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Shidian County. Yunnan Junior Academy was here in 1950.

From Adventism in China Digital Image Repository. Accessed October 26, 2020. www.adventisminchina.org. 

Yunnan Junior Academy (1942-1952)

By Joshua C. S. Chiu

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Joshua C. S. Chiu was born in Hong Kong, China. After graduating with a B.Ed. (Hons) from the Open University of Hong Kong and an M.Div. from the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Joshua was first employed as a teacher in a church school of Hong Kong-Macao Conference. Subsequently, he served as an editor and Internet Evangelist in the Chinese Union Mission.

Yunnan Junior Academy (also known as Yunnan Training Institute) was one of the three lower-middle schools in the West China Union.1 This school played an important role in the outreach to the ethnic mountain minorities in the southwestern China region.

Background

The beginning of Adventism in the southwest China region of Guizhou and Yunnan can be traced back to 1917 when two colporteurs went there and reported sales of 500 subscriptions in twelve days.2 But it was not until March 1928 that the Yunnan Mission was officially opened in Kunming (昆明, aka Yunnanfu) with Claude B. Miller as the first director.3

In August 1932, the Mission opened a church school with Sen Liu Sz Mu as the only full-time teacher.4 In 1933, the first group of six graduating students advanced to West China Union Training Institute near Chongqing.5 In the 1935-1936 academic year, the church school grew in size and employed 5 teachers and became a “type-one” junior training institute, offering classes to eighth grade.6 In 1939-1943, the number of teachers grew to 15-18.7

Yunnan Training Institute

In 1942, the Yunnan Training Institute was officially established offering schooling from primary to grade nine. Initially, several old houses at Xinzhuang (新莊) were rented providing work-study programs in four departments: farming, sewing, dairy and printing. Neng Dade (能大德) was appointed as the principal.8 Students came from a wide area encompassing Kunming, Anning (安寧), Wuding (武定), Luquan (祿勸), Fumin (富民), Xundian (尋甸), Luoci (羅茨), Lufeng (祿豐), Dali (大理), Mojiang (墨江), Yuanjiang (元江), Shunning (順寧) and Bijie (畢節), Guizhou, 9 representing various ethnic groups including Han (汉), Miao (苗), Yi (彝), Kawa (aka Wa, 佤), Jingpo (景颇), Hani (哈尼) and other minorities.10

To help the Miao people to learn their own written script, a priority of the Yunnan Training Institute was to begin a printing business in Miao scripts during its first year of operation. Bible, hymns, and books in Miao scripts were printed under the supervision of Han Jie (韓傑) who organized 12 Miao people to do translation, editing, proofreading, and printing. That initiative helped to consolidate the Adventist churches and schools in the area and pioneered new work opportunities in Kunming, and in the entire Yunnan Province.11

In 1943, the Annual Council of the Acting China Division recommended to pass the balance of the tribal work trust fund of $46,000 on to the West China Union for equipment in the training institute.12 In 1944, the Division Annual Council further voted for the West China Union to request a donation of $20,000 from the Chungking Wuhan Sanitarium for the operation of the training institute.13

In the 1943-1944 academic year, the enrolment of Yunnan Training Institute grew to 22 students. During the World War II, the cost of living skyrocketed. The poor students totally relied on works in the printing and sewing department to get them through school. Fortunately, these two industries were helped by funds raised in the 1943 Harvest Ingathering.14

There were challenges operating a multi-ethnic school. Many students from the different ethnic minorities had to walk through rugged mountains for days to reach the school. They felt isolated as many only spoke their own tribal dialect. The different tribal culture and characteristics could become a source of friction. Many had to learn new custom and etiquette. Each new academic year, the principal had to face the challenge of how to bring the student body into a more cohesive entity.15

In May 1945, twenty out of the 22 students were baptized.16 By the time of the new academic year in autumn of 1945, the school had to relocated to the mission property at Northgate Street, Kunming, because the lease at the rented facilities expired.17

In 1946, the China Division Committee granted the West China Union and Yunnan Mission $5,000.00 from the 1940 thirteen Sabbath overflow Borderland Trust Fund for the school.18 A new school property on Burma Road, Xiangshi (象石Hsiang Shih/Hsiang Hsih), Anning, west of Kunming, was purchased, where part of the Central Electrical Equipment Factory had been closed.19

In 1947, Lu Shoudao (呂守道, Lu Show-Dao) was appointed principal of the institute.20 In 1948-49, the Southwest China Mission was established.21 Yunnan Training Institute was renamed Yunnan Junior Academy. The principal was still Lu Shoudao.22 In 1949, the school plant was repaired,23 and the cafeteria rebuilt.24

In early 1950, since the location of the school was taken by the government to constructed a chemical plant, the school moved to Shidian Village (始甸村), Anning.25 In June, the Yunnan Provincial Department of Culture and Education sent Sun Huiran (孫惠然) to take charge of the school, and allocated some living expenses to the students.26

In July 1952, the school moved back to Northgate Street, Kunming. In October of the same year, the Provincial Department of Culture and Education of the People Government officially took over the Yunnan Junior Academy from the church.27

List of Principals

No information (1944-46), Neng Dade (能大德, Nen Dah Deh)(1946-47), Lu Shoudao (呂守道, Lu Show-Dao)(1947-51).

Sources

“A Brief History of the Miao Nationality Church in Northeast Yunnan”「滇東北苗族教堂史略」. Pu Shi Institute for Social Science普世社會科學研究網, June 15, 2013. Accessed October 14, 2019. http://www.pacilution.com/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=4187.

Acting China Division Annual Council. February 3, 1943. Folder China Division (Section I) Acting 1943. General Conference Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

_____ January 6, 1944. Folder China Division Acting 1944 Annual Council Dec 1943 - Jan 1944. General Conference Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

Blandford, C. L. “Colporteur Work in West China.” Asiatic Division Outlook, September 15, 1917.

China Division Annual Council Field Committee. General Conference Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.
March 21, 1946. Folder China Division Section I, Field Committee Annual Council 1946.
February 28, 1950. Folder China Division Jan - Dec 1950.

China Division Committee. May 22, 1949. Folder China Division Jan - May 1949. General Conference Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

“From West China.” The China Division Reporter, October 1948.

Han, Jie韓傑. "The Status of the Church in Yunnan” 「雲南教會之近況」. Last Day Shepherd’s Call《末世牧聲》, July 15, 1933.

Han, Xingzhi韓興智. ”Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan”「安寧雲南三育研究社和苗文印刷」. In Chinese SDA History, vol.1, ed. Samuel Young載於楊健生主編,《中華聖工史》,上冊. Hong Kong: Chinese Union Mission香港:華安聯合會, 2002.

“History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnan ”「雲南滇中苗族傳教史」. In Chinese SDA History, vol.1, ed. Samuel Young載於楊健生主編,《中華聖工史》,上冊, 218-223. Hong Kong: Chinese Union Mission香港:華安聯合會, 2002.

Lee, Milton. “Among the Tribespeople of Yunnan Province.” Missions Quarterly, Second Quarter, 1944.

_____ “The Yunnan Mission.” ARH, September 7, 1944.

“Opening A New Province.” Far Eastern Division Outlook, April 1928.

Rebok, D. E. “The Growth of Our Educational Work in China.” The China Division Reporter, January 1936.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, various years.

“The Sound of the Heavens is Thundering, and the Prodigal Son of the Earth is Born Again”「天國鈐聲雷動,人間浪子重生」. Last Day Shepherd’s Call《末世牧聲》, June 1945.

Warren, M. C. “Yunnan: A New Province Opened in China.” ARH, November 22, 1928.

Notes

  1. “From West China,” The China Division Reporter, October 1948, 6, 8.

  2. C. L. Blandford, “Colporteur Work in West China,” Asiatic Division Outlook, September 15, 1917, 6.

  3. For details, see “Opening A New Province,” Far Eastern Division Outlook, April 1928, 19; M. C. Warren, “Yunnan: A New Province Opened in China,” ARH, November 22, 1928, 13.

  4. “Yunnan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1933), 114.

  5. Jie Han韓傑, "The Status of the Church in Yunnan” 「雲南教會之近況」, Last Day Shepherd’s Call《末世牧聲》, July 15, 1933. 28.

  6. D. E. Rebok, “The Growth of Our Educational Work in China,” The China Division Reporter, January 1936, 13, 14; “Yunnan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1936), 125.

  7. “Yunnan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1940), 123; “Yunnan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1941), 123; “Yunnan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1943), 101.

  8. “History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnun,” 221.

  9. Xingzhi Han, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan.”

  10. “History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnun”「雲南滇中苗族傳教史」, in Chinese SDA History, vol.1, ed. Samuel Young載於楊健生主編,《中華聖工史》,上冊 (Hong Kong: Chinese Union Mission香港:華安聯合會, 2002), 222; Xingzhi Han韓興智, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan”「安寧雲南三育研究社和苗文印刷」, in Chinese SDA History, vol.1, ed. Samuel Young載於楊健生主編,《中華聖工史》,上冊 (Hong Kong: Chinese Union Mission香港:華安聯合會, 2002), 350,

  11. “History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnun,” 221-22; Xingzhi Han, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan,” 350-51; “A Brief History of the Miao Nationality Church in Northeast Yunnan”「滇東北苗族教堂史略」, Pu Shi Institute for Social Science普世社會科學研究網, June 15, 2013, accessed October 14, 2019, http://www.pacilution.com/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=4187.

  12. Acting China Division Annual Council, February 3, 1943, 16, Folder China Division (Section I) Acting 1943, General Conference Archives.

  13. Acting China Division Annual Council, January 6, 1944, 12, Folder China Division Acting 1944 Annual Council December 1943 - January 1944.

  14. Milton Lee, “Among the Tribespeople of Yunnan Province,” Missions Quarterly, Second Quarter, 1944, 8.

  15. Milton Lee, “The Yunnan Mission,” ARH, September 7, 1944, 23.

  16. “The Sound of the Heavens is Thundering, and the Prodigal Son of the Earth is Born Again”「天國鈐聲雷動,人間浪子重生」, Last Day Shepherd’s Call《末世牧聲》, June 1945, 24.

  17. “History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnun,” 221; Xingzhi Han, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan.”

  18. China Division Annual Council Field Committee, March 21, 1946, 22, Folder China Division Section I, Field Committee Annual Council 1946, General Conference Archives.

  19. “History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnun,” 221; Xingzhi Han, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan;” “Yunnan Training Institute,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1947), 270; “Yunnan Junior Academy,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949), 293.

  20. “Yunnan Training Institute,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1948), 276.

  21. “Southwest China Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949), 109.

  22. “Yunnan Junior Academy,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949), 293; “West Kweichow Provincial Junior Training Institute,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949), 109.

  23. China Division Committee, May 22, 1949, 113, Folder China Division Jan - May 1949, General Conference Archives.

  24. China Division Committee, February 28, 1950, 13, Folder China Division Jan - Dec 1950, General Conference Archives.

  25. “History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnun,” 221; Xingzhi Han, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan,” 351.

  26. Xingzhi Han, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan,” 351.

  27. “History of Mission to the Miao of Dianzhong, Yunnun,” 221-22; Xingzhi Han, “Yunnan Training Institute and Miao Press at Anning, Yunnan,” 350-351.

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Chiu, Joshua C. S. "Yunnan Junior Academy (1942-1952)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 09, 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=C8RQ.

Chiu, Joshua C. S. "Yunnan Junior Academy (1942-1952)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 09, 2021. Date of access September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=C8RQ.

Chiu, Joshua C. S. (2021, January 09). Yunnan Junior Academy (1942-1952). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=C8RQ.