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Winferd and Bessie Hankins.

From Adventism in China Digital Image Repository. Accessed December 11, 2019.

Hankins, Winferd Cameron (1880–1968) and Bessie Lenore (Rentfro) (1879–1965)

By Michael W. Campbell


Michael W. Campbell, Ph.D., is North American Division Archives, Statistics, and Research director. Previously, he was professor of church history and systematic theology at Southwestern Adventist University. An ordained minister, he pastored in Colorado and Kansas. He is assistant editor of The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia (Review and Herald, 2013) and currently is co-editor of the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of Seventh-day Adventism. He also taught at the Adventist International Institute for Advanced Studies (2013-18) and recently wrote the Pocket Dictionary for Understanding Adventism (Pacific Press, 2020).

First Published: April 12, 2022

Pioneer Adventist missionaries to China. Winferd’s Chinese name was 漢謹思 温弗雷德 (Hànjǐnsī Wēnfúléidé) and Bessie’s (or Bess’) was 漢謹思 贝西 (Hànjǐnsī Bèixī). Together they would spend fourteen years, primarily based around Amoy (Xiamen), building up an Adventist missionary presence through evangelism, distributing and translating literature, organizing churches and training workers, and in particular for Bessie, teaching school and ministering to women.

Early Life and Background

Winferd was born January 26, 1880, in Sigourney, Iowa, to William H. (1852-1933) and Ella M. Hankins (1855-1928).1 As a child he grew up in a poor home. After the 1893 depression, he sold soap from door to door to help contribute food for the family. He grew up in a Methodist home, and at the age of 12, gave his heart to the Lord and was baptized in 1897.2 As a young person he was active in establishing a “Young People’s Society” at the Sigourney, Iowa, Seventh-day Adventist Church.3

Bessie was born March 15, 1879, in Sigourney, Iowa, to James Allen Rentfro (1834-1908) and Aurilla D. Curtis (1851-1925). Her parents lived on a large farm, and she was the third of ten children.4 She was the granddaughter of Benjamin Curtis (1823-1916), who was an active Millerite and in whose home James and Ellen White and Joseph Bates were frequently entertained.5

Winferd and Bessie were married July 22, 1903, in Keokuk, Iowa.6 As young church workers, he was a gifted vocalist teaching “vocal music” and Bessie played the organ at camp meetings.7 He initially served as a colporteur in charge of “District No. 6”—a region based in and around Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, one of the major centers of Adventism in the Midwest at that time.8 By 1904 Winferd received ministerial credentials.9

Initially the couple was selected to participate in a special evangelistic outreach during the summer of 1904 in Washington, D.C. that extended into 1905 working with the evangelist Carlyle B. Haynes.10 Winferd noted how much he appreciated this opportunity, passing out five thousand announcements, and even managing to do some sightseeing. He added his appreciation for “instruction from Sister White” twice each week, which was a special “privilege” while Ellen White traveled on an extended tour of the eastern United States.11 This evangelistic work extended from the winter of 1904 to 1905. In early 1905 the General Conference called Winferd and Bessie to serve as missionaries to China. The Hankins responded to the affirmative in no small part due to a direct appeal by J. N. Anderson for more missionaries.

The Hankins sailed from Vancouver on April 10, 1905, stopping briefly in Japan along the way—where they could see the celebrated cherry blossoms—eventually arriving in Hong Kong.12 They arrived in Hong Kong early in the morning on May 3, 1905. With a daunting voyage across the Pacific, Winferd, in a tone of relief, afterward described it as “a cold, but otherwise very good trip across the Pacific” with only two to three days of rough weather.13 They were met by Edwin (1869-1914) and Susan Wilbur (1872-1965), who were relatives through marriage (Susan’s sister, Mary [1874-1972] was married to Bessie’s brother, Clarence Rentfro [1877-1951]).14 They described their arrival:

We were just packing our things, getting ready to go ashore, when Brother Wilbur and his wife appeared. We were very glad to see them. We started for Canton that evening, reaching here the next morning. It is quite hot, and we feel the heat all the more severely as it was quite cold most of the time while on our way. But I think we shall soon become accustomed to it. It will take some time to become acclimated, I know, but we will be careful, and hope to be well and strong.15

Early in 1905 the Hankins went to Amoy to follow up on work begun by Timothy Tay, a “native helper” converted by R. W. Munson in Sumatra (Indonesia) and who was then conducting evangelism in Amoy. While there he shared his faith with a teacher, N. P. Keh (Guō Zǐyǐng), who converted to Adventism. The Hankins were sent to Amoy to follow up upon this interest generated by Tay and Keh that contributed to the establishment of a new Adventist mission.16 Within their first year in Amoy they had eight adults who were baptized.17

The Hankins spent most of 1907 continuing to learn the language and selling Sabbath calendars.18 In 1909 they reported that there were five stations in the province: Chin Chew, Tang Oa, Do Gang, Amoy, and Kulangsu (Gulangyu) with a combined weekly average attendance at Sabbath services of about one hundred people. Of those 33 had been baptized.19

The Hankins continued to itinerate conducting evangelism, encouraging believers in scattered villages, and organizing churches. Their location made it especially convenient to travel by boat. They would at times cook their own food, but when unable to find clean water, they had to boil river water. Winferd wrote, “At such times it is best to forget all about germs, else the desire for food might be taken away.”20 One such trip in 191121 included the island of Formosa, known today as Taiwan. The primary work of the Hankins was educating young people at a school they established.22

Furlough in 1912 to 1913

In late 1911 the Hankins witnessed the overthrow of the imperial government. For them, in Swatow, there was very little fighting, and the “highest official quietly resigned.” This “uproar” made it difficult to share their beliefs as “the people have no heart to hear the gospel just now.”23 Unfortunately, “ill health,” combined with this political upheaval, made this an opportune moment to take furlough to stay until they could attend the 1913 General Conference session. Bessie and the daughters left several months in advance to visit the Hankins and Rentfro families in Mountain View, California. Winferd left Hong Kong arriving in San Francisco on April 24, 1912.24 Benjamin L. (1873-1962) and Julia (1869-1958) Anderson took their place while they were gone in Amoy.25 As they recovered, they traveled to various camp meetings promoting missions and raising funds for new missionary homes in China. They attended a number of camp meetings including Nebraska,26 North Yakima, Washington,27 Iowa,28 and western Oregon.29 Winferd noted he enjoyed these camp meetings “very much” and that Bessie and their two daughters were regaining their health. He expressed concern, though, that his daughters were quickly “losing their hold on the Chinese language” despite their best efforts.30

Health challenges on the part of Bessie necessitated that they extend their furlough a second year.31 This necessitated another round of camp meetings through 1913 including Ontario, Quebec, Wyoming, and Missouri.32 This included a stirring report to the delegates of the 1913 General Conference session,33 as well as moving talks to the children too.34 Right before the General Conference session, the Hankins and Rentfro families had a family reunion while both sides of the families were home from furlough from mission service.35 Their continued poor health necessitated that the General Conference inquire if Bessie’s continued poor health required that they send a replacement instead.36 Now they were medically cleared to return for mission service.37

Second Term in China (1915-1924)

The Hankins left on October 6, 1915, on the Sado Maru from Seattle with twelve other missionaries.38 They described the first few days of their voyage as rough but managed to avoid any “great amount of seasickness.”39 They arrived in time to assist Elder Keh with a Bible institute in Swatow from January 13-20, 1915.40 W. C. Hankins was placed in charge of the Fukien Mission.41 They expressed appreciation for the new homes built in Amoy that were much more conducive to good health. The Hankins quickly went to work with Bessie training women as Bible workers and Winferd leading out in evangelistic meetings, one first in Foochow and another in Kulangsu, which resulted in 18 baptisms and two professions by faith. This brought a total of 41 additions to the province that year.42 Soon the first church building in Fukien was dedicated in Chioh-be on September 11, 1915.43 Winferd participated in a series of meetings over five days that resulted in one hundred to one hundred fifty coming out each evening and 46 individuals who signed up for Bible studies. The chapel was only 14 feet wide by 70 feet long. He left the group in the hands of Keh Hok-siu, a young man who was recently ordained, to follow-up on the interest.44 Bessie would collaborate with Julia Anderson to hold meetings for the women.45 Later, from April 1-10, Winferd held similar meetings in Foochow that led to 28 more additions.46 They asked for four services each day with three preaching services and one prayer service. Pastor Keh started a school with eighty pupils. “It was arranged for the pupils to attend these meetings each day,” wrote Winferd. The boys would rise to their feet when the ministers ascended the platform and then kneeled when the ministers knelt in prayer.47

In 1916 the Andersons and Hankins continued to work in Amoy. Of significance was the construction of a training school building. “It is a well-constructed brick building of sufficient size for sixty boys, both for living and class accommodation.”48 They hoped to erect a girls’ school soon too. They also had to tear out a partition from the Amoy chapel to make “it twice as large.”49 Such permanent buildings, Winferd claimed, would send a message “that we have come to stay, and nothing else will do this so well as some good, substantial buildings.”50

In the two years since returning from their furlough, there was an increase of 190 new members in the Fukien Field. The school in Amoy was now led by Floyd E. Bates, and the new facility was being used with an additional home for foreign workers built on the same compound.

On March 28, 1917, a new church building holding up to eight hundred people was dedicated with W. T. Knox giving the dedicatory address. The new facility was formerly a temple that was transformed into a church with a plan to open a school.51 All of this growth necessitated a reorganization of the missions in south China into the South China Union Conference on April 10, 1917.52 At this same meeting Bessie Hankins was elected as the Sabbath School coordinator for the newly formed union.53

Adventist education by early 1917 began to contribute rich dividends in terms of conversions. The school led by Pastor Keh in Foochow had a group of 28 boys who had converted to Adventism. These young people “who were already members of the church had set themselves to pray and work for the conversion of their fellow-students, with the result that 54 of them had been converted and wished to join the church.” This led to a baptism of 66 individuals.54 Also in 1917 General Conference president A. G. Daniells and his wife visited them as part of a tour of Asia.55 This was followed by another visit from March 23-29 by W. T. Knox, General Conference secretary, and his wife, with Professor and Mrs. Griggs, and N. Z. Town.56 All of these administrators were ultimately on their way to Shanghai where they would organize the China Division, a meeting in which the Hankins also participated.

On the night of September 12, 1917, a devastating typhoon destroyed much of the Hankins’ home along with other mission property. Six months later, on February 13, 1918, there was a catastrophic earthquake with great loss of life. The Hankins saw these events as vivid reminders of the disasters predicted that would happen immediately before the eschaton.57 The General Conference voted a special appropriation to help them rebuild their home.58 This didn’t stop missionary efforts. From February 26 to March 12, 1918, they were visited by W. W. Prescott, who conducted a two-week “biblical institute” for workers.59 Attendance ranged between thirty and forty40 as Prescott remarked at the remarkable growth of Adventism in China in the eleven years since his previous visit.60

By 1918 Bessie remained firmly committed to education, health treatments, and a special focus on reaching women with the Adventist message. She described how she and Julia Anderson were spending time in Fukien “holding cottage meetings every week with the Chinese women of our own church, and then with heathen women.”61 She added:

We have visited in the home of the scholars of both the girls’ and boys’ school. We find the personal, house-to-house work is very important. Sometimes we find that a few simple home treatments go a great way in giving us a chance to tell the truth to these people. It seems to bring us nearer to them. They respond as readily to personal effort and love as do the people in the homeland.62

Both Winferd and Bessie continued to actively solicit funds. In 1918 they worked on a cooperative arrangement where young people from the Central Union in the United States would contribute funds with the Foreign Mission Board to build the badly needed school in Foochow.63

Warring factions prevented any kind of workers’ meeting in 1921, but this was more than made up for with a six-week institute held in 1922.64 The Hankins looked for another missionary family to take their place and delayed their furlough with the hope that another missionary couple would come. Of significance, their daughters Enid (now age 17 in 1922) and Lilian (now age 15 in 1922) were following in their mother’s footsteps and going out with “the lady teachers” to minister to other women in “the homes here in Kulangsu.” They had repeated invitations “to visit some of the wealthiest homes on the island.”65

Permanent Return and Ministerial Service

The need for the Hankins to send their daughters to school eventually was the catalyst to return to the United States.66 On May 31, 1924, the Hankins family returned on the Empress of Russia on furlough. They were replaced by Pastor and Mrs. V. J. Maloney.67 They arrived in Seattle spending time in Seattle and Tacoma for a few weeks before visiting family in Iowa.68 The Hankins settled in Illinois where he served as an evangelist.69 He continued work across the Lake Union as a minister, primarily in the Michigan Conference. The Hankins rented out their home in Gulangyu to other missionaries until 1937 when the Japanese army invaded and occupied the island. In 1940, when the Japanese army left, they destroyed the home.

In 1945 they moved to Arizona where they served until their retirement in 1961. Bessie died December 12, 1965, in Glendale, California; Winferd died on February 4, 1968, at St. Helena, California. They are both buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Los Angeles, California.70 Today the Meihua NewStart Health Center established in 2009 exists in the original building constructed under the direction of the Hankins.71


Anderson, Mrs. J. N. [Emma]. “More Workers for Honan. Our Own Work in China. (Concluded.),” The Signs of the Times, June 12, 1907, 12-13.

Biographical Information Blank, Winferd [sic] Cameron Hankins, October 12, 1905, General Conference Archives.

Hankins, Mrs. W. C. [Bessie], “They Worship Demons Instead of Dead Ancestors.” Missionary Leader, September 1923.

Hankins, W. C. “The Amoy General Meetings.” Asiatic Division Outlook, September 15, 1919.

Hankins, W. C. “Another Field Entered.” ARH, July 20, 1911.

Hankins, W. C. “An Appeal from China.” ARH, April 15, 1909.

Hankins, W. C. “Back at Work in China.” ARH, March 25, 1915.

Hankins, W. C. “The Blind Necromancers.” Missionary Leader, March 1923.

Hankins, W. C. “The Bonds of Ignorance.” The Signs of the Times, December 1921.

Hankins, W. C. “China.” ARH, July 13, 1905.

Hankins, W. C. “China.” ARH, May 7, 1908 [reprinted in The Present Truth, June 4, 1908, 363].

Hankins, W. C. “China.” ARH, February 18, 1909.

Hankins, W. C. “China.” ARH, March 11, 1909.

Hankins, W. C. “For Prospective Missionaries.” The Youth’s Instructor, October 17, 1911; October 24, 1911.

Hankins, W. C. “The Fu-Chau Meeting.” ARH, March 9, 1916.

Hankins, W. C. “A General Meeting in Swatow, China.” ARH, July 13, 1911.

Hankins, W. C. “God Working in China.” The Present Truth, June 27, 1907.

Hankins, W. C. “Good General Meetings in Fukien.” Asiatic Division Mission News, October 1, 1915.

Hankins, W. C. “How a Heathen Read the Bible.” The Signs of the Times [Australian], August 15, 1910.

Hankins, W. C. “Hunan, China.” ARH, October 8, 1908, 14-15.

Hankins, W. C. “Itinerating in the Southeast China Mission.” ARH, August 31, 1911, 12-13 [reprinted in The Present Truth, Nov. 30, 1911, 762-763].

Hankins, W. C. “Loyalty to Christ Amidst Heathen Darkness.” The Life Boat, 215-216.

Hankins, W. C. “More About Tio Chiu, China.” ARH, December 26, 1907.

Hankins, W. C. “Nature’s Witness to a Second Coming.” The Signs of the Times, August 20, 1918.

Hankins, W. C. “The New Mission Chapel in the City of Chioh-Be.” ARH, February 3, 1916.

Hankins, W. C. “Progress of the Work in Fuchau, China.” ARH, July 1, 1915.

Hankins, W. C. “Report from Amoy, China.” The Signs of the Times, October 30, 1907.

Hankins, W. C. “The Stolen Child.” The Present Truth, December 23, 1909.

Hankins, W. C. “A Trip to Tsoan Chiu, China.” ARH, April 4, 1907.

Hankins, W. C. “Turning from Idol Worship.” The Life Boat, August 1913.

Hankins, W. C. and Bessie L. Hankins, “Kulangsu, Amoy, China.” The Workers’ Bulletin, February 5, 1907.

Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Second revised edition. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996. S.v. “Hankins, Winferd Cameron.”


  1. State Historical Society of Iowa; Des Moines, Iowa; Title: Iowa Birth Records, 1888-1904 [accessed from 12/13/21].

  2. See Florence (Nagel) Howlett, “Winferd C. Hankins,” at [accessed 12/19/21].

  3. C. E. Retnfro, “Young People’s Society at Sigourney,” August 28, 1900, 30.

  4. For detailed genealogical information, see: [accessed 12/19/21]

  5. Obituary of Benjamin Franklin Curtis, Northern Union Reaper, March 14, 1916, 11; A. R. Ogden, “Obituary,” The Workers’ Bulletin, March 28, 1916, 3.

  6. Iowa Department of Public Health; Des Moines, Iowa; Series Title: Iowa Marriage Records, 1880–1922; Record Type: Marriage [accessed from 12/13/21].

  7. See notes about camp meeting, “Committees in Charge of Camp-Meeting Work,” The Workers’ Bulletin, April 26, 1904, 166; “Camp-Meeting Mention,” The Workers’ Bulletin, May 31, 1904, 186.

  8. W. C. Hankins, “District No. 6,” The Workers’ Bulletin, May 3, 1904, 170-171.

  9. See report of the “Committee on Credentials and Licenses,” in The Workers’ Bulletin, June 21, 1904, 195. It is unclear when Winferd was ever ordained or not. Typically, only “ordained” ministers by this time received ministerial credentials. He left blank the section in his autobiographical form for ordination. So this detail is unknown.

  10. See note, The Workers’ Bulletin, June 14, 1904, 192; W. C. & Mrs. W. C. Hankins, “At Washington,” The Workers’ Bulletin, January 10, 1905, 110-111.

  11. Paul Curtis, Geo. H. Skinner, and W. C. Hankins, “Washington, D.C.,” The Workers’ Bulletin, July 26, 1904, 14.

  12. See announcement, ARH, March 30, 1905, 24.

  13. W. C. Hankins, “China,” ARH, July 13, 1905, 14.

  14. W. C. & B. L. Hankins, “In China,” The Workers’ Bulletin, August 1, 1905, 20.

  15. W. C. Hankins, “China,” ARH, July 13, 1905, 14.

  16. See Matilda Erickson, “Two Decades in China,” The Youth’s Instructor, October 6, 1908, 12.

  17. W. C. Hankins, “Report from Amoy, China,” The Signs of the Times, October 30, 1907, 30.

  18. W. C. Hankins, “China,” The Present Truth, June 4, 1908, 363.

  19. See report for “Fukien Province,” ARH, June 16, 1910, 21.

  20. W. C. Hankins, “Itinerating in the Southeast China Mission,” The Present Truth, November 30, 1911, 762-763.

  21. W. C. Hankins, “Another Field Entered,” ARH, July 20, 1911, 13.

  22. Cf. W. C. Hankins, “A Chinese Lesson,” The Youth’s Instructor, February 7, 1911, 8.

  23. See note from W. C. Hankins dated November 14 published in ARH, January 4, 1912, 24.

  24. See note, ARH, April 11, 1912, 24; The Workers Bulletin, April 30, 1912, 4.

  25. R. C. Porter, “A Tour Through the Asiatic Division,” ARH, May 14, 1914, 10.

  26. W. C. Hankins, “For Prospective Missionaries,” The Youth’s Instructor, October 24, 1911, 9.

  27. H. E. Loop, “North Yakima Camp-Meeting,” North Pacific Union Gleaner, July 11, 1912, 2.

  28. “Iowa Notes,” Northern Union Reaper, September 10, 1912, 7; Chas. Thompson, “Iowa Conference,” ARH, September 19, 1912, 17-18.

  29. H. W. Cottrell, “Western Oregon Camp-Meeting,” ARH, August 1, 1912, 15.

  30. See letter published in: News Letter for the Asiatic Division, January 1, 1913, 15.

  31. “China,” News-Letter for the Asiatic Division, September 1, 1913, 7.

  32. M. N. Campbell, “The Ontario Campmeeting,” Canadian Union Messenger, July 9, 1913, 1-2; M. N. Campbell, “The Quebec Camp-Meeting,” ARH, July 17, 1913, 15; E. T. Russell, “The Wyoming Conference,” ARH, August 14, 1913, 16; C. M. Snow, “North Missouri Camp-Meeting,” ARH, September 25, 1913, 18.

  33. [W. C. Hankins], “Report of the South China Mission Field,” General Conference Bulletin, May 18, 1913, 41-42.

  34. Mrs. Carrie R. Moon, “News from the Camp,” Lake Union Herald, May 28, 1913, 2.

  35. See note, The Workers’ Bulletin, April 8, 1913, 4.

  36. See voted action, General Conference Executive Committee Minutes, January 26, 1914, 119; see published action, ARH, April 30, 1914, 9.

  37. General Conference Executive Committee Minutes, March 24, 1914, 131.

  38. “Notes,” Asiatic Division Mission News, June 1, 1914, pg. 8; “Letters from Our Friends on the Waters,” The Educational Messenger, December 1914, pg. 14; ARH, October 22, 1914, 24.

  39. W. C. Hankins, “Back at Work in China,” ARH, March 25, 1915, 17.

  40. J. P. Anderson, “Swatow,” Asiatic Division Mission News, March 1, 1915, 3.

  41. See report in Asiatic Division Mission News, July 1, 1915, 18.

  42. W. C. Hankins, “Good General Meetings in Fukien,” Asiatic Division Mission News, October 1, 1915, 2.

  43. W. C. Hankins, “The New Mission Chapel in the City of Chioh-Be,” ARH, February 3, 1916, 11-12.

  44. W. C. Hankins, “First Church Building in Fukien,” Asiatic Division Mission News, November 1, 1915, 2.

  45. B. L. Anderson, “Redeemed from the Depths of Vice,” Asiatic Division Mission News, December 1, 1915, 2.

  46. B. L. Anderson, “General Meetings in Kwang Province,” Asiatic Division Mission News, December 15, 1915, 2.

  47. W. H. Hankins, “Progress of the Work in Fuchau, China,” ARH, July 1, 1915, 13.

  48. J. E. Fulton, “News from China,” Australasian Record, May 29, 1916, 1.

  49. W. H. Hanks, “Fukien Province,” Asiatic Division Mission News, March 15, 1916, 2.

  50. WW. H. Hankins, “The Fu-Chau Meeting,” ARH, March 9, 1916, 11.

  51. W. C. Hankins, “The Fukien Field,” Asiatic Division Outlook, 44.

  52. “Organization of the South China Union Conference,” Asiatic Division Outlook, July 1, 1917, 14.

  53. Ibid.

  54. “In South China,” Missionary Leader, February 1917, 13.

  55. A. G. Daniells, “From Manila to Tokio,” ARH, April 12, 1917, 10.

  56. W. T. Knox, “A Visit to the South China Mission Field,” ARH, June 7, 1917, 11-13; N. Z. Town, “Notes by the Way—No. 9,” ARH, July 26, 1917, 21-22.

  57. W. C. Hankins, “Nature’s Witness to a Second Coming,” The Signs of the Times, August 20, 1918, 3-4.

  58. General Conference Executive Committee Minutes, January 3, 1918, 708.

  59. See note in The Asiatic Division Outlook, February 15, 1918, 8.

  60. W. W. Prescott, “The Institute at Amoy, South China,” Asiatic Division Outlook, April 1, 1918, 3.

  61. See “Notes in the Field” with letter by Sister W. C. Hankins: Asiatic Division Outlook, August 15, 1918, 6.

  62. Ibid.

  63. “Our School in China,” Central Union Outlook, May 21, 1918, 2.

  64. “Report of the South Fukien Mission for the Biennial Period Ending December 31, 1922,” Asiatic Division Outlook, September 15, 1923, 2-3.

  65. Ibid.

  66. B. L. Anderson, “The South Fukien Mission,” Far Eastern Division Outlook, April 1925 Extra, 11.

  67. “Furlough Departures,” Far Eastern Division Outlook, June 1, 1924, 12.

  68. See note in North Pacific Union Gleaner, June 26, 1924, 7.

  69. “Illinois Notes,” Lake Union Herald, February 4, 1925, 10; W. C. Hankins, “Meetings in Ottawa, Ill.,” ARH, May 21, 1925, 20-21.

  70. [accessed 12/19/21] and [accessed 12/19/21].

  71. Michael W. Campbell, personal knowledge from visiting the premise in November 2014. The Meihua NewStart Health Center has been recently renamed Meihua Health and Holiday Resort Hotel-Xiamen, [website accessed 3/28/2022].


Campbell, Michael W. "Hankins, Winferd Cameron (1880–1968) and Bessie Lenore (Rentfro) (1879–1965)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 12, 2022. Accessed May 23, 2024.

Campbell, Michael W. "Hankins, Winferd Cameron (1880–1968) and Bessie Lenore (Rentfro) (1879–1965)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 12, 2022. Date of access May 23, 2024,

Campbell, Michael W. (2022, April 12). Hankins, Winferd Cameron (1880–1968) and Bessie Lenore (Rentfro) (1879–1965). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 23, 2024,