Edward and Ida Hilliard.

Photo courtesy of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives.

Hilliard, Edward (1851–1936) and Ida Louisa (Fleming) (1857–1945)

By Shirley Tarburton

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Shirley Tarburton, M.Litt. (Distinction) (University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia) retired in 2008 after 40 years teaching church-school (mainly high school but including eight years at university). An Australian, she has taught in four mission fields, Australia, and New Zealand. She has authored five books and co-authored one on church history, biography and family history, as well as several magazine articles. She is married to Dr. Michael Tarburton with two adult children and four grandchildren.

 

First Published: January 29, 2020

Edward Hilliard was a pioneer Seventh-day Adventist missionary to the South Pacific region, who spent eighteen years in Tonga and Australia.1

Birth and Early Life

Edward A. Hilliard was born April 3, 1851, in Madrid, St. Lawrence County, New York, in the United States of America.2 He was the fifth of ten children born to Aaron Henderson Hilliard (1820-18753) and his wife, Lydia Ann Meyers (1825-1883.)4 Their other children included Sidney E. (1847-1901), Cynthia (1847-1901), Layman (1850-died young), Seymour (1850-1921), Sarah Teresa (1853-1926), Aurilla (1857-1857), Orilla Phebe (1858-1904), Amy Jane (1858-1943), and Emma (1859-died young).5

Hilliard’s early years were spent in the rural community of Buck’s Bridge near a number of other family members. In 1852, his parents became Sabbath-keeping Adventists and shared their new faith with other family members.6 His paternal grandmother was the sister of John Byington (later the first president of the Seventh-day Adventist General Conference). Byington became a Sabbath-keeper in 1852, (keeping his first Sabbath on March 20, 18527) as the result of Aaron Hilliard sharing copies of the Review and Herald with him.8 The following year, the first church school run by Sabbatarian Adventists (the name Seventh-day Adventist had not yet been adopted) opened in the Hilliards’ home, taught by Aaron Hilliard’s cousin, Martha Byington.9 The Buck’s Bridge Seventh-day Adventist church, thought to be the first building in the world built as an Adventist church, was affectionately called the “Red Church” and loomed large in Edward Hilliard’s childhood memories.10

When Edward Hilliard was eight years old, his father, who was a lay-preacher, moved their family to a farm in Otsego, Michigan, twenty-five miles (40 kilometers) from Battle Creek, Michigan.11 His parents had formed a friendship with Ellen and James White, and the Hilliard family stayed with them overnight in Battle Creek on their way.12 Subsequently, the Whites often stayed with the Hilliards, and it was on one of these visits on June 5, 1863, when Edward Hilliard was twelve, that Ellen White “received a vision known as the comprehensive health reform vision.”13 He also had vivid memories of another time about two years later when Ellen White experienced a vision in his parents’ home while they were closing the Sabbath with worship.14

Edward Hilliard’s parents were both dedicated Christians and he was raised in a spiritual atmosphere. His father became the leader of the Sabbath-keepers in Otsego, was a charter member of the church when it was organized in 1861, and served as head elder for the rest of his life.15 This environment fostered in Hilliard a love of Bible study and a strong faith in God which led him to dedicate his life to service for the Lord.16

Career

For a number of years, Hilliard worked with his father on their farm. Sometime in his twenties, possibly after his father’s death in 1875, he spent a year as the assistant and travelling companion of the blind Adventist evangelist, Wolcott Littlejohn,17 as he travelled the country holding revival meetings.18 It was an experience that made a deep impression on him.19

Hilliard was baptized in 1882 at Battle Creek by Elder Isaac Van Horn20 following a weekend of fasting and prayer at the end of November.21 At the annual session of the Minnesota Conference held during the Minneapolis camp meeting in June 1883, Hilliard received a colporteur’s license and commenced what was to be fifty-three years of working for the Adventist Church.22 The first book he sold was Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation.23 During the next five years, this remained one of his favorite books to sell although he also sold others.24

In the Review and Herald of September 2, 1884, there appeared an article written by Edward Hilliard on “The Importance of Bible Study.”25 This was the first of approximately three hundred articles written by him that were published in various Adventist periodicals over the next fifty-two years, commonly appearing every couple of months until his last article, “Self-denial the First Essential in Soul-winning,” was published two months after his death.26

Marriage and Family

On November 6, 1888, Hilliard married Ida Louisa Fleming in St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota.27 Ida Fleming was born May 10, 1857, in Mayville, Dodge County, Wisconsin, and was the eldest of the ten children of the family of Albert and Priscilla Moon Fleming (1835-1909, 1837-1920).28 Ida Fleming’s brothers and sisters were Calvin Albert (1858-1948), David Edward (1860-1929), Charles Adelbert (1863-1940), Julia Maranda (1865-1865), Lester Eugene (1866-1954), Hattie Mae (1868-1955), Walter (1869-1943), Ellsworth (1875-1936), unnamed (1877-1877), Byron Clark (1878-1879), and Minnie Mabel (1881-1980).29

When she was just a year old, her family moved to a farm near Garden City, about forty-five miles south west of Minneapolis, and here she spent her childhood.30 She trained as a teacher and was teaching school near her home when she joined the Adventist church.31 She added “Bible work” to her teaching, and in the course of her ministry, met Edward Hilliard, who was similarly engaged.32

Following their marriage, they both worked as Bible workers in Minnesota for a time. They also worked in Chicago, Illinois, and New Orleans, Louisiana.33

After five years of marriage, their only child, Alta May (married Herbert Christensen, 1893-1971)34 was born on February 10, 1893, in Duluth, Minnesota.35

Ordination and Service Overseas

Four months after his daughter’s birth, at the summer camp-meeting in Minneapolis, Hilliard was ordained to the gospel ministry.36 Two years later, the family was chosen by the Foreign Mission Board37 to join the Pitcairn’s fourth missionary trip into the South Pacific.38

They sailed from San Francisco on May 1, 1895, and reached Pitcairn Island, the first port of call, after thirty-six days. From there, they headed for Tahiti, visiting several islands in the group, then to the Cook Islands, and on to Tonga.39 The Hilliards had no knowledge of where they were to minister until Friday, August 30.40 On arrival off Nukualofa, Tongatabu, the Hilliards were informed this was their destination and they were only given an hour or two to gather their belongings and disembark before the Pitcairn left the port.41

Tonga

There were several traders and other businessmen from New Zealand living there with their families, and the Hilliards were able to obtain temporary accommodation. A “welcome to Nukualofa” gift of a joint of beef from one of the traders was diplomatically gifted to some Tongan neighbors and was reciprocated with a much-appreciated gift of a large yam.42

At the end of September,43 they were pleased to be able to move into a four-room cottage. In an endeavor to find a way to share the gospel while they were trying to learn the language, they decided that Ida Hilliard would draw on her experience of school-teaching and commence a school in their home for the traders’ children.44 Although a number promised to send their children, when the school opened on November 4, all except one had been enticed to send their children to a rival school that opened on the same day in a neighboring house. A second child attended the next day45 and the numbers gradually grew until twenty-eight children were attending a year later.46

As a result of the school, the Hilliards were asked to take one of the Tongan pupils into their home to facilitate his learning to speak English. This enabled them to learn Tongan, which they were finding difficult.47 Edward Hilliard, needing to find a way to earn some more income, engaged in carpentry and the money earned helped him to erect a simple school building that could accommodate more students.48 This school persisted49 and became the forerunner of Beulah College.50

Twelve months after their arrival, the Hilliards were joined by Edwin and Florence Butz, who conducted medical work,51 and Sarah and Maria Young from Pitcairn, who provided great help.52 Then in September 1897, Dr. Merritt Kellogg and his wife, Eleanor, further augmented the missionary group.53 They were encouraged by the interest and attendance of the townspeople at Sabbath meetings, but found it fluctuated greatly.54 The school enjoyed heightened prestige when the Tongan king, George Tupou II, enrolled three of his nephews. As the school grew, Florence Butz became the second teacher.55

The Kingdom of Tonga was comprised of 170 islands spread in three general groups, but there was limited opportunity for the missionaries to expand their work beyond Tongatapu. While the Pitcairn was still in Tongan waters, Captain Graham took the Hilliards and Butzes 105 miles (170 kilometers) northward to the island of Haapai where they called at a trading station owned by William and Alice Palmer. They were welcomed and invited to stay the night. Edwin Butz sold them some books and offered to hold a gospel meeting. The neighbors were invited, filling the room and Hilliard presented to them the prophecy of Daniel 2, illustrating it with striking charts. This contact eventually resulted in the Palmer family’s conversion56 and William Palmer’s baptism in March 1900.57

Australia

By the time Hilliard learned of the extent of the fruit of his labor in Tonga, he was no longer living there. In July 1899, he attended the Australian Union Conference (AUC) meetings at Avondale, New South Wales (NSW).58 While there it was decided, in consultation between Elders E. H. Gates (superintendent of the South Sea Island work under the auspices of the General Conference), G. A. Irwin, W. C. White and A. G. Daniells that, due to Ida Hilliard’s deteriorating health,59 the Hilliards should work for a time in Australia.60

Upon his return to Tonga, the Hilliards packed their possessions and were able to leave on the Manapouri on September 24, 1899. They arrived in Sydney on October 13 after visiting Adventist mission stations in Samoa and Fiji.61 The next two months were spent enjoying the association of other church members in the Avondale area where Ellen G. White lived and the new Adventist college was situated, and attending a camp meeting in Maitland,62 about twenty-eight miles (45 kilometers) further north. During this time, Edward Hilliard also translated some tracts into Tongan,63 providing resources for the work in Tonga.

Hilliard was appointed to superintend the newly created Tasmanian Mission,64 so on December 21, 1899, he and his family left for Tasmania.65 They took up residence in the northern city of Launceston, whereas the main focus of the Adventist work had previously been in the south, around Hobart.66

In February 1901, the Tasmanian Mission was organized into a Conference and Hilliard became the first president.67 Ida Hilliard was appointed secretary-treasurer of the Tract Society.68 Edward Hilliard and Calvin Parker, who was the secretary of the conference,69 were the only two ordained Adventist ministers in the Tasmanian Conference. Consequently, they frequently traveled around the island visiting, preaching, and conducting evangelistic meetings.70 As a result, their wives carried heavy responsibility at the office, (with the help of the honorary conference secretary, H. Thomas Howse, located in Hobart71) also conducting Bible studies and teaching Sabbath School.72

At first, the office was run from Invermay, the house where the Hilliards and Parkers were living,73 at 198 George Street, Launceston,74 and health foods were also sold there.75 In about September 1902, the office and shop were moved to 131 St. John Street, giving Launceston its first official Adventist premises.76 This was followed by the building of a church with a school room in Percy Street in February 1903.77 Alta Hilliard became one of the charter pupils of the school which opened in March 1904.78

During the time that Edward Hilliard spent in Tasmania, there was considerable growth of the church, particularly in the northern part of the state, with the construction of several church buildings. He and Paker also raised up the Glen Huon church79 and companies in several other towns.80 At the time the conference was established, there were 155 members81 and when the Hilliards left, there were 263.82

At the Union Conference Council in August 1904, the Hilliards were transferred to Victoria for evangelism, arriving there on November 11, 1904.83 Over the next twelve months, Hilliard ran evangelistic meetings in Warragul, Drouin, Bunyip, and Longwarry, assisted by George Stewart84 and they raised up a church at Drouin.85

In November 1905, the Hilliards left Victoria for Western Australia86 where they were to work for the next eight years.87 At the West Australian Conference session in March 1906, Hilliard was elected vice president of the conference with L. V. Finster as the president.88

Hilliard began his preaching in Perth,89 then visited Northam,90 before spending several months in evangelism in Bunbury.91 While there, Alta Hilliard turned fourteen and made her debut as a colporteur, successfully selling the book Christ Our Saviour from door to door.92 Ida Hilliard engaged in visitation and conducted a number of Bible studies, as she did wherever their ministry took them.93 Busselton94 and Leederville were their places of evangelism in 1907,95 leading to an initial baptism of fourteen.96 At the same time, Edward and Ida Hilliard were also conducting Bible studies in other suburbs of Perth.97

In mid-1908, the Hilliards moved to Kalgoorlie in the gold fields after Edward Hilliard had spent some time visiting more distant believers in isolated areas north of Perth.98 Alta, now a young lady, attended the Adventist boarding college at Carmel in the Darling Range.99 After moderate success amongst the miners in Kalgoorlie,100 the Hilliards returned to the Perth suburb of Subiaco early in 1909.101 The interest in and around this area kept them busy for the rest of the year and most of 1910.102 The port suburb of Fremantle was the location for Hilliard’s next series of evangelistic meetings, which ran until mid-1911 with a “fair degree of success.”103

This was followed by work in rural areas once again, with meetings being held in Pinjarra104 and then Harvey.105 At the camp meeting early in 1912, Hilliard was replaced as conference vice president.106 Their work in Harvey aroused prolonged interest with twelve baptisms taking place in 1912,107 and the construction of a church building in the town.108 At the 1913 camp meeting in March, Hilliard and the new vice president, Pastor Michaels, jointly baptized another forty-four people.109

Return to the United States

Meanwhile, Ida Hilliard’s mother, Priscilla Fleming, in the United States had been suffering deteriorating health. She was now a seventy-five-year-old widow and wanted her eldest daughter back home.110 The HIlliards had been away for eighteen years, so decided it was time to return to the United States.111 However, Edward Hilliard was loath to leave until the Harvey church was dedicated.112 Pastor R. Hare, visiting from the AUC, accompanied the Hilliards to Harvey where the church was dedicated on April 5 and 6, and a farewell was held for the family.113 Three days later, the Hilliards embarked at Fremantle, and were waved on their way by many friends who had gathered at the wharf.114

Upon arrival in the United States, the Hilliards decided to remain in California, keeping Priscilla Fleming with them until the following year so that she could avoid the winter conditions of her home in Minnesota.115 Edward Hilliard was now 62 and needed employment. He returned to selling church literature from door-to-door.116 In 1914, he was employed by the church to work in the Minneapolis area, closer to Priscilla Fleming’s home.117 His work was varied and included preaching,118 visiting isolated groups of church members,119 conducting the ordinances of the Lord’s House,120 taking Week of Prayer meetings,121 funerals,122 and running tent evangelism.123

Retirement

In 1919, at age 68, Hilliard’s ministerial credentials were changed from active to “honorary.”124 However, retirement was not in his plan, so he continued ministering in Montevideo, Minnesota, where he had commenced working in August of that year.125 Priscilla Fleming’s failing health demanded more and more of Ida Hilliard’s time,126 until she passed away at the end of January 1920.127 Edward Hilliard then felt able to accept a position further away, so at the end of 1920, he accepted an invitation to become the chaplain at the Adventist Sanitarium in Florida.128 Shortly thereafter, his older brother suffered a serious accident at Otsego, Michigan, and called Hilliard to come and see him.129 His brother bequeathed the original key to the old “Red Church,” the first Adventist church building to Edward Hilliard.130 Thus, delayed for a month until his brother’s death, the Florida appointment was not taken up and the Hilliards moved to Chisholm, Minnesota,131 continuing their ministry in various towns in Minnesota.132

After attending the 1922 General Conference session, the Hilliards moved to South Dakota where Edward Hilliard became the chaplain of the Chamberlain Sanitarium.133 From Chamberlain they moved to Huron in July 1924134 and pastored there for almost four years.135

Final Years and Death

Early in 1928, the Hilliards once again left their homeland for foreign shores. On March 22, they sailed from New York for India,136 via London and the Suez Canal.137 They had decided to accompany Alta and her husband, Elder Herbert Christensen, who had accepted the responsibility of superintendent of the South India Union Mission in Bangalore.138 They lived together in the Bangalore Adventist mission compound and both Edward and Ida Hilliard participated in church life and engaged in missionary work as long as they were able.139 Edward Hilliard also continued writing for the church papers.140

At the beginning of 1933, the Christensens were transferred to Colombo, Ceylon141 (now Sri Lanka), but the Hilliards remained in Bangalore helping to run the church there even though he was now eighty-two.142 In September 1935, Alta Christiansen returned to Bangalore to spend a few weeks with her parents and reported that they were “enjoying better health than they did eight years ago, and are still actively assisting in mission work.”143

A year later, the situation had changed. Due to “an unprecedentedly hot summer . . . Elder Hilliard’s health is causing some anxiety, and earnest prayers are solicited for the recovery of this aged servant of the Master.”144 He had suffered strokes in April and June and now his heart was weakening.145 Word was sent to Alta Christiansen who was in the United States on furlough after attending the General Conference session with her husband;146 however, after a further stroke on September 6, Hilliard passed away in Bangalore on September 18, 1936.147 He was buried in the Adventist burial ground on the campus of the Krishnarajapuram Training School (now Lowry Memorial Junior College).148

Ida Hilliard suffered severe shock at her husband’s death149 and Alta Christiansen sailed from the United States to support her as soon as she was able.150 Her husband followed151 and at the Southern Asia Division council in January 1937, Herbert Christiansen was elected to superintend the Western India Union Mission.152 Ida Hilliard went with them to their new appointment in Poona (Pune) shortly afterwards.153 In November 1938, she returned with them to the United States154 to live in Wisconsin.155 Ida Hilliard spent her last five years as an invalid, back in her childhood home of Minnesota. She died on July 8, 1945, at Mankato, Minnesota, and was buried at Garden City.156

The Hilliards’s pioneering mission work is remembered with gratitude in the South Pacific Division and their name lives on in the Hilliard Memorial Adventist School in Vavau, Tonga,157 and the Hilliard Christian School in Hobart, Tasmania.158

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Notes

  1. Alta M. Christensen, “Elder E. Hilliard obituary,” ARH, December 24, 1936, 21-22.

  2. Ibid.

  3. George I. Butler, “Aaron H. Hilliard obituary,” ARH, September 2, 1875, 71.

  4. H. M. Kenyon, “Lydia Ann Hilliard obituary,” ARH, September 25, 1883, 622.

  5. Hilliard Family Tree, FamilySearch, accessed November 12, 2019

    https://www.familysearch.org/tree/pedigree/landscape/279W-SNL.

  6. “Receipts,” ARH, June 10, 1852, 24; Ellen G. White Letters and Manuscripts, 845.1-2, accessed November 13, 2019, https://egwwritings.org/?ref=en_Ms6-1859¶=2822.42.

  7. Martha D. Amadon, “Cherishing the Advent Hope,” ARH, April 25, 1935, 1.

  8. Denis Fortin and Jerry Moon, eds., “Hilliard, Aaron Henderson,” The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2013), 410-11.

  9. Ibid.

  10. E. Hilliard, “Elder E. Hilliard...,” ARH, December 27, 1928, 24.

  11. George I. Butler, “Aaron H. Hilliard obituary,” ARH, September 2, 1875, 71.

  12. E. G. White Diary, Manuscript 6, April 19 and 20, 1859.20-21, accessed November 13, 2019. https://egwwritings.org/?ref=en_Ms6-1859¶=2822.42

  13. Denis Fortin and Jerry Moon, eds., “Shaping the Church and Its Mission (1863-1881),” The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2013), 41; Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  14. E. Hilliard, “The Reminiscence of Early Days,” ARH, December 15, 1932, 8-9.

  15. “Hilliard, Aaron Henderson,” from Ellen G. White Letters and Manuscripts 845.2 accessed November 13, 2019. https://egwwritings.org/?ref=en_Ms6-1859¶=2822.42 ; John Byington, “Michigan, Otsego,” ARH, August 2, 1881, 92.

  16. Alta M. Christensen, “Elder E. Hilliard obituary,” ARH, December 24, 1936, 21-22.

  17. Ibid.

  18. Denis Fortin & Jerry Moon, eds., “Littlejohn, Wolcott Hackley,” The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia, (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2013), 455.

  19. Alta M. Christensen, “Elder E. Hilliard obituary,” ARH, December 24, 1936, 21-22.

  20. Ibid.

  21. C. W. Stone, “The Fast at Battle Creek,” ARH, December 12, 1882, 784.

  22. “Minutes of the Minnesota Conference,” ARH, July 10, 1883, 445.

  23. W. B. White and E. Hilliard, “Report of Canvassing,” ARH, August 14, 1883, 518.

  24. Alta M. Christensen, “Elder E. Hilliard,” ARH, December 24, 1936, 21-22.

  25. E. Hilliard, “The Importance of Bible Study,” ARH, September 2, 1884, 564.

  26. E. Hilliard, “Self-denial the First Essential in Soul-Winning,” Australasian Record, October 22, 1936, 7.

  27. Minnesota Marriage License, No. 489 (1888), Hilliard-Fleming, FamilySearch, accessed November 14, 2019, https://familysearch.org.

  28. Hilliard Family Tree, Ancestry Family Search,

    https://www.familysearch.org/tree/pedigree/landscape/279W-SNL accessed November 12, 2019.

  29. Ibid.

  30. C. S. Wiest, “Ida Fleming Hilliard,” ARH,” August 23, 1945, 20.

  31. Ibid.

  32. Ibid.

  33. Alta M. Christensen, “Elder E. Hilliard,” ARH, December 24, 1936, 21-22.

  34. “Alta Hilliard Christensen obituary,” ARH, April 1, 1971, 30.

  35. Ibid.

  36. G. C. Tenney, “The Camp-meeting at Minneapolis, Minn.,” ARH, July 4, 1893, 426.

  37. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  38. “Items of Interest,” ARH, April 30, 1895, 286.

  39. Pitcairn (schooner),” Wikipedia, accessed November 15, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitcairn_(schooner)

  40. E. A. Hilliard, “The Friendly Islands,” Australasian Record, July 24, 1899, 1.

  41. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  42. Ibid.

  43. E. Hilliard, “Our Tongan School,” Review and Herald, July 20, 1897, 458.

  44. E. A. Hilliard, “The Friendly Islands,” Australasian Record, July 24, 1899, 1.

  45. E. Hilliard, “Our Tongan School,” ARH, July 20, 1897, 458.

  46. E. A. Hilliard, “The Friendly Islands,” Australasian Record, July 24, 1899, 1.

  47. Ibid.

  48. Ibid.

  49. M. Ferguson, “An Official Inspection of Our Tongan School,” Australasian Record, February 12, 1923, 4-5.

  50. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  51. E. A. Hilliard, “The Friendly Islands,” Australasian Record, July 24, 1899, 1.

  52. Pitcairn (schooner),” Wikipedia, accessed November 15, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitcairn_(schooner)

  53. Ibid.

  54. E. Hilliard, “From a private letter...,” ARH, June 14, 1898, 11.

  55. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  56. C. S. Palmer, Tales of Tonga, (Nashville, Tennessee: Southern Publishing Association, 1959), 10-17.

  57. J. R. Lee, “Crown Jewel or Cinderella’s Rags?” Australasian Record, October 4, 1976, 8.

  58. “Australasian Union Conference,” Australasian Record, July 31, 1899, 1.

  59. W. W. Palmer, “Tonga,” Australasian Record, September 7, 1908, 19-20.

  60. George A. Irwin, “My Visit to Australia,” ARH, October 24, 1899, 687; E. Hilliard, “From Tongatabu to Sydney,” Australasian Record, November 1, 1899, 13.

  61. E. Hilliard, Ibid.

  62. “Pastor Hilliard and party...,” Australasian Record, November 1, 1899, 15.

  63. A. G. Daniels, “To Our People in Tasmania,” Australasian Record, January 1, 1900, 13.

  64. Ibid.

  65. “Brother and Sister Hilliard,” Australasian Record, January 1, 1900, 15.

  66. Albert Anderson, “Hobart Convention,” The Bible Echo, 21 May, 1900, 335.

  67. “Our work in...,” The Bible Echo, February 18, 1901, 128.

  68. E. W. Farnsworth, E. M. Graham, “Organisation of the Tasmanian Conference,” Australasian Record, April 1, 1901, 13.

  69. Ibid.

  70. E. Hilliard, “Tasmania,” Australasian Record, July 1, 1901, 13.

  71. E. W. Farnsworth, E. M. Graham, “Organisation of the Tasmanian Conference,” Australasian Record, April 1, 1901, 13.

  72. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  73. “At the convention...,” Australasian Record, August 1, 1900, 14.

  74. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  75. E. Hilliard, “‘Christ’s Object Lessons’ in Tasmania,” Australasian Record, June 15, 1902, 5-6.

  76. E. Hilliard, “The Work in Tasmania,” Australasian Record, October 15, 1902, 4-5.

  77. E. Hilliard, “Notes from Tasmania.” Australasian Record, March 1, 1903, 8.

  78. M. Ella Boyd, “Launceston Church School,” Australasian Record, September 15, 1904, 3; Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  79. E. Hilliard, “Tasmania,” Australasian Record, July 1, 1901, 13.

  80. E. Hilliard, “Biennial Report of the Tasmanian Conference from 1901-1903,” September 11, 1903, 10-11.

  81. E. W. Farnsworth, E. M. Graham, “Organisation of the Tasmanian Conference,” Australasian Record, April 1, 1901, 13.

  82. Mrs. E. Hilliard, “Sabbath School Quarterly Reports, Tasmania,” Australasian Record, February 1, 1905, 6.

  83. “Pastor E. Hilliard and family...,” Australasian Record, December 1, 1904, 7.

  84. George Stewart, E. Hilliard, “The Work in Gippsland,” Australasian Record, October 1, 1905, 3.

  85. “Pastor Hilliard and wife...,” Australasian Record, December 1, 1905, 7.

  86. Ibid.

  87. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  88. “West Australian Conference,” Australasian Record, April 30, 1906, 5-6.

  89. “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, June 25, 1906, 7.

  90. E. Hilliard, “West Australia,” Australasian Record, August 6, 1906, 5.

  91. “A tent mission...,” Australasian Record, December 31, 1906, 7.

  92. “In reference to...,” Australasian Record, January 21, 1907, 7.

  93. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  94. L. V. Finster, “West Australia,” Australasian Record, March 11, 1907, 6.

  95. E. Hilliard, “Leederville, West Australia,” Australasian Record, August 19, 1907, 5.

  96. A. H. Piper, “Further Report of the West Australian Camp-Meeting,” Australasian Record, April 27, 1908, 4.

  97. E. Hilliard, “West Australia,” Australasian Record, May 25, 1908, 3-4.

  98. Ibid; “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, June 22, 1908, 7.

  99. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “They Gave Themselves,” Australasian Record, March 26, 1956, 2-3.

  100. “In Kalgoorlie...,” Australasian Record, March 29, 1909, 7.

  101. “On April 22...,” Australasia Record, May 17, 1909, 6; E. Hilliard, “Subiaco Mission, West Australia,” Australasian Record, August 30, 1909, 4.

  102. “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, May 23, 1910, 8.

  103. “Pastor Hilliard and Michaels...,” Australasian Record, June 26, 1911, 8.

  104. “Pastor E. Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, November 27, 1911, 8.

  105. “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, March 4, 1912, 8.

  106. W. L. H. Baker, “The West Australian Camp-Meeting,” Australasian Record, April 29, 1912, 3.

  107. E. Hilliard, “Harvey, West Australia,” Australasian Record, December 16, 1912, 6.

  108. “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, February 3, 1913, 8.

  109. R. Hare, “West Australian Camp-Meeting,” Australasian Record, April 21, 1913, 3.

  110. “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, December 1, 1913, 8.

  111. “On Tuesday, April 9...,” Australasian Record, May 12, 1913, 8.

  112. “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, February 3, 1913, 8.

  113. R. Hare, “Opening of a New Church,” Australasian Record, May 12, 1913, 5.

  114. “On Tuesday, April 9...,” Australasian Record, May 12, 1913, 8.

  115. “Pastor Hilliard...,” Australasian Record, December 1, 1913, 8.

  116. “Periodical Sales Southern California Tract Society June 1913.” Pacific Union Recorder, August 7, 1913, 6; “Report of Book Work for Week Ending October 10, 1913,” Pacific Union Recorder, October 23, 1913, 7.

  117. Location of Workers,” Northern Union Reaper, June 23, 1914, 1.

  118. “Minnesota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, November 14, 1916, 6.

  119. “Minnesota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, September 19, 1916, 4.

  120. E. Hilliard, “Morgan, Stillwater and Northfield,” Northern Union Reaper, October 30, 1917, 4.

  121. E. Hilliard, “Morgan, Kasota and Good Thunder,” Northern Union Reaper, January 9, 1917, 4-5.

  122. “Minnesota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, November 21, 1916, 5.

  123. “Minnesota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, June 26, 1917, 3.

  124. “Eighth Session of the Northern Union Conference,” Northern Union Reaper, December 16, 1919, 1.

  125. E. Hilliard, “Montevideo,” Northern Union Reaper, September 2, 1919, 5.

  126. Ibid.

  127. “Minnesota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, February 17, 1920, 6.

  128. “Minnesota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, December 21, 1920, 6.

  129. J. G. Lamson, “Seymour Hilliard obituary,” Lake Union Herald, January 26, 1921, 11.

  130. E. Hilliard, “Elder E. Hilliard...,” ARH, December 27, 1928, 24.

  131. “Minnesota News Items,” Northern Union Reaper, October 4, 1921, 4.

  132. E. Hilliard, “Hibbing and Chisholm,” Northern Union Reaper, May 3, 1921, 5; Harold L. Wood, “Virginia, Minnesota,” Northern Union Reaper, July 5, 1921, 7; “Minnesota News,” Northern Union Reaper, December 6, 1921, 5.

  133. “Minnesota News,” Northern Union Reaper, May 9, 1922, 4.

  134. “South Dakota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, August 5, 1924, 6.

  135. “South Dakota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, February 28, 1928, 8.

  136. “South Dakota Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, March 20, 1928, 7.

  137. “South Dakota Items,” Northern Union Reaper, July 17, 1928, 7.

  138. L. G. Mookerjee, “Pastor E. Hilliard,” Eastern Tidings, October 15, 1936, 7.

  139. F. W. Hill, “Bangalore Sabbath School Convention,” Eastern Tidings, November 1, 1930, 5-6; “Pastor and Mrs. E. Hilliard,” Australasian Record, August 6, 1934, 3.

  140. E. Hilliard, “Nothing Impossible with the Godhead,” Eastern Tidings, February 1, 1934, 3.

  141. Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Enoch, “A Farewell and a Welcome, Colombo,” Eastern Tidings, April 15, 1933, 6-7.

  142. P. H. Cramer, “The Bangalore Church,” Eastern Tidings, September 1, 1933, 4.

  143. Alta Hilliard Christensen, “From Ceylon to Australia,” Australasian Record, October 28, 1935, 6.

  144. P. H. Cramer, “The Bangalore Church,” Eastern Tidings, August 15, 1936, 6.

  145. L. G. Mookerjee, “Pastor E. Hilliard,” Eastern Tidings, October 15, 1936, 7.

  146. Ibid.

  147. Alta M. Christensen, “Elder E. Hilliard obituary,” ARH, December 24, 1936, 21-22.

  148. L. G. Mookerjee, “Pastor E. Hilliard,” Eastern Tidings, October 15, 1936, 7.

  149. Editor, “A Word of Appreciation,” Eastern Tidings,” November 1, 1936, 7.

  150. “General News Notes,” Eastern Tidings,” December 15, 1936, 8.

  151. H. Christensen, “India Calls,” Eastern Tidings, January 1, 1937, 15.

  152. “Elections,” Eastern Tidings,” January 15, 1937, 9-11.

  153. J. O. Wilson, “Eighty Years Young,” Eastern Tidings, May 15, 1937, 3.

  154. “Poona Paragraphs,” Eastern Tidings, November 15, 1938, 8.

  155. “Alta Hilliard Christensen obituary,” ARH, April 1, 1971, 30.

  156. C. S. Wiest, “Ida Fleming Hilliard,” ARH,” August 23, 1945, 20.

  157. J. R. Lee, “Crown Jewel or Cinderella’s Rags?” Australasian Record, October 4, 1976, 8.

  158. Katy Matteo, “Hilliard Students Racing to Help Others,” Australasian Record, August 17, 2019, 7.

×

Tarburton, Shirley. "Hilliard, Edward (1851–1936) and Ida Louisa (Fleming) (1857–1945)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Accessed May 21, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=A7XE.

Tarburton, Shirley. "Hilliard, Edward (1851–1936) and Ida Louisa (Fleming) (1857–1945)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Date of access May 21, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=A7XE.

Tarburton, Shirley (2020, January 29). Hilliard, Edward (1851–1936) and Ida Louisa (Fleming) (1857–1945). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 21, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=A7XE.