almeida, Caiky Xavier. "Espirito Santo Academy." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 05, 2022. Date of access November 29, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=8IYO.

Almeida, Caiky Xavier (2022, January 05). Espirito Santo Academy. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved November 29, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=8IYO.