Biblical Archeology Museum of the Brazil Adventist University

By Janaina Silva Xavier, and Yanka de Araújo Pessoa

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Janaina Silva Xavier

Yanka de Araújo Pessoa

First Published: December 9, 2021

The Biblical Archeology Museum (Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica or MAB) is an institution of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, operating in the territory of the Central Brazil Union Conference. It is located at Brazil Adventist University, Engenheiro Coelho campus (UNASP-EC), at Estrada Municipal Pastor Walter Boger, km 3.5, Zip Code 13448-900, in the Lagoa Bonita neighborhood, in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

Context

In 1916, Pastor J. H. Boehm and his wife, on a visit to the countryside of the state of São Paulo, passed through the region where the city of Engenheiro Coelho is currently located. At the time, some Adventists already lived in that area and in his passage through the region, Pastor Boehm baptized one more person.1 Several decades later, in 1983, the Seventh-Day Adventists acquired Lagoa Bonita farm, which then belonged to the lands of the city of Artur Nogueira, in the countryside of São Paulo. On that farm, the new campus of Brazil College (IAE, present UNASP-EC, Engenheiro Coelho campus) was established. After a few years, the city of Engenheiro Coelho was officially organized, and the lands of Lagoa Bonita farm became part of this new territory.2

In 1991, the Theology program was transferred to the new campus and, at the beginning of 1992, the Ellen G. White Research Center, until then located at IAE campus, in São Paulo, (present UNASP-SP, São Paulo campus) was also transferred to Engenheiro Coelho campus. This change was made so that students on the new campus could use the White Center space for their academic studies. Years later, an Adventist archaeologist, Paulo Bork, donated some pieces from his personal collection to the institution. These artifacts came under the responsibility of Ellen G. White Research Center, due to its vocation in historical research.3

Museum Foundation

The Biblical Archeology Museum started with that initiative by Paulo Bork, an archaeologist who started his studies in Brazil and completed them in the United States.4 In 1924, Pacific Union College, California, purchased two Babylonian tablets and donated them to Bork, which collected archaeological objects.5 Throughout his life and academic career, this archaeologist acquired numerous historical pieces for his personal collection and, in the early 1990s, he decided to donate them to IAE (UNASP-SP), for the composition of a collection. This transfer was implemented in 1993, when the archaeologist donated 110 pieces and 200 books from his technical library in archeology.6

With a small archaeological collection already assembled, in 1999, the UNASP leadership decided to appoint Professor Alberto Timm as director and curator of the museum. At the time, the professor was already the director of Ellen G. White Research Center. At the same time, the White Center leadership was also responsible for the National Adventist History Center Museum and, therefore, the artifacts were kept inside the vault of the research center. In order to help Professor Timm, some professors were appointed assistant curators of the museum.7

In the beginning of 2000, the museum's furniture was inaugurated, and on May 14 of the same year, the exhibition was opened to the public. The Biblical Archeology Museum is the first and largest biblical archeology museum in Latin America. It was founded to present the culture related to the biblical narrative and the origin of Christianity.8 In addition to the 110 pieces donated by Paulo Bork, the museum started its activities with several old coins, two vases and a lamp - donated by Professor Siegfried J. Schwantes and the businessman Milton S. Afonso. In addition to these, another 46 ceramic and 4 metal pieces were part of the exhibition. These were donated by Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem, in July 1998, to Professor Rodrigo Silva, with authorization from Israel Antiquities Authority.9

Since its foundation, the Biblical Archeology Museum has been maintained with UNASP-EC resources and infrastructure. The institution was created with the purpose of acting in the three functions of the museological operational chain: preservation, research and communication (exhibitions and educational actions). Its mission is “to promote the study of the historicity of the Bible, privileging actions for the preservation, investigation and communication of archaeological collections from the biblical context, stimulating society to critical reflection and knowledge of Christianity, its origins and culture.” For this reason, the museum's works are aimed at a diverse audience: scholars, researchers and the community in general, regardless of their religious denomination. The museum's intention is to be a place where everyone is welcome.10

History

In 2012, the Museum received its largest coin collection, which included around 1500 items of Persian, Greek, Roman, Medieval, and ancient Near Eastern origin, as well as coins from Brazil and other countries. It also received a collection of 178 books, including Bibles and rare works, a collection with seven pre-Columbian pieces and a collection with 25 replicas of stamps from Correios do Brasil [Brazilian Post Office], from the Legado Brasileiro [Brazilian Legacy] series.11 The exhibition site which is inside the library, is approximately 45 m².12

There, the Biblical Archeology Museum has received visits from diverse audiences, of all age groups, composed of both scholars and interested people in visiting the UNASP-EC campus. Visits can be scheduled by e-mail or phone.13 In May 2013, for example, students from Brazil Adventist University Academy, Hortolândia campus, who were members of the institution's Science Club, took part in a cultural excursion to the museum. During the visit to the exhibition of ancient artifacts, students also attended a lecture on toys at the time of Jesus.14

Due to the large amount of artifacts under the care of the Biblical Archeology Museum, it was noticed the need to build a definitive building for the museum.15 In 2013, the cornerstone for the start of construction was laid, and the first part of the work was expected to be delivered in that same year.16 The institution received many donations to proceed with the works.17 However, the funds acquired were not sufficient to complete the construction, so it was necessary to postpone the inauguration of the museum's own building. Since then, the works were suspended, waiting for the gathering of enough resources to finish the construction.18

Later, in 2016, the Biblical Archeology Museum, which until then was called Paulo Bork Museum, came to be known as UNASP Biblical Archeology Museum. The maintenance of the museum, its physical expansion and the acquisition of pieces are the responsibility of UNASP-EC, but they are also supported through donations. Since its establishment, this museum provides cultural knowledge and plays an important role for those who visit it. It is useful for the perception of a consensus between academic research and the transformation of its results into content accessible to society. The theology course at UNASP, for example, maintains a research group focused on the archaeological area and, among the various study groups in the History course, there is one on studies of Antiquity. From the artifacts exhibited by the Biblical Archeology Museum, students can do more enriching researches that are related to the biblical context.19

The Museum's academic relevance is also expressed through international events, publications, and specialization courses. In 2017 and 2018, UNASP held, in partnership with Moriah International Center, the I and II International Congress of Biblical Archeology, bringing together about 400 participants in each edition. The Biblical Archeology Museum collaborators were involved in organizing the event and giving lectures. Each year, an exhibition of the Biblical Archeology Museum collection was presented to visitors. In 2018, in the publications area, the book Arqueologia: a história, os textos e as escritas [Archeology: history, texts and writings] was released – a compilation of texts produced by UNASP Study Group of Antiquity. In 2019, UNASP-EC started the activities of the postgraduate course in History and Ancient Near East Archeology. The faculty of the course is made up of Museum collaborators in the areas of Archeology and History.20

Annually, the Biblical Archeology Museum receives approximately 15 thousand visitors.21 The organization of the museum was structured in order to facilitate the presentation of the guides and the visitors’ understanding. The exhibition was arranged in chronological and geographical order, subdividing the artifacts into seven smaller collections: Patriarchal Period (2350 to 1800 B.C.); Exodus Period (1800 to 1400 B.C.); Period of the Judges or Conquest of Canaan (1400 to 1050 B.C.); Israel’s United and Divided Monarchy Period (1050 to 600 B.C.); Babylonian Captivity and Post-captivity Period, including the Hellenistic Period (600 to 63 B.C.); Roman, Jesus and Apostolic Period (63 B.C. to 100 A.D.); and Post-Apostolic Period, including the Byzantine Period (100 to 1700 A.D.).22

The pieces purchased for the museum go through a long journey of preparation until they reach the exhibition. First, when the piece is removed from its archaeological site, where it was found, it is considered an artifact. Then, the piece is resignified in the market for the purchase and sale of objects and becomes merchandise. After entering the museum's collection, the piece becomes a musealized object. 23 There are currently 400 pieces on permanent display at the museum. Researchers at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and at the University of São Paulo (USP), in São Paulo, develop several researches at the Biblical Archeology Museum. However, the museum does not have yet an appropriate physical space for the exhibition of all its items, nor for receiving all the people who come to visit it or carry out studies.24

Nowadays, the collection is composed of 2,400 pieces of which 400 are archaeological, 1,800 coins and 200 rare works.25 The museum also has replicas of the sarcophagus of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen and Ramses. The first one came from Cairo Museum, and the second one from Israel Museum. As for the original artifacts, the Biblical Archeology Museum houses lamps from the time of Christ, Roman nails, oil vases, etc.26 All objects have a certificate of authenticity and official authorization from the country of origin, and some of these pieces are dated 2300 B.C., since the times of biblical patriarchs. 27 The purpose of the Biblical Archeology Museum is to collect, investigate and expose archaeological findings from the biblical period, in order to present the culture of the social context related to the biblical narrative and the origin of Christianity. Furthermore, the museum aims to outline a new approach in Brazil, creating an academic and contextual relationship between visitors and the world that produced the Holy Bible.28

One of the challenges faced by the museum is its institutional development, which is still timid. It has no creation documentation, internal regulation, staff or own budget. These factors make it difficult for greater production in research or academic publications to be achieved.29 Another challenge is regarding the limited physical structure. The museum does not have yet its own headquarters, but rather a small exhibition hall, which is insufficient for the conservation of the collection and for expographic extroversion. Part of the collection is preserved in the technical reserve of Ellen G. White Research Center, which gives part of its physical structure and servers to the Biblical Archeology Museum.30 In November 2018, progressing to solve this last challenge, the museum was authorized by the Ministry of Culture of Brazil, through the Federal Law for Culture Incentive, to raise funds from the private sector for the construction of its definitive headquarters. The fundraising term will extend for a period of two years.31

Perspective

Nowadays, the Biblical Archeology Museum has a collection of more than two thousand pieces. In the archaeological collection, there are 480 artifacts, covering a period of more than 4,500 years – from the so-called Bronze Period I (2600 B.C.) until the 16th century A.D. These pieces come from several countries such as Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, England, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Iraq and Israel. There are vases, pots, lamps, inscriptions, ceramic and metal idols. The numismatic collection comprises 1,600 coins, with items of Persian, Greek, Roman, Medieval, Near Eastern and Middle Eastern origin, as well as a collection of coins from Brazil and other countries. The collection of rare works has 163 volumes, including Bibles and sermon books (the oldest Bible in the museum is dated 1528).32

In view of the need to house all this material, those responsible for the museum and its artifacts aim to complete the construction of the building where the museum will be installed. In this way, there will also be more space for research and educational actions, in addition to a better conservation and exhibition of pieces.33 As previously mentioned, the Biblical Archeology Museum is under the responsibility of the Ellen G. White Research Center, also located in the UNASP-EC Communication Center building. Due to the permanent increase in the collection, it is necessary to have a larger space with climatization and lighting, which can receive the public and preserve the artifacts, in addition to a public library specialized in archeology, where students can develop their studies.34

The Biblical Archeology Museum leadership continues to raise funds for the construction of the architectural project for the museum's headquarters. The area reserved for construction is approximately 2 thousand m². The complex will have two buildings. The first has already been built and is almost 500 m², which will house the exhibition center. The second unit will be around 1000 m². The main building will have 686 m² of built area with exhibition rooms, library, auditorium, and laboratory, in addition to the administrative space.35

Lists

Official Names:

Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica Paulo Bork [Paulo Bork Biblical Archeology Museum] (1999-2016); Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do UNASP [UNASP Biblical Archeology Museum] (2016-Present).36

Curators:

Pastor Ruben Aguilar Santos was responsible for designing the furniture project for the exhibition room where the museum was installed in 1997. In 1999, the UNASP administration decided that Pastor Alberto R. Timm, director of Ellen G. White Research Center, would also be the curator of the archeology museum. On the occasion, Professors Ruben Aguilar, Rodrigo Silva and Reinaldo Siqueira were chosen as assistant curators.37

Nowadays, Professor Rodrigo Silva is the effective responsible for the museum. As the museum does not have an exclusive full-time server, Professor Janaina Silva Xavier has been working as technical supervisor for the collection since 2012. Since that year, the staff of servers and scholarship holders at Ellen G. White Research Center regularly maintain the space and carry out educational activities. Furthermore, the professors of the Translation and Interpretation, History and Theology courses at UNASP are collaborators in the museum, giving lectures and classes, leading research groups, and publishing materials on archeology.38

Sources

Alves, Charliese. “Clube de Ciências visita Museu de Arqueologia no Unasp” [Science Club visits Archeology Museum at Unasp]. Notícias Adventistas [Adventist News] (Online), June 5, 2013.

Boehm, J. H. “Pelo interior de São Paulo” [Through the countryside of São Paulo]. Revista Mensal [Monthly Review] 12, no. 2 (February 1917): 9.

FE em Ação [Faith in Action]. “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica” [Biblical Archeology Museum]. Video, presentation of the Biblical Archeology Museum (Online), March 13, 2018.

Groupsmedia. “CBN - Museo de Arqueología Bíblica en Brasil” [CBN - Biblical Archeology Museum in Brazil]. Video, interview about the Biblical Archeology Museum (Online), May 15, 2014.

Moura, Vanessa. “Fragmentos da história” [History Fragments]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1247, year 107 (April 2012).

Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica [Biblical Archeology Museum]. Facebook post, December 8, 2018. https://www.facebook.com/.

“Novo IAE comemora décimo aniversário” [New IAE celebrates its tenth anniversary]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1993.

Senis, Thamiris and Mairon Hothon. “Museu do UNASP, em Engenheiro Coelho, conta com mais de 4 mil peças” [UNASP Museum, in Engenheiro Coelho, has more than 4 thousand pieces], UNASP (Online), May 17, 2018.

Silva, Rodrigo e Janaina Xavier. “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica Paulo Bork do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo: Os Caminhos do Diálogo com a Unidade” [Paulo Bork Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University: the Paths of Dialogue with Unity]. Revista Memória em Rede [Networked Memory Review] 2, no. 7 (July-December 2012): 9-11.

Tavares, Valéria Marques dos Santos and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho. “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection]. Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 38.

UNASP-EC. https://www.unasp.br/ec/.

UNASP. “TV Unasp - Museu Paulo Bork lança pedra fundamental” [TV Unasp - Paulo Bork Museum lays cornerstone]. Video, reportage on the laying of the MAB cornerstone (Online), April 4, 2013.

Xavier, Janaina Silva. “Plano Museológico: Uma discussão para o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica Paulo Bork do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo” [Museological Plan: a discussion for Paulo Bork Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University]. Masters dissertation, University of São Paulo (USP), 2015.

Notes

  1. J.H. Boehm, “Pelo interior de São Paulo” [Through the countryside of São Paulo], Revista Mensal [Monthly Review] 12, no. 2 (February 1917): 9.

  2. “Novo IAE comemora décimo aniversário” [New IAE celebrates its tenth anniversary], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1993, 26, 27.

  3. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 38.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Janaina Silva Xavier, “Plano Museológico: Uma discussão para o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica Paulo Bork do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo” [Museological Plan: a discussion for Paulo Bork Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University], Masters dissertation, University of São Paulo [USP], 2015, 121.

  6. Thamiris Senis e Mairon Hothon, “Museu do UNASP, em Engenheiro Coelho, conta com mais de 4 mil peças” [UNASP Museum, in Engenheiro Coelho, has more than 4 thousand pieces], UNASP, May 17, 2018, accessed on July 24, 2019, https://bit.ly/2Yfiv5u.

  7. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 38.

  8. UNASP-EC, “Museu de Arqueologia” [Archeology Museum], accessed on July 24, 2019, https://bit.ly/2K1sQgq.

  9. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 38.

  10. Janaina Silva Xavier (MAB technical supervisor), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA associate editor), August 10, 2019.

  11. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 38.

  12. FE em Ação [FAITH in Action], “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica” [Biblical Archeology Museum], presentation video of the Biblical Archeology Museum, March 13, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2LGl0vT.

  13. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 43.

  14. Charlise Alves, “Clube de Ciências visita Museu de Arqueologia no Unasp” [Science Club visits Archeology Museum at Unasp], Notícias Adventistas [Adventists News], June 5, 2013, accessed on July 24, 2019, https://bit.ly/2JOU372.

  15. FE em Ação [Faith in Action], “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica” [Biblical Archeology Museum], presentation video of the Biblical Archeology Museum, March 13, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2LGl0vT.

  16. UNASP, “TV Unasp - Museu Paulo Bork lança pedra fundamental” [TV Unasp - Paulo Bork Museum lays cornerstone], video with reportage on the laying of the MAB cornerstone, April 4, 2013, accessed on July 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2OlriDm.

  17. Vanessa Moura, “Fragmentos da história” [History Fragments], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1247, year 107 (April 2012): 35.

  18. FE em Ação [Faith in Action], “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica” [Biblical Archeology Museum], presentation video of the Biblical Archeology Museum, March 13, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2LGl0vT.

  19. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 34.

  20. Janaina Silva Xavier (MAB technical supervisor), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA associate editor), August 10, 2019.

  21. Ibid.

  22. Rodrigo Silva e Janaina Xavier, “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica Paulo Bork do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo: Os Caminhos do Diálogo com a Unidade” [Paulo Bork Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University: the Paths of Dialogue with Unity], Revista Memória em Rede [Networked Memory Review] 2, no. 7 (July-December 2012): 9-11.

  23. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 39.

  24. FE em Ação [Faith in Action], “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica” [Biblical Archeology Museum], presentation video of the Biblical Archeology Museum, March 13, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2LGl0vT.

  25. Thamiris Senis e Mairon Hothon, “Museu do UNASP, em Engenheiro Coelho, conta com mais de 4 mil peças” [UNASP Museum, in Engenheiro Coelho, has more than 4 thousand pieces], UNASP, May 17, 2018, accessed on July 24, 2019, https://bit.ly/2Yfiv5u.

  26. FE em Ação [Faith in Action], “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica” [Biblical Archeology Museum], presentation video of the Biblical Archeology Museum, March 13, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2LGl0vT.

  27. Groupsmedia, “CBN - Museo de Arqueología Bíblica en Brasil” [CBN - Biblical Archeology Museum in Brazil], video with interview about the Biblical Archeology Museum, May 15, 2014, accessed on July 24, 2014, https://bit.ly/2LAJUx3.

  28. Rodrigo Silva e Janaina Xavier, “Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica Paulo Bork do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo: Os Caminhos do Diálogo com a Unidade” [Paulo Bork Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University: the Paths of Dialogue with Unity], Revista Memória em Rede [Networked Memory Review] 2, no. 7 (July-December 2012): 7, 8.

  29. Janaina Silva Xavier, “Plano Museológico: Uma discussão para o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica Paulo Bork do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo” [Museological Plan: a discussion for Paulo Bork Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University], Masters dissertation dissertation, University of São Paulo [USP], 2015, 121.

  30. Janaina Silva Xavier (MAB technical supervisor), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA associate editor), August 10, 2019.

  31. Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica [Biblical Archeology Museum], Facebook post, December 8, 2018 (10:03 a.m.), accessed on August 12, 2019, https://bit.ly/2MXuxP1.

  32. Ibid.

  33. Ibid.

  34. Valéria Marques dos Santos Tavares and Cláudia Rodrigues Ferreira de Carvalho, “Arqueologia do antigo Oriente Próximo no Brasil: o Museu de Arqueologia Bíblica do Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo e sua coleção” [Ancient Near East Archeology in Brazil: the Biblical Archeology Museum of Brazil Adventist University and its collection], Revista Caminhando [Walking Review] 22, no. 2 (July-December 2017): 42.

  35. Janaina Silva Xavier (MAB technical supervisor), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA associate editor), August 10, 2019.

  36. Ibid.

  37. Ibid.

  38. Ibid.; For more information about the Biblical Archeology Museum, access the website https://www.unasp.br/ec/museu-de-arqueologia/, or the social media Facebook: @mabunaspec.

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Xavier, Janaina Silva, Yanka de Araújo Pessoa. "Biblical Archeology Museum of the Brazil Adventist University." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. December 09, 2021. Accessed May 21, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=GIH1.

Xavier, Janaina Silva, Yanka de Araújo Pessoa. "Biblical Archeology Museum of the Brazil Adventist University." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. December 09, 2021. Date of access May 21, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=GIH1.

Xavier, Janaina Silva, Yanka de Araújo Pessoa (2021, December 09). Biblical Archeology Museum of the Brazil Adventist University. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 21, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=GIH1.