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Arnold Reye

Photo courtesy of Lester Devine.

Reye, Arnold C. (1936–2016)

By Lester Devine

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Originally trained as a secondary history teacher, a career long Adventist educator, Lester Devine, Ed.D., has taught at elementary, secondary and higher education levels and spent more than three decades in elected educational leadership positions in two divisions of the world Church, NAD (1969-1982) and SPD (1982-2005). He completed his forty years of denominational service with a term as director of the Ellen G. White/Adventist Research Centre at Avondale University College in Australia where his life-long hobby of learning and presenting on Adventist heritage issues became his vocation. 

First Published: April 21, 2023

Arnold Reye was a long time Adventist educator in Australia. Of mostly German descent on his father’s side of the family, his paternal heritage also included a Samoan grandmother. Arnold was born in Western Samoa but spent most of his career working for the Church in Australia. From 1988 to 1996, he was the education director of the Trans-Tasman Union Conference (TTUC), the territory of which encompassed both the two conferences in New Zealand and another four in eastern and northern Australia.

Reye’s career spanned an era of radical change and significant growth in Adventist education in Australia. When Reye first became a teacher, the education profession generally was very formal, with “headmasters” in a hierarchical relationship with their teachers. There were few church schools, and those that existed played a minor part in the local conferences’ programs. During Reye’s lifetime, the number of Adventist church schools and their enrollment grew rapidly. The education system also became more collegial with headmasters becoming principals, the first among equals on their campuses. By the early 2000s, Adventist education in Australia and New Zealand was organized into a well-coordinated, self-administered system that had become the largest departmental ministry of the Church. Reye was a significant contributor to this massive cultural and professional development shift, and his career can only be properly understood through and informed appreciation of the changing denominational and education culture of the time.

Early Life and Education

Arnold was born in Western Samoa on June 25, 1936,1 where his father, Raimund Reye, was the superintendent of the church work in that mission. Because of his German heritage, Arnold’s father was interned on Somes Island in Wellington Harbor in New Zealand for nearly a year during World War II, while the rest of the family remained in Samoa.2 This separation was hard on the family and with Raimund Reye no longer employed, his family was essentially destitute. Arnold’s mother, Reubena Emily (Thompson) Reye and her children lived off their garden produce and the generosity of the Samoan people until, after some months, the family was repatriated to Auckland, New Zealand, where Reubena received Social Security benefits and found limited employment cleaning houses. In addition to her financial stress, Reubena was disappointed that church leaders made no attempt to get her husband released from detention on Somes Island.3

Upon Raimund Reye’s eventual release into the New Zealand community under stringent conditions, the family was reunited. Raimund procured employment as an office clerk at the Sanitarium Health Food Company in Christchurch, New Zealand.4 It was during this time that Arnold was baptized.5 At the conclusion of the war, the Church reemployed Raimund Reye to return to Samoa and there translate Ellen White’s book, Steps to Christ, into the Samoan language.6

These early experiences had two significant impacts on Arnold’s life. First, his early schooling was so disrupted that he was at a significant disadvantage7—as compared with his peers—when the family eventually moved to Western Australia where his father served as the principal of Western Australia Missionary College (Carmel), for fourteen years.8 The second influence on the young Arnold’s life was the development of a life-long commitment to social justice and due process as a consequence of what the family endured during World War II. To him, people were always more important than programs. Subsequently, it was always important to him that every administrative decision have a philosophical imperative driving it.

Marriage and Family

Arnold Reye married Mary Francis Martin on May 14, 1959, in Perth, Western Australia.9 A librarian by profession, Mary had her own successful career. Their union was blessed with a daughter, Rowena.10

Education

In his early years, Reye had no interest in becoming a teacher, but this changed as he matured. At the time, the Australasian Missionary College (Avondale) trained only primary/elementary teachers, and while the Church did operate some high schools, they were staffed by primary/elementary trained teachers or by secondary trained teachers who had qualified for the profession in secular institutions. Reye wanted to teach at the secondary level, and while Avondale was beginning to train secondary teachers, he wanted to do his teacher training close to his Western Australian home and his family, who was dealing with the recent death of his teenaged brother. As his parents had both been trained at Avondale, they were not enthusiastic about his choice of school. However, at some reputational cost to themselves, Reye’s parents supported his decision to enroll at the University of Western Australia in Perth, not far from the Carmel campus where he and his parents lived. In 1957 he completed his four-year Bachelor of Education degree (Honors) and also graduated the same year from Claremont Teachers College. In the Adventist culture of the time, young people just out of high school attending a secular university were frowned upon. Thus, it was no surprise that Arnold’s first three years of teaching experience were gained in the government education system of Western Australia.11 However, 1961 found him teaching at the Victoria Park Adventist School in Perth, Western Australia and in 1963 he completed his Bachelor of Arts degree, also at the University of Western Australia.12

Reye would later complete a Master of Education degree from Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and a doctorate from Andrews University.

Career Development

In 1965 Reye was the principal of the Wagga Wagga Adventist School in the State of New South Wales for one year. The next year at an unusually young age, Reye—although admittedly with two university degrees and one year of leadership experience—was appointed the principal of the recently established Lilydale Adventist Academy, a boarding secondary school near Melbourne, Victoria. There Reye remained until the end of 1971 when he became the principal of the Adventist High School at Hawthorn in Melbourne, Australia. In 1974 he was elected the director of education for the Victorian Conference, filling that position from mid-1974 to 1978. He was appointed in late 1978 to the Greater Sydney Conference as the principal of the largest secondary school the Church then operated in Australia or New Zealand, Sydney Adventist High School. Commonly known as Strathfield, Reye led the program there until the end of 1980 when he went on an Australasian Division (AUD)-sponsored study leave to Andrews University in Michigan to undertake a Ph.D. degree study program. During his years at Strathfield, Arnold had completed a Master of Education degree with Monash University in Melbourne, Australia.13

The Effect of the Glacier View Conference

This account would be incomplete without an understanding of the conditions in the Australasian Seventh-day Adventist Church in the early to mid-1980s generally, and for its preachers and teachers particularly. As already mentioned in the introductory paragraph, a reader cannot really begin to understand the impact of that time upon Arnold Reye, as well as his early life, without that background in mind.

The Glacier View Sanctuary Review meetings in Colorado, United States, in 1980 examined the views of Desmond Ford, the charismatic preacher and theologian from Australia. With his subsequent dismissal from denominational employment, divisions in the Church membership emerged, and so it was also among the preachers and teachers. Some conference administrations were very insistent on orthodox compliance within their workforce, others less so.14 While the attrition rate among pastors did increase during the post-Glacier View years, it should also be noted that it has always been quite common for young pastors and teachers to have relatively short careers in denominational service, with eighty percent of the teachers at the time having less than ten years of experience and only three percent of respondents to one survey having more than thirty.15 The pressures on pastors at the time increased along with the discouragement of some and a resultant decrease in morale as documented in two scholarly works, one of which reported that thirty-two percent of Adventist pastors left the ministry during their first five years of service.16 It should be noted, however, that when Adventist teachers and pastors of the era resigned, most did not provide a reason for that decision; thus, to assume that all did so for theological reasons is not reasonable.

These divisions also impacted the education workforce of the Church; however, although there was some overlap, there were distinct differences as well. Discussion17 with the teacher workforce, quickly made it clear that its concerns were less theological than focused instead on the principles of due process and social justice, with some believing that the dismissal of Ford from denominational employment was unfair. The educator mindset of the time was documented in a 1986 descriptive study18 and especially so in the large number of optional, and at times, rather direct comments provided by the survey respondents.19

There were also some structural challenges in the way the Church in Australasia operated its schools. They were all centrally controlled from the respective conference offices, which did all the budgeting for the schools, often with little or no consultation with them. There was centralized accounting at the conference offices for the schools, but with the pressure of work, typically the schools received only three or four financial statements annually. In essence, the Church in Australasia had conference schools, not church schools. With policy established by the then Australasian Division; with the hiring, promoting, and transferring of teachers done on behalf of the conferences by the Central Staffing Committee; and finances managed by the employing conferences, there was little left for the local church school boards to do.

While these management structures worked reasonably well for the small one or two teacher schools, the larger schools, especially the secondary schools that typically had strong minded principals, would object and demand more freedom to operate their respective programs. In the meantime, they spent what they felt they needed to, in spite of the budgetary considerations, the formation of which they had not really had any meaningful say. In some places this was perceived to be a challenge to the authority of the conference administration which was to be resisted, especially so in those fields were the school student numbers were rapidly growing. Some conferences believed their school systems were out of control and growing too quickly. Two acted to freeze the employment of any additional teachers until more pastors could be hired as it was considered important that ministers be in the majority on the conference payroll. This did not last long in either place; church-member parental condemnation was swift as both fields had already approved some primary/elementary schools, adding years seven to ten; a process which once started could not be stopped. In summary, preachers and teachers were in competition with each other instead of collaborating as they should have been.

Another issue was the Central Staffing Committee, which was originally established because the two union conference education department directors were in active competition with each other in seeking the best teacher graduates from Avondale or calling the most successful teachers from among each other’s fields at the annual hiring time. Additionally, the larger and geographically favored conferences had an advantage over the smaller and more remote fields, which found it harder to recruit teachers. Consequently, the Australasian Division director of education, Gerald Clifford, established the Central Staffing Committee (CSC) to coordinate the staffing of the schools in Australia and New Zealand in a more professional manner with the intent of establishing an even quality of service delivery across those two countries. Initially unpopular with almost everyone, educators and conferences alike, it did bring some semblance of order to the education ministry of the Church for twenty years until the early 2000s,20 while those impacted learned to be collaborative. By the late 1990s, the central staffing processes had been computerized. This enabled conference and union education directors to work from their offices rather than make the month-long annual trek to the SPD office. For the first time, school vacancies were advertised and teachers encouraged to apply for positions of interest to them. Thus, practice transitioned over time into the professional operation of today.

Another point of friction was the role of the local conference education directors. Whether they visited secondary schools depended largely on the union conference education director who traditionally came to the role from a secondary principalship. In some places the conference education director was a supervisor of instruction only. Parallel to that issue was the conflicting roles of the conference boards of education and conference executive committees. Usually, the boards of education had no executive authority and could only make recommendations to the conference executive committees. The trouble was that the education directors were not usually members of the conference executive committees, and it was by no means certain that there would be any executive committee members who were parents of children in Adventist schools, or who had taught in Adventist schools. One local conference always dealt with all education issues first on its executive committee, often a large part of the agenda, and then referred its decisions to the board of education for implementation.

Because of the above issues, during the early 1980s, the education ministry of the Church began calling for a separate but loyal structure where it could manage its own destiny. One descriptive survey respondent advocated such an educational structure with the following typical comment:

Dislocate it from conference control and Division wages schedule. It could be organized quite effectively along lines as the S.H.F (Sanitarium Health Food Company) Co; a separate organization with its own charter subject to the Division but controlled largely by professional teachers with district obligations, responsibilities and committees.21

Educational Reformer

It was into that turbulent arena that Arnold Reye returned to Australia from his doctoral studies at Andrews University in early 1984. Arnold’s previous three degrees had all been earned in secular institutions, but at Andrews University Arnold had caught a vision of the potential of Adventist education as a philosophically driven, soul-winning ministry; much more than the government required curriculum plus Bible and morning worship. Thus, he returned to denominational duty full of enthusiasm and very committed to seeing his vision for the future put into practice. His doctoral dissertation on Frederick Griggs22 reminded the scholarly community of the importance of the philosophy of Adventist education. His research paper, “Protestant Fundamentalism and the Adventist Church in the 1920s,” was a landmark study, which has benefitted the Church greatly down through the years.

Upon his return from study leave in 1984, Reye was hired by the Australasian Division (AUD; now South Pacific Division (SPD)) where he became the half-time curriculum development officer and half-time government liaison person. The latter role was necessary as the Australian States at the time each had their own K-12 curriculum that all schools— public, private, or parochial—were obligated to follow. Declining government funding did not protect church schools from this requirement23 as appeals based on religious rights went unheard by those State governments. Furthermore, while government funds had been accepted by the Church for capital development of schools, the Church refused to use those funds for operating expense. By the early 1980s, however, they could no longer afford to operate many of the schools. The Church now faced a philosophical dilemma as the Australian Commonwealth (Federal) government insisted that its funds, intended for operational support, be used for that purpose alone. Should the existing Australian Adventist schools, through lack of funding, continue to deteriorate and eventually die? Or should the Church accept monies which would pay around half the operating costs of its schools until such time as the government mandates or interference would require the schools to close? That discussion took most of 1983 and 1984 to resolve, and the decision was eventually made to accept government funds for operational purposes. While the Church accepted “recurrent funding,” it also insisted that the mandated government curriculum would be taught, as required, but only in harmony with the educational philosophy of the Church. A “Buffer Fund” was established whereby each conference was to accumulate the equivalent of two years of government recurrent funding to cushion the transition back to being entirely self-funded should government funding ever be lost.24

This is where Arnold Reye came to the fore. He represented the Church at meetings in Canberra (the Australian federal capital city), and was highly respected for his work there. In a few months, he cultivated a mindset with the Australian Commonwealth (federal government) which persists to this day. He was invited to join a major committee, the National Council of Independent Schools Australia (NCISA) in Canberra along with the Catholic Schools and the Association of Independent School systems. The Catholics represented ninety percent of the church school enrollment in Australia, and along with the Association of Independent Schools, they were constantly focused on increasing their government funding. Represented by Arnold Reye, the Adventists were different. Grateful for the funding provided, the priority of the Adventist Church was the preservation of its educational philosophy. The federal government respected that stance and in time came to see the advantage of taxpayer “parental choice” as a politically astute position in dealing with all three groups at election time and when under pressure from the teacher trade unions. Thus, Reye took some of the first steps in developing an effective relationship with the federal government which continues to work well to this day.

Reye faced other challenges in the Australasian Division as well. He was disappointed that the teacher morale problems within the teaching ministry, which had prevailed years earlier when he went on study leave, had not improved very much. While the schools were beginning to show the first signs of better collaboration with each other and between the two union conferences, the structural limitations mentioned earlier in this paper remained. Thus, he found his new role frustrating as he did his best to encourage those with whom he worked. During this time a prominent Adventist businessman, Lyn Knight, whom Reye knew well, approached him about leaving denominational employment to become editor of Knight’s new subscription magazine, Adventist Professional.25 Even though he was finding his new AUD role very challenging, Reye was not initially receptive to these overtures. However, his sense of justice and due process took offense when a friend, colleague, and successor principal at Strathfield had his employment terminated by the local conference just days before the new school year was to begin in early 1986. This event, the culmination of problems of some years standing that had not been properly addressed and unfortunately was now inherited by a new conference administration and executive committee, challenged Reye’s sense of fair play, and he made his objection well known.26 The need for Adventist education to be an independent, but loyal, adjunct to the mission of the Church and in charge of its own destiny, much like the Sanitarium Health Food Company, became even more apparent with this event. Until early 1987 Reye battled on until he overheard a comment in the hallway outside his ajar office door, made by a very senior denominational leader that, since Glacier View, the Church had dealt with its dissident pastors and it was now time to “start in on the teachers.” This was too much for Arnold Reye. Within fifteen minutes he had typed up his resignation and left it, with his office keys, on the desk of the division director of education, Gerald Clifford, who was not then in the room, and walked out of the office. Reye then went to work for Lyn Knight the next day as the editor of the Adventist Professional magazine.

Trans-Tasman Union Conference Education Director

Back in 1983, a new and left-wing national government with socialist overtones had been elected in Australia, one which was opposed to the existence of private and church schools. The new prime minister, Robert (Bob) J. Hawke wanted to change Australian society, using education to achieve that. This was all a great concern to the newly renamed South Pacific Division (SPD) leadership, and so, in late 1987 the SPD education office, under the leadership of Gerald Clifford, was enlarged to a staff of nine, effective with the beginning of the 1988 calendar year. The education liaison position became a fulltime role, and a Curriculum Development Unit was established, all financed with a levy on the recurrent Australian government funding with a similar arrangement made with the two New Zealand conferences. With the pending retirement of the SPD associate education director, Bill Irvine, the Trans-Tasman Union Conference (TTUC) education director27 was called into that position at the SPD. When considering who should fill the resultant TTUC vacancy, there was only one name to suggest: that of Arnold Reye. Although Reye got on well with Lyn Knight, he found working in a commercial environment challenging. He was also still obligated for some years of denominational service to amortize the bond on his Andrews University doctoral study leave. Consequently, Reye happily returned to denominational employment at the beginning of 1988.

The TTUC director of education position was a good fit for Reye, and his return was welcomed by the teaching ministry workforce. However, the world was changing and so was the Church. The two union conferences in the SPD tended to compete with each other. They also, at times, acted rather independently of the SPD. When Reye returned to denominational service, he found the education system leadership more collaborative, working better together at the different levels, and more of an inclusive team led by Gerald Clifford, than had previously been the case. This new reality was a significant challenge to Reye’s complex, competitive, and at times strong personality; but, to his credit, over time he was able to adjust to the new way of doing things. Reye worked with the two New Zealand conferences in his TTUC territory to qualify for “Integration,” a government program in New Zealand, in which schools who demonstrate a “Special Character” would be funded and periodically assessed to ensure that their special character was being maintained. The end result was a government mandate these Adventist schools maintain their unique denominational philosophy of operation. Also, during those years Reye invited the New South Wales (NSW) State government education authorities to participate in the Adventist schools’ self-study and accreditation process. Impressed with that program, the NSW Board of Studies in time, allowed the Adventist schools in NSW to operate their program independently without oversight by government, a considerable achievement.28

Reye also worked well with John Waters, his counterpart in the Trans-Australian Union Conference (TAUC). In the early 1990s, Waters visited Papua New Guinea to help with school accreditations there and attended a meeting of the Inter-Union Mission Board of Education held at Pacific Adventist College (now Pacific Adventist University) where the three union missions of SPD discussed their joint issues. Waters saw a real benefit if a similar body could be established for the union conference education systems in Australia and New Zealand. Reye agreed, and although the SPD administrative leadership was initially reluctant, it did eventually approve a two-year trial of the concept. Due to the successful effort of Waters and Reye, the Inter-Union Conference Board of Education soon became permanent. When the Church in Australia was restructured at the beginning of the 2000s with just one union conference instead of the former two, everything was already structurally in place for the Adventist education in that country. The only unresolved issue was where the new Australian Union Conference (AUC) office would be located. When the decision was made to locate the union office in Melbourne, the education ministry accepted the decision, although it would have preferred, from an efficiency, cost, and travel time perspective, to remain in Sydney as a third of the total student enrollment in Australia in those days was between Sydney and the one hundred kilometers north to Newcastle.29

Reye continued as the director of education at the Trans-Tasman Union Conference until the end of 1996, when “sensing that at his age there were no new challenges on the horizon that would suit his temperament,” he decided to retire.30 In 1997 the SPD education office mounted Education Summit One, a strategic planning session. The agenda was simply nine propositions the delegates present would discuss. The first of these was that Adventist education was more than just a service to the parents of the Church, who wished to use its services, but instead was a soul-winning evangelistic ministry. A delegate although retired, Reye made an important contribution in refining the wording of that first proposition without which the recommendation may have never been approved. Initially expected to take thirty minutes or so to discuss, a strongly debated discussion went on for a day and half before it was finally approved by a slender majority of the forty-six delegates present.

Summits two and three soon followed as the new direction for the education system was put in place, and the changes determined published in a 30+ page SPD document, Toward 2000, which was the five-year implementation plan, annually updated with completed items deleted and new goals and objectives added with each revision.

The entire strategic planning process led to the old and ineffective boards of education replacement by new boards of management for each conference and mission. Under this framework each school was to decide how many teachers it needed and how to pay for them. Each school became responsible for staffing decisions, developing its own budget, and managing profit gains and losses. The entire process was to be supervised by the AUC education department. Although retired, Reye was present at the meetings in which these changes were made and was delighted to see the implementation of his lifelong ambition. The results of these changes led to enrollment doubling over a decade and in some conferences the largest percentage of baptisms generated by their schools.

Demise

Arnold Reye’s first retirement was relatively short as in 1998 he was called back into service as the principal of Brisbane Adventist College, a secondary school, for two years concluding at the end of 1999.31 After that he kept himself busy, rewriting the Australian Education Handbook and serving on the Board of Management as a director of Seventh-day Adventist Schools (Queensland). In 2015 the Australian Union Conference education department bestowed its Education Medal upon Reye.32 By this time, he was in a struggle with cancer, and he went to his rest on December 7, 2016.33

Contribution

Arnold Reye served at all levels of K-12 education in the Adventist Church in the South Pacific and played a pivotal role in helping enable the significant changes being made to Adventist education during his later years, pursuing all the while his life-long commitment to excellence in all things. His personal integrity, which led him to leave denominational employ for a time, was not understood by all, but it did put on record his personal and courageous sense of justice as he humbly served his Lord.

Sources

Ballis, Peter H. Leaving the Adventist Ministry. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

Ballis, Peter H. “Leaving the Adventist Ministry. A Study the Social Processes of Exit.” Ph.D. diss., La Trobe University, 1995,

Devine, Lester D. “Beliefs, Perceptions and Practices of Seventh-day Adventist Educators in Australia and New Zealand.” EdD diss., Loma Linda University, 1986.

Gane, A. Barry. “Adventist Professional.” Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists, 2020.

Hook, Milton. Desmond Ford, Reformist Theologian, Gospel Revivalist, Riverside, CA: Adventist Today Foundation, 2008.

Hook, Milton. “Raimund Reye.” Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists, 2020.

Personal Service Record for Arnold Colin Reye. Archives, South Pacific Division of the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Reye, Arnold C. “Frederick Griggs: Seventh-day Adventist Educator and Administrator.” PhD diss., Andrews University, 1984.

Queensland, Australia. Death Certificates. Queensland Government.

Notes

  1. Personal Service Record for Arnold Colin Reye, Archives, South Pacific Division of the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, 1.

  2. Arnold C. Reye, unpublished autobiography, supplied by daughter, Rowena Richardson.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Ibid., 2.

  5. Personal Service Record for Arnold Colin Reye, Archives, South Pacific Division of the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, 1.

  6. Milton Hook, “Raimund Reye,” Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists, 2020.

  7. Arnold C. Reye, unpublished autobiography, supplied to author by daughter, Rowena Richardson.

  8. Ibid., 2

  9. Personal Service Record for Arnold Colin Reye, Archives, South Pacific Division of the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, 1.

  10. Ibid.

  11. Arnold C. Reye unpublished autobiography, supplied by daughter, Rowena Richardson.

  12. Australian Union Conference Education Medal Citation, Awarded to A. C. Reye, September 6, 2005.

  13. Ibid.

  14. Milton Hook, Desmond Ford, Reformist Theologian, Gospel Revivalist (Riverside, CA: Adventist Today Foundation, 2008), 297.

  15. Lester D. Devine, “Beliefs, Perceptions and Practices of Seventh-day Adventist Educators in Australia and New Zealand” (EdD diss., Loma Linda University, 1986), 89.

  16. Peter H. Ballis, “Leaving the Adventist Ministry. A Study the Social Processes of Exit” (Ph.D. diss., La Trobe University, 1995), 78; Peter H. Ballis, Leaving the Adventist Ministry (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999).

  17. L. D. Devine, personal knowledge, director of education, Trans-Tasman Union Conference, 1982-1987.

  18. Lester D. Devine, “Beliefs, Perceptions and Practices of Seventh-day Adventist Educators in Australia and New Zealand” (EdD diss., Loma Linda University, 1986), Appendix B, 201-284.

  19. Ibid.

  20. Ibid., 100.

  21. Ibid., 236.

  22. Arnold C. Reye, “Frederick Griggs: Seventh-day Adventist Educator and Administrator” (Ph.D. diss., Andrews University, 1984).

  23. Three non-Adventist Protestant schools, one in Sydney and two in Melbourne, were forcibly closed by the respective State governments because they were using a popular American Christian school curriculum during this era.

  24. L. D. Devine, personal knowledge, director of education, Trans-Tasman Union Conference, 1982-1987.

  25. A. Barry Gane, “Adventist Professional,” Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists, 2020

  26. Arnold C. Reye, unpublished autobiography, supplied by daughter, Rowena Richardson.

  27. L. D. Devine, personal knowledge, director of education, Trans-Tasman Union Conference, 1982-1987.

  28. L. D. Devine, personal knowledge, associate director of education, South Pacific Division, 1988-1989.

  29. L. D. Devine, personal knowledge, director of education, South Pacific Division, 1990-2000.

  30. Arnold C. Reye, unpublished autobiography, supplied by daughter, Rowena Richardson.

  31. Australian Union Conference Education Medal Citation. Awarded to A. C. Reye, September 6, 2005.

  32. Ibid.

  33. Queensland, Australia, Death Certificate No. 2016, 29, 206, Arnold C. Reye, Queensland Government.

×

Devine, Lester. "Reye, Arnold C. (1936–2016)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 21, 2023. Accessed May 24, 2024. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9IJD.

Devine, Lester. "Reye, Arnold C. (1936–2016)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 21, 2023. Date of access May 24, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9IJD.

Devine, Lester (2023, April 21). Reye, Arnold C. (1936–2016). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 24, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9IJD.