The Southern Africa-Indian Ocean Division was organized in 2003, and its current territory is comprised of the following union conferences and missions: “Botswana, Indian Ocean, Malawi, Northern Zambia, Southern Africa, Southern Zambia, Zimbabwe Central, Zimbabwe East, and Zimbabwe West Union Conferences; Mozambique, North-Eastern Angola, and South-Western Angola Union Missions; and the Sao Tome and Principe Mission.”1
Public evangelism (for the purpose of this article) refers to the public proclamation of the Word of God by means of conducting evangelistic campaigns. Public in this sense depicts open proclamation of the gospel. The gospel generally means the good news about Jesus Christ. The gospel by nature is not supposed to be bad news. “The gospel of Christ is aggressive and diffusive.”2 Since most people around Southern Africa enjoy sharing the good news, this makes it possible to have many participants, including pastors who in turn are leveraged by laypersons, who proclaim the gospel as lay evangelists. This article begins by defining public evangelism according to the Bible and the Ellen G. White’s writings. Part II focuses on public evangelism in the respective union conferences and missions of SID.
Spiritual Foundation for Public Evangelism
The strength of preaching the gospel as seen in the various evangelistic campaigns conducted throughout the Southern African region lies in the Church’s obedience to the Gospel Commission portrayed by the various gospel writers. The Gospel of Matthew articulates the words of Jesus Christ, who said, “‘All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.’” (Matt. 28:18-19 NIV).
The Gospel of Mark also points out saying, “He said to them, ‘Go into all the world and preach the good news to all creation. Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but he who does not believe will be condemned.’” (Mark 16:15-16 NIV) The aspect of leaving no stone unturned is implied in the words of “going into all the world.”
The Gospel of Luke adds some further details: “Then told them, ‘This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things. I am going to send you what my Father has promised; but stay in the city until you have been clothed with power from high.’” (Luke 24:46-49 NIV)
The Gospel of John affirms: “‘…As the Father has sent me, I am sending you’” (John 20:21), and Luke highlights the apostles’ need of power for evangelism and the importance of systematic approach to carrying the work of soul winning: “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.” (Acts 1:6-8 NIV)
Public evangelism should therefore be considered as the fulfilling the mission of God. In this vein, the soul winners are mandated by Christ to go out and make disciples of all nations through the proclamation of the gospel. Going out in the power of the Holy Spirit and the guidance of the holy angels will always result in doing great exploits to the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. There is no need to fear because “God has not given us a spirit of fear, but of power and of love and of a sound mind.” (2 Tim. 1:7 NKJV)
The Bible also affirms, “And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come” (Matt. 24:14 NKJV). The gospel should be spread across cultural settings and beyond national borders. Those who work through evangelism teams believe that the power to convert anyone is in the hands of the Holy Spirit and as human beings they are just conduits of the power of God.
Pastor Mark and Ernestine Finley emphasize: “Evangelism is heaven’s top priority. There is nothing more important to God than saving lost mankind. For He desires all men and women to be saved and come to a knowledge of the truth and He is not willing that any should perish.”3 Jesus Himself said He came “‘to seek and to save that which was lost’” (Luke 19:10).
Martin Carlos expounds so well the Great Commission in full. He posits that there are “four verbs in the Great Commission: Go, Make, Disciple, Baptize, and Teach.”4 He takes note of the fact that among the four verbs, “the one imperative is make disciples.”5 According to him, the goal of the Great Commission is in making disciples. In this view, “baptizing and teaching are just participles” or helping verbs. He also emphasizes that “fulfilling this command is the supreme purpose which should guide the entire mission, establish its priorities, and coordinate all its activities.”6
Fulfilling the Gospel Commission is a present continuance activity from the time of Pentecost. Making disciples of all nations is the burden of all believers throughout the world. The Southern African Indian Ocean Division has taken this assignment very seriously. Evangelism is therefore considered to be “evangeliving.” It is not an event that comes and goes, but a lifestyle for all members of the church in their everyday life.
Macro Public Evangelism Approach
There is enough evidence from Ellen G. White’s writings that motivates the Church members in the SID territory to continue with passion in conducting disciple making evangelistic campaigns at the macro level. This work calls for “Total Member Involvement.” Ellen White posits that “[e]very true disciple is born into the kingdom of God as a missionary.”7 Every member of the church becomes a soul winner upon accepting Christ as a personal Savior.
The work of soul winning is not taken lightly because the time of peace will not continue forever. We do not have much time to continue with the public proclamation of the word of God. Ellen White gives an admonition when saying, “Time is short, and our forces must be organized to do a larger work.”8 Mega disciple making evangelism approach is what she is referring to. The Church should not think small, but must instead think of doing great things for God while there is still time.
Furthermore, Ellen White articulates, “The church must realize its obligation to carry the gospel of present truth to every creature.”9 The Church is greatly valued by God as a means of carrying forward His mission. She says, “The church is God’s appointed agency for the salvation of men. It was organized for service, and its mission is to carry the gospel to the world.”10 Indeed, the Church was organized for mission. Public proclamation of that mission is expected of the church at all levels.
In view of the urgency of the mission, “...God demands that every soul who knows the truth shall seek to win others to the love of the truth.”11 In the SID territory, it is believed that every baptized member knows the truth and should join hands with other disciple-makers to proclaim the Bible truth publicly. The truth is not for keeping, but it is for sharing in the by ways and highways.
Working Earnestly For Souls
Drawing from the experience of the disciples of old, Ellen White writes, “...The disciples were to work earnestly for souls, giving to all the invitation of mercy. They were not to wait for the people to come to them; they were to go to the people with their message.”12 Using a deliberate approach in public evangelism is the requirement of heaven in order to reach many new souls. Public proclamation of the gospel calls for being proactive in terms of going out to places where the target people may be found.
Non-believers oftentimes find it hard to come to church without the help of older members. In this case, they usually require help. If the apostles did not wait for people to come to them, why should modern disciple-makers decide to do the work differently? The best that the Church can do today is to go out and look for souls. Like Jesus, let us seek to save the lost while there is still time (Luke 19:10). Public proclamation of the gospel through various evangelistic campaigns, gives an opportunity for people to hear the Bible truth.
Systematic Approach to Witnessing
In order to follow the systematic approach, of which Jesus said, “‘...you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth,’” (Acts 1:8 NIV) evangelistic campaigns are to be conducted with careful thought. In every church, in terms of evangelism, they have to begin from the inside and then go out systematically. The inside-out approach to evangelism has the idea of strengthening the inside before reaching out to the public to bring others to Jesus. This is what is often referred to as a “centrifugal” approach.
Ellen White alludes to this approach when she says, “Wherever a church is established, all the members should engage actively in missionary work. They should visit every family in the neighborhood and know their spiritual condition.”13 There is a clear understanding in Southern Africa that it is personal evangelism that prepares people for public evangelism. It becomes easy to conduct an evangelistic campaign where there have been personal labors done before. Every congregation has the potential to reach out and win souls through public proclamation on condition that personal evangelism has been done faithfully.
Leadership is Key to Successful Public Evangelism
Every year, church administrators meet at the division level to plan together on how to advance the Lord’s work in their territory. This is in line with Ellen White’s counsel: “Those who have the spiritual oversight of the church should devise ways and means by which an opportunity may be given to every member of the church to act some part in God’s work.”14
Ellen White further goes on to say, “The elders…should arrange matters so that every member of the church shall have a part to act, that none may lead an aimless life, but that all may accomplish what they can according to their several ability… Let every member of the church become an active worker, —a living stone, emitting light in God’s temple”15
The SID fully understands the counsel of Ellen White that, “Not upon the ordained minister only rests the responsibility of going forth to fulfill this commission. Everyone who has received Christ is called to work for the salvation of his fellow men.”16 The leadership is also there to encourage members that “[t]o everyone work has been allotted, and no one can be a substitute for another.”17 Further encouragement is that “[w]e should all be workers together with God. No idlers are acknowledged as His servants.”18
Total Member Involvement (TMI) is always the talk among the church leaders. They know very well that, “When we have entire, wholehearted consecration to the service of Christ, God will recognize the fact by an outpouring of His Spirit without measure; but this will not be while the largest portion of the church are not laborers together with God.”19
The aim of the church leadership in SID is to ensure that the local church is always working strongly in the area of public evangelism. Ellen White affirms, “When the churches become living, working churches, the Holy Spirit will be given in answer to their sincere request…Then the windows of heaven will be open for the showers of the latter rain.”20
The Church leadership in Southern Africa is trying to avoid a situation where public evangelistic campaigns will be conducted in difficult times. Ellen White alludes to this fact when she says, “The work which the church has failed to do in a time of peace and prosperity, she will have to do in a terrible crisis, under the most discouraging, forbidding circumstances.”21
The Church leadership and the team of evangelists also understand that “[i]n the work of soul-winning, great tact and wisdom are needed. The Saviour never suppressed the truth, but He uttered it always in love. In His intercourse with others, He exercised the greatest tact, and He was always kind and thoughtful. He was never rude, never needlessly spoke a severe word…. .”22
The leadership of the Church is also adhering to the words of Ellen White when she says, “Seventh-day Adventists are making progress, doubling their numbers, establishing missions, and unfurling the banner of truth in the dark places of the earth; and yet the work moves far more slowly than God would have it.”23 They agree with her appeal that says, “Time is short, and our forces must be organized to do a larger work.” There is need for the church to increase its efforts in conducting public campaigns in the entire region.
The sharing of the gospel through public proclamation has been going on for a long time, which can be seen in how the church membership has been growing. Growth is usually seen through the number of churches planted and also in the increase of church membership. The following section will present the membership growth patterns for the union conferences in SID during the period of five years (2014 -2018), except in few areas where information for the five year period was not available online.
Patterns of Membership and Church Growth in the SID by Unions
This section will present the growth patterns in the number of churches and membership. It is believed that where public evangelism is done faithfully, the results are usually seen in the opening of new churches branches and also increase in church membership. In some cases, there is splitting of the already existing local churches to form smaller church units with the potential to better evangelize and ultimately outgrow in membership number the original local church.
The methods generally used in sharing the gospel in the region are in two categories, as already mentioned: public evangelism and personal evangelism. This article focuses only on public evangelism as a major contributor to the church’s growth patterns. The methods that are used in public evangelism will be shared at a later stage. First, we present the growth patterns in unions conferences and missions.
Botswana Union Conference
According to General Conference online Adventist statistics, the Botswana Union Conference operated as a Union Mission from 2004 to 2012. It was organized as Union Conference in 2013. The union is composed of the North Botswana Conference and the South Botswana Conference.24 There has been remarkable growth from 2014 to 2018. The number of churches in 2014 was 126, and by the end of 2018, the churches numbered 152. In analyzing this growth, 26 churches were added during this period. The membership in 2014 stood at 40,197, and at the end of 2018, membership had increased to 46,890. This is an increase of 6,693 members.25
Indian Ocean Union Conference
The Indian Ocean Union Conference is composed of 11 entities, namely: “Central Malagasy Conference, east Malagasy Conference, Mahajanga Mission, Mauritius Conference, Mayotte Field Station, North West Malagasy Conference, Reunion Conference, Seychelles Mission, South East Malagasy Conference, South Malagasy Conference, and South West Malagasy Conference.”26
According to General Conference online statistics, the Indian Ocean Union Conference was organized as a union conference in 2013. The Union experienced remarkable growth from 2014 to 2018. The number of churches increased from 853 in 2014 to 1,071 in 2018, an increase of 218 churches. The membership has increased from 141,929 in 2014 to 166,972 in 2018, a total of 25,043.27
Malawi Union Conference
Malawi Union Mission became a union conference in 2015. According to Adventist statistics, the Malawi Union Conference is composed of 3 entities, namely: “Central Malawi [Conference, North Malawi Conference], and South Malawi Conference.”28 The Church in Malawi is increasing progressively. It has experienced remarkable growth from 2014 to 2018. The number of churches has increased from 1,390 in 2014 to 1,498 in 2018, a total of 108 churches. The membership has also increased from 452,994 in 2014 to 572,674 in 2018, a total of 119,680.29
Mozambique Union Mission
The Mozambique Union Mission was organized in 2003. According to Adventist statistics, Mozambique Mission has 4 entities, namely: Central Mission, North Mission, North-east Mission, and South Mission.”30 The Mozambique Union Mission has the following growth patterns: From 1,031 churches in 2014 to 1,044 in 2018, an increase of 13 churches. The membership has grown from 327,052 in 2014 to 370,568 in 2018, an increase of 43,516.31
North-Eastern Angola Union Mission
The North East Angola Union Mission was organized in 2011. It was re-organized in 2018 to consist of 6 entities, namely, “Angola East Mission, Angola North Mission, Angola North-Eastern Mission, Angola South Luanda and Cabinda Mission, East Association Mission, and North Association Mission.” The North-Eastern Angola Union Mission has increased from 414 churches in 2014 to 600 in 2018, a total of 186 churches. The membership has grown from 156,853 in 2014 to 233,575 in 2018, an increase of 76,722.32
Northern Zambia Union Conference
The Northern Zambia Union Conference was organized into a union conference after the dividing of the then-Zambia Union Conference in 2015, with a membership that had gone over one million. The Northern Union Conference has the following entities: “Copperbelt Zambia Conference, Luapula Zambia Conference, Midlands East Zambia Conference, Midlands West Zambia Conference and North Zambia Field.” According to the online General Conference statistics, from the time it was organized into a conference, the number of churches has increased from 1,449 in 2015 to 1,728 in 2018, an increase of 279 churches. The membership has increased from 508,383 in 2015 to 582,124 in 2018, a total of 73,741.33
South-Western Angola Union Mission
The South-Western Angola Union Mission was organized in 2011. The entities under this union mission are: “Central Association Mission and South Association Mission.”34 From 2014, the church membership increased from 726 to 891, a total of 165 churches. The membership increased from 254,592 in 2014 to 267,212 in 2018, or an increase of 12,620.35
Southern Africa Union Conference
The Southern Africa Union Conference was organized into a conference in 2003. The following are the entities under this union conference: “Cape Conference, Kwa Zulu Natal-Free State Conference, Lesotho Conference, North Namibia Conference, Northern Conference, South Namibia Conference, Swaziland Conference, and Trans-Orange Conference.” The number of churches in this Union Conference has increased from 1,202 in 2014 to 1,323 in 2018, a total of 121 churches. The membership also increased from 156,269 in 2014 to 184,091 in 2018, an increase of 27,822.36
Southern Zambia Union Conference
The Southern Zambia Union Conference, like the Northern Zambian Union Conference, was organized into a separate Union Conference after the dividing of the then Zambia Union Conference into two union conferences in 2015. The entities under the Southern Union Conference are: “East Zambia Field, Lusaka Conference, South Zambia Conference, West Zambia Field, and the new Woodlands Conference.” The union conference has grown from 1,007 churches in 2015 to 1,255 churches in 2018, a total of 248 churches. The membership has increased from 570,681 in 2015 to 704,306 in 2018, a total of 133,625.37
Zimbabwe Central Union Conference
This union was organized in 2018 after the division of the Zimbabwe Union Conference. Since it was recently organized, there are no statistics that can be used in analyzing the growth. The union conference has 1,037 churches, with a membership of 310,668.38
Zimbabwe East Union Conference
The union was organized in 2018 after the division of the Zimbabwe Union Conference. The union conference has 912 churches with a membership of 354,833.39
Zimbabwe West Union Conference
This union was organized in 2018 after the division of the Zimbabwe Union Conference. The union conference has 426 churches, with a membership of 288,159.40
Sao Tome and Principe Mission
This mission was organized in 2011 and operates as an attached field under the Southern Africa-Indian Ocean Division. Though small, this mission has grown from nine churches in 2014 to 21 churches in 2018, a total of 12 churches. The membership has grown from 6,012 in 2014 to 6,694 in 2018, an increase of 682 members.41
Methods Being Used in Public Evangelism
Public evangelism in the SID region is characterized by the use of many differing methods. The main focus is the public preaching of the word of God, be it indoors or in the open. As already mentioned above, there is a lot of preparation required for personal evangelism. Personal evangelism is not the focus of this article, but acts as the preparatory stage for evangelism, the public proclamation of the gospel.
Corroboration between pastors and lay members is essential for doing public evangelism. Laypersons have an option of joining one or more of the following groups: Adventist Men’s Organization (AMO), Dorcas Society, Women Ministry, singing groups, Literature Evangelists, Global Mission Pioneers, the youth, and child preachers.
Evangelistic Campaigns: Open-air preaching or indoor proclamation usually lasts for two to three weeks. Pre-campaigns are needed to prepare the ground for public preaching. In the Southern Africa Indian Ocean Division, there has been no situation where an evangelistic campaign ends without winning souls. Below are some of the methods used in different union territories.
Ndima Method of Public Evangelism
“Ndima” is a Tonga word (Tonga: A language spoken in Southern Zambia) and is also known as “Zunde” in Shona, Zimbabwe. These words mean the same. They refer to a task, a job or work performed in a chief’s field of maize, cassava, finger millet or other areas in a day or two by the chief’s invited subjects. After the task has been done, the chief entertains the Ndima volunteer workers with a feast at his palace. The churches in Zimbabwe and Zambia have adopted this method in evangelism. It is a method that combines both personal and public evangelism.
The Ndima volunteer workers use their own resources and go out as a group of men and women to some selected area where they camp for four to five days. During those days, they visit every home or village during the day and conduct Bible studies in the process. In the evening, most of the people that were visited and witnessed to during the day meet for the preaching session. During the Ndima or Zunde programs, it is not one person who preaches, but five to seven preachers follow one another.42
The soul winning results have always been encouraging. People give themselves to the Lord and get baptized as a result of these Ndima or Zunde public evangelism programs. New congregations have been established, and such congregations have grown into organized churches.
Impact Southern Africa
The Impact Southern Africa strategy was borrowed from the United States of America and adopted by the African youth in Southern Africa. The Impact way of doing evangelism is prominent in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and South Africa. Their method of evangelism consists of community services, personal and public evangelism.
Mostly, Impact youth groups go to previously unentered areas. In conducting preaching programs, usually there is only one person assigned to preach, but they use several preaching points.43
Land Running Evangelism Strategy
The Land Running evangelism approach is a method that combines both personal and public evangelism. This is a method commonly used in West Zambia Field of the Southern Zambia Union Conference. They refer to it as “Land Running – No Caucusing, no Budget,”44 meaning you use less money in conducting evangelistic campaigns while maximizing on the number of preaching points.
This method is inexpensive in the sense that there is only one preacher to take care of, and that preacher will be speaking to a small group that does not need a public address system. The preacher usually will use the home, the balcony or the backyard to preach the messages for a period of two to three weeks. When using this method, there is no need for a pulpit or platform.
Land Running uses direct preaching without an interpreter in most cases. This method has worked well for the Western Province of Zambia. Many people have been baptized, and many church branches have been opened, and some are now churches.
Reaping The Lord’s Harvest
Reaping the Lord’s Harvest is a Southern Zambia Union initiative. This initiative involves all church administrators, directors, pastors, and some lay preachers joining hands and going to a local conference or field and conduct multiple evangelistic campaigns.
During the time of the reaping the Lord’s harvest, all those in church leadership are requested to leave their offices for a period of three weeks. At the end of the three weeks of public preaching, there are usually mass baptisms conducted. This method has worked well for the Southern Zambia Union Conference. This is the last of the many public evangelism methods that have helped the unions in SID to experience church and membership growth.
Adventists in Southern Africa seek to integrate public evangelism into their daily life, and so not limit it to church organized events. The Southern Africa Indian Africa Division initiative of operation total member involvement which requires “revival, equipping, outreach, reaping, and nurture” can be said to be an initiative that has helped greatly to have membership increase and retention in the division territory.
There is always a well-planned program of following the “GROW” Initiative of the General Conference which requires preparing the soil, plant the seed, cultivate the crop, harvest the crop, and preserve the harvest.
The Fishers of Men principle helps to combat issues of apostasy. “The leadership of the Southern Africa-Indian Ocean Division has taken this challenge seriously, through the introduction of a new initiative called ‘Fishers of Men,’ to disciple new believers.” The idea is that “Immediately after their baptism, new believers are trained, equipped, and encouraged to begin sharing their faith.”45
This special initiative for SID “has played a crucial role in closing the ‘gap.’ The ‘gap’ is defined as the waiting period a new member goes through immediately after baptism because their church is not intentional in getting them immediately involved in reaching others.”46 Ellen White stated it well when she wrote, “No sooner does one come to Christ that there is born in his heart the desire to make known to others the precious friend he has found in Jesus; the saving and sanctifying truth cannot be shut up in his heart.”47
While it must be noted that there are few countries where public evangelism is not widely used, generally it has worked well for Southern Africa. There have been groups from the USA like “Share Him,” “Maranatha International,” and “Light Bearers” under the supervision of the General Conference of Seventh Adventist Church. They can all attest to the fact that the Southern Africa territory has always been ready for harvest- through public evangelism.
Finley, Mark and Ernestine Finley. Fulfilling God’s End-Time Mission: A Comprehensive Evangelism Training Manual. Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2013.
Martin, Carlos G. Theology of Mission and Evangelism: An Adventist Perspective. 2nd ed. Collegedale, TN: Southern Adventist University, 2012.
Ratsara, Paul. Fishers of Men: Discipling and Training. Fallbrook, CA: Hart Research Center, 2009.
Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association. Various years. https://www.adventistyearbook.org/. Accessed: January 8, 2020.
White, Ellen G. Christian Service. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing, 1925.
White, Ellen G. Evangelism. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1946.
White, Ellen G. Steps to Christ. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1892.
White, Ellen G. Testimonies for the Church Volume 6. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing.
White, Ellen G. Testimonies for the Church Volume 9. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1909.
White, Ellen G. The Acts of the Apostles. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1911.
White, Ellen G. The Desire of Ages. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1898.
White, Ellen G. ARH, Sept. 2, 1890; Dec. 12, 1893; Feb. 15, 1887; Feb. 25, 1890.
“Southern Africa-Indian Ocean Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (2021) https://www.adventistyearbook.org/entity?EntityID=20742. Accessed January 8, 2020.↩
Ellen G. White, Christian Service (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 1925), 12.↩
Mark and Ernestine Finley, Fulfilling God’s End-Time Mission: A Comprehensive Evangelism Training Manual (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2013), 6.↩
Carlos G. Martin, Theology of Mission and Evangelism: An Adventist Perspective, 2nd ed. (Collegedale, TN: Southern Adventist University, 2012), 52.↩
Ellen G. White, The Desire of Ages (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1898), 195.↩
Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church Volume 9 (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1909), 27.↩
Ellen G. White, Christian Service (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing, 1925), 111.↩
Ellen G. White, The Acts of the Apostles (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1911), 9.↩
Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church Volume 9 (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1909), 103.↩
Ellen G. White, The Acts of the Apostles (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1911), 28.↩
Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church Volume 6 (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1909), 296.↩
Ellen G. White, Testimonies to the Church Volume 9 (Mountain View CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1909), 116.↩
Ellen G. White, ARH, Sept. 2, 1890.↩
Ellen G. White, The Acts of the Apostles (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1911), 110.↩
Ellen G. White, ARH, December 12, 1893.↩
Ellen G. White, ARH, February 15, 1887.↩
Ellen G. White, Christian Service (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing, 1925), 253.↩
Ellen G. White, ARH, Feb. 25, 1890.↩
Ellen G. White, Evangelism (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing, 1946), 31.↩
Ellen G. White, Christian Service (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing, 1925), 231.↩
White, Christian Service, 97.↩
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The writer had an opportunity of attending both the Zunde in Zimbabwe and the Ndima in Zambia programs. The writer is writing from his experience in participating.↩
The writer participated in one of the Impact programs and is a member of Lusaka Central church where the group in Zambia comes from. Through the reports given by the Impact group and also as the Union Director in charge of evangelism, the writer has a clear understanding of the Impact Group way of conducting public evangelism, especially in Zambia.↩
The writer participated in the Land running program and is writing from experience.↩
Paul Ratsara, Fishers of Men: Discipling and Training (Fallbrook, CA: Hart Research Center, 2009), 7-8.↩
Ellen White, Steps to Christ (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1892), 78.↩