Harold Cecil Harker

Photo courtesy of Lester Devine.

Harker, Harold Cecil Knightly (1877–1963)

By Lester Devine

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Originally trained as a secondary history teacher, a career long Adventist educator, Lester Devine, Ed.D., has taught at elementary, secondary and higher education levels and spent more than three decades in elected educational leadership positions in two divisions of the world Church, NAD (1969-1982) and SPD (1982-2005). He completed his forty years of denominational service with a term as director of the Ellen G. White/Adventist Research Centre at Avondale University College in Australia where his life-long hobby of learning and presenting on Adventist heritage issues became his vocation. 

First Published: January 29, 2020

Harold Cecil Knightly Harker was a colporteur, pastor, and evangelist in Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania.

Early Life and Education

Harold Cecil Knightly Harker was born on December 12, 1877, the sixth child of William Harker and his wife Elizabeth at Clearmount, in the village of Wyke Regis, Dorset, England.1

In the 19th century, the Harker family, located in the Dorset area of England, were prosperous merchants made wealthy by the importation and sale of spices. This affluence enabled them to make entry into upper class British society at a time when class distinction was important. Thus the Harker family was thrilled when one of their own was made a knight of the realm, and for decades after each male born into the family was consistently provided with a third given name: “Knightly.”2

Harker’s denominational service record identifies him as having been born in Weymouth, England.3 Both his birth certificate and denominational service record are correct. The birth certificate is more specific, however. His siblings were sisters, Florence, Leila and Laura, and brothers Melcombe, and George. Another three half-siblings were William’s children from his first marriage: Lilian, Ellen, and Reginald. In January 1879, Elizabeth gave birth to twins; however, only one baby, a boy named Alfred Norman Knightly Harker, survived. Elizabeth died a week later, leaving William with ten children to look after.4

William made a decision to leave England and immigrate to New Zealand. At the time, he was ‘a gentleman’ employed as a ‘colonial broker.’ His wealthy father had many useful connections, and it was soon arranged for William to travel to New Zealand and begin a new life there. He arrived in Napier, New Zealand, in 1881 and quickly found himself involved in the life of the community eventually taking on leadership roles in several political and social organizations.5

Before leaving England, William enrolled the children in St. Agnes High Church of England boarding school which was part of St. Margaret’s Anglican convent in East Grimstead, Sussex, just south of London. Normally for girls only, Harold and Norman were also accepted, as they were so young. Deprived of their mother and now without regular contact with their father, it was a hard time for the young children, but the experience brought them all closer together. Half-sister Lillian was also enrolled at St. Agnes and, being a few years older than Florence, was a big help in caring for the children. While at St. Agnes, the children received a very thorough religious education. Dressed in red robes, altar boys Harold and Norman helped with the very solemn services. Harold was taught that the Bible and the Bible only was the only religion of Protestants. As a chorister Harold learned the sacred obligation of the Christian to the Ten Commandments. The small boy found himself drawn to religious observances.6

In the meantime, Harold’s father had married for the third time, in August 1884, to Gertrude Sheath. Arrangements were made for the children to sail to New Zealand. Arriving on the Iconic, the children all settled into school quickly. In October 1886, a half-brother, George, was born to William and Gertrude. Harold continued his habit of attending Church of England services.7

Laura and Leila had been attending a tent mission run by Pastors Wilson and McCullagh in Hastings, a few miles to the south of Napier and were excited about what they were learning. They asked their 15-year-old brother, Harold, to attend with them. Eventually, after much persuasion he agreed. Once there, Harold, his brother Norman, and his sisters, kept attending the meetings and all of them soon came under conviction. Harold had trouble with the teaching of the Sabbath until he remembered how a minister had once pointed out that the Church had changed the Sabbath to Sunday without any scriptural authority. This was in conflict with what he had been taught years earlier as a child to reverence Holy Scripture and God’s Law. In 1893 Harold, his brother Norman, and their three sisters, all became Seventh-day Adventists, a decision that shaped the future of each.8

In November 1893, the Seventh-day Adventist mission ship Pitcairn sailed into Wellington, New Zealand.9 While visiting the vessel, Harold applied for the vacant position of cabin boy. He was not successful. However, he did acquire a piece of a broken spar from the ship which was made into a walking stick which he used for the rest of his life.10

Harold soon found employment selling the church mission paper, The Bible Echo, in Christchurch, South New Zealand. The only Sabbath-keeper in the city at that time, he would take his Bible, hymn-book, and a copy of Early Writings with him out into the Cashmere hills on Sabbaths and there alone established his faith.11 In February 1897, Harold was asked to join a mission team in Christchurch, South New Zealand. The Team was led by Pastor E. W. Farnsworth, G. Teasdale, and A. H. Piper.12 After the campaign was over, he took up ‘colporteur evangelism’ in Palmerston, a town near Dunedin in South New Zealand.13

The experience since he had joined the Church had convinced Harold of the need for more education, and he decided to study at the Australasian Missionary College at Cooranbong, New South Wales, Australia. This decision was momentous for it brought him into close contact with Ellen White who was living in Cooranbong at the time.14

When the school year ended in October 1899, Harold returned to New Zealand and took up canvassing again in Christchurch and did very well.15After very successfully canvassing in Nelson, New Zealand, during January 1900,16 Harold returned to Australia for another year of training at Avondale.17 Once again when the college year ended Harold returned to canvassing New Zealand, but he did not return to Avondale in 1901.18

Denominational Service

In 1901 and 1902 Harold Harker was canvassing in Victoria.19 In 1903, he transferred to Tasmania where he was appointed as State Canvasing Agent.20 In 1904 he was back in Victoria again.21 At the Victorian Conference session held on November 10 – 20, 1904, he was appointed as the State Canvassing agent for Victoria,22 a position he held23 until he received an appointment in the Victorian Conference to engage in ministerial work commencing on February 23, 1909.24

During his years as the State canvassing Agent in Victoria, he made the acquaintance of Miss Ann Elizabeth Gadsden from Dandenong, Victoria. Ann Gadsden had been born to John and Hannah Gadsden at Mordialloc, Victoria on April 26, 1888.25 It was through the visit of a colporteur, Mr. Crick, in 1900, that the family first learned about the Sabbath.26 Ann was baptized when she was 16 in 1904 and shortly thereafter began working as a literature evangelist on the team lead by Harold Harker.27 A strong relationship developed and Harold and Ann were married on January 23, 1907.28

Seven children were to be born into their family: Laura Lillien (born May 17, 1908, Dandenong, Victoria); Winifred Eugenie (born September 14, 1909, Geelong, Victoria); Stanford Neville Knightley (born March 11, 1912, Hobart, Tasmania); Eric Gordon Knightley (born February 9, 1914, St Marys, Tasmania); Phylis Evelyn (born March 13, 1918, Berry, South Australia); Cecil Raymond Knightley (born May 19, 1921, Cottesloe, Western Australia), and John Maxwell Knightley (born January 13, 1927, Warracknabeal, Victoria).

Harold worked in ministry and evangelism in the Victorian Conference until the end of 1911 when he transferred to Tasmania to assist with a tent mission being conducted by Pastor Rogers “somewhere along the Hobart line, beyond Parratah.”29 He remained in Tasmania until October, 1916 when he was transferred to South Australia.30 Harold had been ordained at Kew, Victoria, on January 29, 1916.31

Leaving South Australia, Harold and Ann and their growing family of 5 children transferred to Western Australia where he commenced in the conference by running an evangelistic campaign in Fremantle at the beginning of 1919.32 Further campaigns were run at places such as Cottesloe Beach,33 Mount Lawley,34

The family was transferred back to Victoria in 1924, where he immediately set about to conduct an evangelistic campaign in Hamilton.35 In 1925, the evangelistic program was in Castlemaine.36 A number of other programs were conducted in Victoria. At the camp meeting in 1927 it was reported that:

On the last Sunday morning of the camp a baptismal service was held, when, in a submerged tank at the rear of the auditorium, Pastor H. C. Harker baptized twenty-one candidates. In this company were new converts from the missions that had been held at Camperdown, Warracknabeal, and Benalla, and also some who had taken their stand for the first time at this meeting.37

In September 1928, the Australasian Union Session requested that the Victorian Conference release Pastor Harker for pastoral work in South New South Wales.38 He was there by the end of the year.39 Then at the beginning of 1935, Pastor and Mrs. Harker were transferred to Tasmania.40 They remained for 4 years, transferring back to the South New South Wales Conference at the end of 1938.41 That transfer was their last inter-conference transfer before their retirement in 1947.

Over the years as he had conducted numerous evangelistic campaigns, Harold Harker had proven his ability to establish Seventh-day Adventist congregations. Typically, the baptisms from his campaigns led to the establishment of small companies or congregations.42

In the years leading up to his retirement, Harold had the responsibility for visiting interests from the Radio Church in addition to his other pastoral responsibilities. Travelling constantly around the extensive Sydney train network to meet with radio interests, to pray with them, and answer their questions, Harold showed great interest in their lives and personal welfare. He often had a little gift for the children in the family, typically a piece of fruit, and he encouraged the older children to read the scripture texts considered during Bible studies and that way hold their interest. This typical giving of little gifts to children meant that the ‘allowance’ from Ann, who managed their finances, and that was meant to last him for the full month usually had him back within a week or so asking for more!43

In the later years of his career, Harold had the responsibility of calling on people who had been listening to the Radio Church, in addition to his other pastoral responsibilities. One person he visited was a sixteen-year-old trainee newspaper reporter. Two things really impressed the young man: that Pastor Harker had travelled across Sydney by train carrying two heavy volumes of an Encyclopedia to share with him the accounts of the “dark day (1780)” and the “falling of the stars (1833).” Even more impressive still to him were Harold Harker’s prayers. He prayed words to the effect: “Dear Lord, please help this dear boy to come to know and love you as I do.” That was compelling, and Harold Harker was to live long enough to take delight in the early development of a charismatic and powerful young preacher–Desmond Ford–one of “his boys.”44

Later Years

Turning 70 in 1947, Harold was encouraged to retire, something he fiercely resisted, but it was not to be his decision. Fortunately, their son Eric provided them with a home in Dora Creek just four miles from Avondale College. Never having driven a car, Harold was also provided in his retirement, by his son Jack (John), with a small boat with an inboard motor, so he and Ann could travel by water up to Avondale College for Sabbath services. But in order to help starving children in post-war Europe, Harold soon sold it and so Jack bought him another with strict instruction that one was not to be sold — ever!45

Soon there was need for a church, so land was purchased, and a new church building was erected and dedicated debt free the first Sabbath it was used. And, of course, son Jack had soon noticed the second boat he had provided had also been sold. The money thus gained had been used to help buy the land for the new church.46

Looking for a new challenge Harold and Ann moved to Stanthorpe in Queensland in mid-1952 to assist in building up the congregation. He also led out in the retirement of the debt on the new church building. With this move to Queensland, Harold had pastored in every state in Australia.47 The conference president, R. A. Greive, provided Harold with a motorized bicycle and this was a great help in enabling him to move around his parish, especially the hilly parts although Harold was never complimentary of his mechanical means of transport.48

At three thousand feet elevation, the winters were cold in Stanthorpe and Ann found the climate there difficult. So after just two years they made their final move, this time to Warrimoo in the Blue Mountains west of Sydney, New South Wales.49 Harold soon had 12 believers there who needed a church but did not have the funds to build one. So Harold and others got to work and money came in from numerous places and a church home was built for the little congregation. Harold, as pastor, continued with what he had always done: he visited extensively around the community, getting to know his neighbors and the congregation grew. Getting rather deaf by this time, Ann, for safety reasons, took Harold’s bicycle away from him, and so he walked, up to 20 miles a week around his home as he continued with his visitation program, sharing copies of the Signs of the Times.50 Increasingly deaf, his sermons tended to get a little loud, and Ann would reproachfully say, regularly, “Don’t shout Harold, don’t shout!” To raise money to help struggling students, he enjoying woodwork, made swings, and sold them.51

Harold would often rise in the morning cheerfully singing hymns and talking to his pet budgerigar, Peter. This little bird was free in the house much of the time and one day it managed to get outside and fly away, much to Harold’s distress. Hours later a neighbor came by and told Harold his budgie was in a tree up the street. When he asked the neighbor how he knew it was his bird, he was told, “Well, it is your voice and he is loudly proclaiming, ‘Praise the Lord Peter.’ A happy reunion was soon affected.52

Harold spent some months, periodically, in 1962 in the Sydney Adventist Hospital in Wahroonga; a new experience for him as he had been remarkably healthy all his long life. His granddaughter, Noreen Allen, was in the final year of her nursing training, and she and her grandfather were especially close. Her own father had spent most of the last ten years of his life in hospital before dying of tuberculosis when she was just 15. One day Pr. Harker walked Noreen around the front lawn of the hospital and commenting that his work was done, talked to her about her future, the kind of person she should marry, and his hope that she would be a “worker in God’s vineyard.” Noreen was distressed but touched by his continuing unselfish interest in her future, her life and happiness.53

Harold Harker’s life came to a peaceful end on March 31, 1963.54 He was 85 years of age when he died. Harold Harker spent more than 64 years in denominational service.55 Ann Elizabeth Harker died on August 4, 1987, and was buried at Northern Suburbs Cemetery, Sydney, New South Wales, after a memorial service at the Chatswood Church.56

Contribution

As the then Greater Sydney Conference President, S. M. Uttley, commented in the life sketch he wrote, “Our beloved brother and fellow minister was deeply esteemed by the laity. His preaching was always characterized by a deep fervor, and his ministry by a deep concern for the needy and unfortunate.”57

Sources

“A number of people . . .” Australasian Record, May 29, 1922.

Allen, Winifred Eugenie. “Tribute to my Father.” Unpublished document held in the South Pacific Division Heritage Centre, Avondale College of Higher Education, Cooranbong, New South Wales. Box Number 2181 biographical A - Z.

Allen, Winifred Eugenie. “A Humble Man: Anecdotal Memories of her Father, Harold Cecil Knightly Harker.” Unpublished document in the personal collection of the author.

Allen, Winifred Eugenie. “Childhood Memories.” Unpublished document held in the personal collection of the author.

Allen, Winifred Eugenie. “Grandpa.” Unpublished document held in the personal collection of the author.

Allen, Winifred Eugenie. “Harold Cecil Harker.” Unpublished document held in the personal collection of the author.

Allen, Winifred, Eugenie. “The Church Built on Faith and Prayer.” Unpublished document held in the South Pacific Division Heritage Centre, Avondale College of Higher Education, Cooranbong, New South Wales, Box Number 2181, Biographical A - Z.

“At the close of the South New South Wales . . .” Australasian Record, November 5, 1928.

Baker, W. L. H. “The Victorian Conference.” Union Conference Record, March 9, 1908.

Battye, W. E. “Harold Cecil Knightley Harker Obituary.” Australasian Record, April 29, 1963.

Birth certificate no. BXB 568465 2, (1877). Sub District of Weymouth, County of Dorset, England.

“Brother Harold Harker . . .” Union Conference Record, February 11, 1907.

Butz, Edwin S. “Western Australia.” Australasian Record, May 12, 1919.

“Distribution of Labour.” Australasian Record, September 24, 1928.

Gillis, W. and R. M. Gillis. “Burnie, Tasmania.” Australasian Record, October 16, 1916.

Harold C. K. Harker Biographical Records. South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives. Folder: “Harker, Harold C. K.” Document: “Biographical Information Blank, November 27, 1947.”

Harker, Barry Raymond. Deeply Esteemed, the life and ministry of H.C.K. Harker. Privately published, 2009. Held in the private collection of the author.

Harker, H. C. “Castlemaine.” Australasian Record, August 10, 1925.

Harker, H. C. “Cottesloe Beach, Western Australia.” Australasian Record, May 31, 1920.

Harker, H. C. K. “To Mr. Zeunert,” c. 1960, private letter held in the South Pacific Division Heritage Centre, Avondale College of Higher Education, Cooranbong, New South Wales, Australia, Box 2181, Biographical A – Z.

Hennig, W. A. “The Victorian Conference.” Union Conference Record, December 1, 1904.

Hilliard, E. “Biennial Report of the Tasmanian Conference from 1901 to 1903.” Union Conference Record, September 11, 1903.

Hindson, Anna L. “The Victorian Camp Meeting.” Australasian Record, February 28, 1927.

“Names of Students Enrolled.” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1900.

“Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, January 1, 1900.

Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1900.

“Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1901.

“Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, September 1, 1901.

“Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, September 1, 1902.

“Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1904.

“Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, July 9, 1906.

“Our Canvassers.” Union Conference Record, September 3, 1906.

“The New Zealand Tract Society.” Bible Echo and Signs of the Times, January 22, 1894.

Parker, C. H. “Tasmanian Camp Meeting.” Union Conference Record, January 1, 1912.

“Pastor H. C. Harker has been called . . .” Australasian Record, February 11, 1935.

Scragg, W. M. R. “News from Tasmania.” Australasian Record, January 23, 1939.

Smith, T. L. “Victoria – Tasmania.” Australasian Record, July 4, 1924.

“The Pitcairn will probably be in Wellington . . .” Bible Echo and Signs of the Times, November 15, 1893

Uttley, S. M. “Life Sketch for Pr. H. C. Harker.” Australasian Record, April 29, 1963.

“Victorian Camp Meeting.” Australasian Record, February 23, 1925.

Notes

  1. Sub District of Weymouth, County of Dorset, England, Birth certificate no. BXB 568465 2, (1877), for Harold Cecil Knightly Harker, County of Dorset, England.

  2. W. E. Allen, “Harold Cecil Knightly Harker,” unpublished manuscript written by the daughter of H. C. K. Harker in the personal collection of the author, 1.

  3. Harold C. K. Harker Biographical Records; South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives; Folder: “Harker, Harold C. K;” Document: “Biographical Information Blank.”

  4. Allen, “Harold Cecil Knightly Harker,” unpublished manuscript.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Barry Raymond Harker, Deeply Esteemed, the Life and Ministry of H.C.K. Harker, privately published, 2009, held in the private collection of the author, 4-8.

  7. Ibid., 8.

  8. Ibid., 9-11.

  9. “The Pitcairn will probably be in Wellington . . . ,” Bible Echo and Signs of the Times, November 15, 1893, 368; “The New Zealand Tract Society,” Bible Echo and Signs of the Times, January 22, 1894, 22.

  10. H. C. K. Harker, to Mr. Zeunert, c. 1960, private letter held in the South Pacific Division Heritage Centre, Avondale College of Higher Education, Cooranbong, New South Wales, Australia, Box 2181, Biographical A – Z; Pr. Harker’s walking stick is a significant historical artifact, as it was made from discarded lumber from the Pitcairn. After the church sold the vessel it foundered off Mindoro in the Philippines in 1912 so the walking stick is the only piece of the vessel left. Held at the South Pacific Division Heritage Centre, Avondale College of Higher Education, Cooranbong, New South Wales, as artifact 2018-216.

  11. Barry Raymond Harker, Deeply Esteemed, the Life and Ministry of H.C.K. Harker, privately published, 2009, 13, held in the private collection of the author.

  12. Harold C. K. Harker Biographical Records; South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives; Folder: “Harker, Harold C. K.,” Document: “Biographical Information Blank, November 27, 1947.”

  13. Ibid.

  14. Barry Raymond Harker, Deeply Esteemed, the Life and Ministry of H.C.K. Harker, privately published, 2009, held in the private collection of the author.

  15. “Our Canvassers,” Union Conference Record, January 1, 1900, 10.

  16. ‘Our Canvassers,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1900, 10.

  17. “Names of Students Enrolled,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1900, 8.

  18. See, for example, “Our Canvassers,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1901, 10. Since leaving Avondale he canvassed in Palmerston South and then in Nelson selling Home Hand Book.

  19. See, for example, “Our Canvassers,” Union Conference Record, September 1, 1901, 12; and “Our Canvassers,” Union Conference Record, September 1, 1902, 7.

  20. E. Hilliard, “Biennial report of the Tasmanian Conference from 1901 to 1903,” Union Conference Record, September 11, 1903, 10.

  21. “Our Canvassers,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1904, 4.

  22. W. A. Hennig, “The Victorian Conference,” Union Conference Record, December 1, 1904, 5.

  23. W. L. H. Baker, “The Victorian Conference,” Union Conference Record, March 9, 1908, 6.

  24. Harold C. K. Harker Biographical Records; South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives; Folder: “Harker, Harold C. K;” Document: “Biographical Information Blank, November 27, 1947.”

  25. C. T. Parkinson and D. I. Jenkins, “Ann Elizabeth Harker Obituary,” Record, September 26, 1987, 14.

  26. Ibid.

  27. See, for example, “Our Canvassers,” Union Conference Record, July 9, 1906, 4; “Our Canvassers,” South Pacific Record, September 3, 1906, 3.

  28. “Brother Harold Harker . . . ,” Union Conference Record, February 11, 1907, 7.

  29. C. H. Parker, “Tasmanian Camp Meeting,” Union Conference Record, January 1, 1912, 4.

  30. W. Gillis and R. M. Gillis, “Burnie, Tasmania,” Australasian Record, October 16, 1916, 6-7.

  31. Harold C. K. Harker Biographical Records; South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives; Folder: “Harker, Harold C. K;” Document: “Biographical Information Blank, November 27, 1947.”

  32. Edwin S. Butz, “Western Australia,” Australasian Record, May 12, 1919, 4.

  33. H. C. Harker, “Cottesloe Beach, Western Australia,” Australasian Record, May 31, 1920, 6.

  34. “A number of people . . . ,” Australasian Record, May 29, 1922, 8.

  35. T. L. Smith, “Victoria – Tasmania,” Australasian Record, July 4, 1924, 7.

  36. “Victorian Camp Meeting,” Australasian Record, February 23, 1925, 4.

  37. Anna L. Hindson, “The Victorian Camp Meeting,” Australasian Record, February 28, 1927, 5.

  38. “Distribution of Labour,” Australasian Record, September 24, 1928, 5.

  39. “At the close of the South New South Wales . . . ,” Australasian Record, November 5, 1928, 8.

  40. “Pastor H. C. Harker has been called . . . ,” Australasian Record, February 11, 1935, 8.

  41. W. M. R. Scragg, “News from Tasmania,” Australasian Record, January 23, 1939, 6.

  42. For example, see H. C. Harker, “Cottesloe Beach, Western Australia,” Australasian Record, May 31, 1920, 6; also H. C. Harker, “Castlemaine,” Australasian Record, August 10, 1925, 6.

  43. Allen, “Harold Cecil Knightly Harker,” unpublished manuscript.

  44. Personal knowledge of the author as a colleague of Desmond Ford.

  45. Barry Raymond Harker, Deeply Esteemed, the Life and Ministry of H.C.K. Harker, privately published, 2009, held in the private collection of the author.

  46. Allen, “Harold Cecil Knightly Harker,” unpublished manuscript.

  47. Harold C. K. Harker Biographical Records; South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives; Folder: “Harker, Harold C. K;” Document: “Biographical Information Blank, November 27, 1947.”

  48. Barry Raymond Harker, Deeply Esteemed, the Life and Ministry of H.C.K. Harker, privately published, 2009, held in the private collection of the author.

  49. Allen, “Harold Cecil Knightly Harker,” unpublished manuscript.

  50. Ibid., 5.

  51. Ibid.

  52. Allen, “Harold Cecil Knightly Harker,” 5.

  53. Noreen (Allen) Devine, granddaughter of H. C. K. Harker, interview by author, Cooranbong, New South Wales, April 1, 2018.

  54. W. E. Battye, “Harold Cecil Knightley Harker Obituary,” Australasian Record, April 29, 1963, 15.

  55. S. M. Uttley, “Life Sketch for Pr. H. C. Harker,” Australasian Record, April 29, 1963, 13.

  56. C. T. Parkinson and D. I. Jenkins, “Ann Elizabeth Harker Obituary,” Record, September 26, 1987, 14.

  57. Ibid.

×

Devine, Lester. "Harker, Harold Cecil Knightly (1877–1963)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Accessed June 13, 2024. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=F7X2.

Devine, Lester. "Harker, Harold Cecil Knightly (1877–1963)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Date of access June 13, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=F7X2.

Devine, Lester (2020, January 29). Harker, Harold Cecil Knightly (1877–1963). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved June 13, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=F7X2.