Overseas Korean Adventist churches were established by Koreans Adventists who accepted the Adventist faith in Korea and immigrated abroad. In 2020, Korean Adventist churches existed in Americas, New Zealand, Germany/Austria, France, Australia, Japan, China, Philippines, Thailand, and Kyrgyzstan.1
The reasons why Koreans immigrate abroad may vary by time. In the 20th century, Koreans fled to neighboring countries such as China, Japan, and Russia for political reasons. Therefore, the Korean community was formed in those areas. In the early 20th century, Koreans were able to immigrate to Hawaii, Mexico, and Los Angeles in response to requests of overseas workers, and they established a Korean community there. However, it was not until the 1960s that Koreans began to emigrate abroad in earnest. The Korean government promulgated the "Overseas Immigration Act" in 1962,2 pushing for a policy that allowed them to move freely overseas. Due to this law, many Koreans left agricultural immigration to Latin America and to Germany as miners and nurses. The United States enacted the "Hart-Celler Act" in 1965 to assign immigration numbers to Asian countries.3 Therefore, many Koreans immigrated to the United States.
Along with this history of immigration, people who became Adventists in Korea also fled to exile or emigrated. And they formed the Adventist community in their settlements. The region where Overseas Korean Adventist churches were organized and developed was the Americas. The area covers the United States, Canada, and Latin America, and many Korean Adventists moved to the Americas and established Korean churches there. This is why most overseas Korean Adventist churches are currently concentrated in the Americas. In addition to the Americas, Korean Adventist churches were established in Australia and Germany, most of which were established after the 1960s.
The history of Overseas Korean Adventist churches is summarized as follows in the order of Japan, China/Taiwan, the Philippines, Central Asia/Russia, the Americas, Germany, and Australia:
Korean Adventist Churches in Japan
Korean Adventist Churches in Tokyo. Japan is the closest country to Korea, so it is the area where the largest number of overseas Koreans live. The history of the establishment of the Korean Adventist church in this area dates back to the 1940s. However, after the end of the Pacific War in 1945, Korean Adventists living in Japan promoted the establishment of the Korean Adventist church in Japan. The first Korean Adventist church established in Japan was the Tokyo church. In-Ok Kim, along with 15 Korean believers, it bought a church hall in Horikiri, Tokyo, and established a church. In 1948 Joon-Hyun Park was appointed as a minister of the church, and the church officially organized on October 1, 1949.4 However, the church was not named as a Korean church because it was a mixture of Koreans and Japanese.
In 1953, when Pastor Joon-Hyun Park left for the United States to study, the Japanese Union Mission appointed Pastor Kwang-Eon Im as a pastor of the Korean church in Tokyo. Pastor Im joined forces with the church members to purchase 319 pyeong of land in Kanamachi in 1961 then built a church and ran an elementary school in 1962.5 After Pastor Im's retirement, there was no Korean pastor for a while, but in 1974 the Korean Union Mission dispatched Pastor Seok-Man Kim as a missionary to the church.
As already mentioned, Koreans and Japanese worshiped the Tokyo church together at this time. Then, in 1985, Koreans became independent and began to worship, making it a Korean church. In 1985 Gi-Sung Jang was appointed as the pastor, and the chapel was moved to Nishinipori. However, when he returned to Canada after a year, the Korean community of worship was reduced. On March 18, 1990, the Korean Union Mission sent Seon-Je Sung as a pastor of the Korean church in Tokyo, and the church was revitalized. Pastor Sung joined forces with the church members to build the church in Nishinipori in 1995 and to officially organize the Korean church.6 About one hundred members of the Korean church in Tokyo are currently attending.
Korean Adventist Church in Osaka. It was in 1951 that the Korean Adventist Church was established in Osaka. In May of that year, American missionaries and Pastor Joon-Hyun Park held an evangelistic meeting for Koreans living in Osaka, Japan, and 14 Koreans were baptized. They built a church in Zhrihasi and held a dedication ceremony on September 8 of that year. At that time an additional 11 people were baptized, and a total of 25 church members began the Korean church in Osaka.7
Nam Young-woo, who was appointed as a pastor at the year of the organization, served in this church until 1962. At that time the church was not an independent Korean church because Koreans and Japanese worshiped together. Thus, the church was named the Osaka Eastern Church from September 1953 and was led by a Japanese pastor from 1962.8
In 1987 Loma Linda Korean church in the United States dispatched Seok-Woo Jeong as a missionary for Koreans in Osaka, and the church only for Koreans finally began. Pastor Seok-Woo Jeong, along with Hang-Ja Moon and Kyung-Ok Yang, purchased a place of worship and organized a church to start the Korean church in Osaka.9 In 1989 Joong-Hoon Kim was in charge of the church as a self-supporting minister, and the number of church members increased to about twenty. After that, the church was in the absence of pastors, and in 2003 Elder Chang-Gil Lee led the church as a lay minister.10
In 2003 the Korean Union Conference sent Elder Dae-Sik Ahn to this church as a lay minister. He continued working in the church with a small number of the church members, and it was officially approved as a worship center by the Japan Union Conference in January 2008. Elder Dae-Sik Ahn returned to Korea in March 2009, and Pastor Soon-Ki Kim was appointed as a pastor of the church as a PMM missionary, promoting missionary work with about twenty members of the church.11
Korean Adventist Churches in China/Taiwan
China. Since the late 19th century, many Koreans have settled in China's Gilim, Heukryong, and Liaoning provinces and lived as ethnic minorities called ethnic Koreans. With China's policy of opening up in 1979, many Koreans were able to visit these areas. In March 1984 Pastor Young-Gil Yoo visited Jangchun, the capital of Gilim Province, and spread the Adventist message. In 1986 he opened an English language institute in Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning Province, which became a center for missionary work for ethnic Koreans in China.12
In August 1990 Elder Heung-Sik Kim established the New Life Style Center in Yanji, the capital of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Region. He led several ethnic Koreans to the Adventist faith at this center and established a church with them in May 1993 and obtained permission from the religious bureau of Yanji.13 In 1995 Hyun-Soo Kim was sent to Yanji, where he renamed the center “Yeonbian Nursing Home” and promoted medical and missionary work. In 1997 Elder Heung-Sik Kim took charge of the nursing home again and was active until October 2000, when he was deported by China’s Public Security Bureau; the Yanji nursing home was closed.
In Beijing, the capital of China, Koreans gathered and worshiped on the Sabbath under the guidance of Elder Su-Jong Oh from September 1992. Elder Su-Jong Oh established the Cheonae Foundation in April 1994 and opened the Beijing English Language Institute in July. The foundation organized the International Adventist Church in Beijing in November 1994 and appointed Kyo-Jun Lee as the pastor. The Beijing English Languate Institute was closed in 1997 by the Chinese government, but the Beijing International Adventist Church continued and was approved by the Beijing Religious Bureau as a formal religious community in June 2003. The Beijing International Adventist Church purchased the 10th floor of the Banghang International Building in May 2008 and used it as a church, but it was later closed due to coercion from the Chinese government.14
As such, Koreans tried to establish Korean Adventist churches in Changchun, Beijing, and Yanji, but the efforts failed due to China’s closed religious policy. However, the Cheongdo Korean Church was established and operated in Cheongdo, Shandong Province, China.15
Taiwan. It was in 1998 that missionary work by Koreans began in Taiwan. In September of that year, Sun-Hong Yoon, a Korean, was appointed as the pastor of Taichung Church. He served at Taichung Church until July 2000, when he moved to Songsan Church in Taipei. Meanwhile, in 1999, Jang-Ho Lee was appointed as the pastor of Shinto Church in Taiwan. He served at the church for five years. Despite their activities, however, they were unable to establish a Korean Adventist church in Taiwan. However, since March 2004, PMM missionaries in Korea have been dispatched to Taiwan to support the Taiwanese church pioneer movement.16
Korean Adventist Churches in the Philippines
It was in the 1980s that a Korean Adventist church was established in the Philippines. On November 30, 1984, 11 Korean Adventists studying in Manila promoted the establishment of the Manila Student Church. They put Pastor Byung-Il Cho in charge and began to worship on the Sabbath at his house. In 1986 they moved to Caret School in Quezon City, and in June 1987 the church was renamed “Manila Korean Adventist Church.” The Korean Union Conference sent Young-Seok Moon to the church as a pastor in July 1989. As the number of church members increased, the church moved its meeting place to a Chinese church in Santa Mesa. In March 1992 Man-Bok Kwon was sent to the church as a pastor, and the church purchased a pastor's house in Quezon City.
After that several pastors were sent to the church by the Korean Union Conference. Pastor Seung-Seok Chae, who was dispatched in March 2004, joined forces with members of the church to purchase a site for church construction in October 2005 and began construction in August 2006. The building was completed on July 14, 2007, when Min-Yeol Park was the pastor of the church. The Korean Adventist Church in Manila grew through this historical process and is now operated as the Korean International Adventist Church in Manila.17
During the development of the Korean Adventist Church in Manila, more Koreans settled in various parts of the Philippines. Among them were lots of Korean Adventists, who established Korean Adventist churches in their areas. Thus, the following Korean Adventist churches were established: Nanuri International School Church, Silang International Church of SDA, 1000 Missionary Movement Korean Church, Cagayan de Oro Korean Adventist Church, and AUP Korean Mission Church.18
Korean Adventist Churches in Central Asia
In five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmanistan), about one hundred eighty thousand Koreans have been living in groups since 1937. For them, the Korean Adventists began their missionary work in 1990 when the Republic of Korea and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations. In 1991 Pastor Gye-Jeong Kim and Pastor Hyung-Won Jeon conducted missionary work for Koreans in Almatah, Kazakhstan and Tashkent, Uzbekistan. It was in May 1992 that a meeting place for Sabbath worship was established in this area. At that time Pastor Jeong-Wan Cho, who was sent to Uzbekistan as a missionary by the Council of Korean Adventist Churches in the Americas, bought a house in Tashkent and began to worship there.19
In June 1992 Pastor Jeong-Wan Cho started English and Hangeul schools. At the school he also taught the Bible and baptized 33 people in that year. As the number of church members increased, he purchased a 300-pyeong place of worship in July 1993 and organized the Korean church in Tashkent. He conducted missionary work in Uzbekistan for five years until 1996, establishing churches in three places: Tashkent, Chiljak, and Pelgana.20
After Pastor Jeong-Wan Cho returned home, the churches were led by Korean missionaries who were sent from the headquarters of 1000 Missionary Movement. Then, since 1999, a Korean pastor was sent again. Pastor Geun-Tae Chung, who was dispatched that year, led the Tashkent Church, Chirchik Church, and Pelgana Church. In the 2000s, he founded a Korean church in Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan. In 2001 Pastor Myung-Hoon Ji was dispatched to build the Bishkek church. In 2004 Pastor Choong-Ho Choi was dispatched, and in 2007 he moved to Almaty, Kazakhstan, where he continued his missionary work.
Meanwhile, in 2005, Geun-Tae Chung was appointed as the director of the missionary department of the Southern Union Mission of Central Asia. At this time there were three Korean Adventist churches: Tashkent and Fergana in Wjubekistan and Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan. Now only the Bishkek Korean Adventist Church remains in Central Asia.21
Korean Adventist Churches in Russia
In Russia, Korean Adventists carried out missionary work in Moscow, Sakhalinsk, and Khabarovsk since the 1990s.
Moscow. Russia allowed foreigners freedom of missionary work under the Perestoroika policy in the 1990s. As a result Elder Hee-Man Kim, who worked as a dental technician in Moscow in August 1993, began a worship meeting there. He worked in Moscow until September 1996 and attempted to pioneer the church, but it failed. After that Elder Hyun-Gil Yoon carried out missionary work in Moscow, but he returned home in November 1999, which halted the Korean missionary work in Moscow.22
Sakhalinsk. In Russia it was Sakhalinsk where Korean missionaries carried out the most active missionary work, because most Koreans settled there. Pastor Young-Gil Yoo, who returned from missionary work in China and studied at the seminary of Sahmyook University, opened a Korean Language (Hangeul) School in Sakhalinsk in 1991 and worked with missionaries composed of the graduates of Sahmyook University. In August 1992 Hyun-Soo Kim was sent to Sakhalinsk, where he founded the Korean Central Church in Sakhalinsk.
Pastor Hyun-Soo Kim asked for support from Sahmyook University in Korea after obtaining approval from the Sakhalinsk city government to establish a missionary college. As a result, Sahmyook University appointed Professor Yi-Kwon Choi as its dean and began operating the Russian Sahmyook University as a branch college of Sahmyook University in August 1993. The Russian Sahmyook University was run by many Korean missionaries for more than a decade before transferring the college to the Russian Adventist Church in 2005. The Sakhalin Korean Adventist Church was also closed in 2005 after Korean missionaries withdrew from Russian Sahmyook University.23 In March 2018, however, Park Jung-Hoon was sent to Sakhalin by PMM, and the pioneering activities of the Korean Adventist church are going on here again.24
Khabarovsk. When the Korean Language (Hangeul) School was opened in Sakhalinsk in 1991, the Hangeul School was also opened in Khabarovsk at the same time, and the mission of Koreans began in the city. In 1992 Pastor Young-Gil Yoo was dispatched as a pastor of the Korean Adventist Church in Khabarovsk, and in 1993 he purchased a place of worship and ran the church in earnest. In 1997 In-Sun Choi was sent as a pastor, who founded the Solomon English Institute in 1998. The Korean Adventist Church in Khabarovsk, which began in this way, continued to develop in November 2006, with the 15th anniversary of its establishment and the dedication ceremony of the church building.25
Korean Adventist Churches in North America
The Americas is the most widely developed area of the Korean Adventist Church. The first Korean church in the region was Loma Linda Church, founded in 1965. In 1969 four Korean Adventist churches were established in Rosemead, Sacramento, Chicago, and Toronto, two in 1970 (New York, Dallas Fort Worth), one in 1971, three in 1972 (San Diego, San Francisco, Atlanta), and three in 1973 (Glendale, Orlando, and Staten Island).26 Since then, Korean Adventist churches have been established throughout the Americas.
In the 1980s Korean churches were established in more than thirty cities of the Americas. The Korean pastors from all over the Americas gathered together in 1979 to hold a training session. In 1982 a second pastoral training session was held, and the “Pastoral Society of the Korean Adventist Church in North America” was organized at the meeting. The organization was renamed “Korean SDA Church Advisory Committee of North America” in 1985 and officially became the "Korean SDA Church Council of North America" in September 1987.27
When the council was organized, there were 69 Korean Adventist churches in North America, and 57 pastors were serving. Since then, Korean Adventist churches have been established in various regions, expanding the number of churches to 87 and pastors to 83 in August 1993, when the Fourth General Meeting of the Korean SDA Church Council of North America was held. In the 21st century, the number of Korean Adventist churches grew further, reaching 117 in 2006 and 157 pastors from 118 churches in 2008.28
One of the projects that contributed greatly to the development of the Korean Adventist Church in North America was the publishing work through the Sijosa Publishing House, U.S.A. Korean Adventist church members wanted to subscribe to Church Compass and Korean Signs of the Times published in Korea. Elder Sung-Hoon Oh, who worked as a secretary of the Adventist Book Center (ABC) of Southern California, ran a Korean section on one side of the book center in late 1977. However, the cost of importing books from Korea was so high that Elder Oh proposed a plan to publish them directly in the United States. Accepted by the proposal, in June 1980, Church Compass, Korean Signs of the Times, and the Sabbath School Lessons published by the Korean Publishing House were printed in the United States and began to be distributed to Korean Adventist churches. A publishing committee composed of Koreans was organized to expand the publishing work, and the committee established the Korean Adventist Book Center (KABC, publisher: Sung-Hoon Oh, editor: Soon-Tae Song) in March 1984 and became independent of the ABC of Southern California. The KABC dissolved the publishing committee in June 1984, organized a board of directors to run its publishing work independently, and renamed it the Korean Adventist Press in September 1989. Korean Adventist Press purchased a new building at 619 S. New Hampshire Ave. in September 1997 and has been operating its publishing business.29
Korean Adventist Churches in South America
In South America there are five Korean Adventist churches in four countries: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Peru.
Brazil Korean Adventist Church. The Korean Adventist Church in Brazil began in May 1964 when the family of Elder Won-Bok Yeon immigrated to Brazil and worshiped at his home. They moved to the Central Adventist Church in Sao Paulo in 1965 to worship with the Japanese church, and from 1967 they rented a place of worship for German Adventists to worship on the afternoon of the Sabbath. After worshiping in such a small group, Byung-Hoon Shin was appointed as the pastor of the group in March 1969 and started a Korean Adventist church there with a donation of a building at 386 Rua Lucas Obs. The Korean Adventist Church of Brazil was officially organized on September 13, 1969, and named it the IPiranga Church.
On September 17, 1981, Hyung-Bok Choi was appointed as the pastor of the church, and in February 1984 he bought a site to build a church in the Cambuci with the church members, but failed to build it. In 1999 Pastor Kyung-Soo Cheon purchased a church site in Aclimacao and named it Aklimacao Korean Adventist Church.
In 1988 another Korean Adventist church began in the city of Cambuci, Brazil. The church was organized with 38 Koreans on November 3, 1990. From April 1994 the name Cambuci Korean Adventist Church was designated, and the church was constructed on January 28, 1995. The church merged with the Aclimacao Korean Adventist Church on October 22, 2005. The Aclimacao church building was dedicated on March 12, 2005 after completing the construction of a church that could accommodate 400 people. On October 22 of that year, the church merged with the Korean Adventist Church in Cambuci and changed its name to the Brazil Korean Adventist Church. Pastor Sung-Kwan Kwon is in charge of the church since 2018.30
Paraguayan Korean Adventist Church. The Korean Adventist Church in Paraguay was founded in April 1976 by Elder Chang-Hyun Jeon and several immigrants. The Paraguayan Korean Adventist Church, which began worshiping using the classroom of the Paraguay Adventist Academy in Asuncion and the annex of the Paraguay Adventist Hospital, joined families of Chang-Kyun Shin, Yun-Sik Pyeong, and Sung-Il Yoon in July 1977. In April 1985 Pastor Young-Ryul Ryu was appointed to the church as an interdivisional missionary. Jin-Wang Yoo, who was appointed as the second pastor of the church in March 1989, officially organized the Korean Adventist Church in Paraguay after purchasing a house for the chapel at 710 Santiviago in 1992. Since then several Korean pastors have been working in the church. In March 1999 Pastor Dong-Jun Song was appointed as a pastor, and in June 2000 the church built a building that could accommodate 200 people. Currently more than sixty Korean church members in Paraguay are dedicated with Pastor Choi Hyung-Seok, who was appointed as the pastor in April 2021.31
Argentina Korean Adventist Church. The Korean Adventist Church of Argentina, which began as a home service in 1978 by several Adventist families who immigrated to Argentina, organized a Korean chapel in 1981, with about thirty members. In 1985 Lee Geun-ho officially organized the church, being the first pastor. In 1987 a building at Drumond 2351 was purchased and used as a church building. Pastor Han Young-sun, who was appointed as the third pastor of the church in 1998, built several buildings, including a private house, restaurant, and church hall, for six years. When Pastor Byung-Ki Choi was appointed in 2004, there were about fifty members, and Pastor Moon Young-sun is currently in charge of the church.32
La Iglesia Peruana Korean Adventist Church. The Korean Adventist Church in Peru began with the dispatch of two missionaries from the 1,000 missionary movement headquarters to Lima. The missionaries carried out missionary work for Koreans in Lima for a year from September 1997. In 1998 the ASI of South American requested the dispatch of Korean missionaries, and the Korean Union Conference (KUC) sent Pastor Yeo-Won Yoon to Lima on September 28. Pastor Sang-Hoon Ji was dispatched in 1999, but the KUC has no longer dispatched missionaries since August 2001. Instead, Pastor Ki-Eon Lee settled in Lima after his retirement in March 2003 and conducted missionary work there. In May of that year, he worshiped at the Adventist academy in Mirflores, purchased a house with the support of the Peruvian Southern Association (APC), and began operating the Peruana Korean Adventist Church. However, the church has not been officially organized, and it has been currently maintained by a company.33
Korean Adventist Churches in Australia
The Korean Church in Australia began in June 1987 when several Koreans who moved to Australia gathered together to worship on the Sabbath. In 1989 Yeong-Gap Je and Geun-Young Cho, who were studying at the University of Avondale, organized a Sabbath School at Regent Park. In 1995 Myung-Soo Kim became a pastor and moved to Auburn in November 1998. In 1999 Jin-Young Cha was appointed as a pastor, who moved worship places to Rockdale and Hurlstone Park. The church was named the Sydney Korean Central Adventist Church in 2002.34
As the number of Korean immigrants increased in Australia, several churches were established around the Sydney Korean Central Adventist Church. In New South Wales, Sydney Ride Korean Adventist Church, Sydney Castle Hill Adventist Church, West Wellsend Adventist Church, and Mount Cola Adventist Church were established and operated. In Melbourne, Melbourne Asian Adventist Church was established. And Brisbane Korean Adventist Church, Brisbane North Adventist Church, Brisbane City Happy Church, and Gold Coast Korean Adventist Church were organized in Queensland.35
Korean Adventist Churches in Europe
As of 2020, there are several Korean Adventist churches in Europe, including Germany, Austria, and France.
Berlin Korean Adventist Church. The Korean church in Berlin began in 1992 with the family of Kwang-Ja Jeon. At that time the Berlin conference supported the establishment of the Korean Adventist church with part of the global mission offering provided by the General Conference. In Korea Woo-Chang Shim was sent to Berlin as the pastor of the Korean Adventist church. Ji-Yong Park, who was appointed as a pastor in 1995, moved the meeting place to the first floor of the Berlin conference building to explore the development of the church. During this time most of the church members were Korean students who came to Germany to study. In particular, there were many music majors; so, they were active in various music activities. In 2002 Hyun-Soo Kim was appointed as a pastor. However, since 2005, when he returned to Korea after completing his ministry, the church had been reduced and operated by lay leaders. 36
Frankfurt Korean Adventist Church. The Korean church in Frankfurt was founded on April 18, 1997 by the efforts of the Frankfurt Conference and Pastor Ji-Yong Park. On October 24 of that year, Pastor Sang-Beom Park was sent as a missionary and carried out missionary work. After 1998 temporary ministers took care of the church, and Pastor Jae-Hyung Lim was appointed as a minister in March 2002 and developed the church. As the church grew, it was approved for organization on June 21, 2003. Soo-Rim Ko was appointed as a pastor in March 2006, and Ho-Seok Jeong was appointed as the pastor and has been taking care of the church so far.37
Vienna Korean Adventist Church. Vienna Korean Church in Austria began with an increase in the number of Korean students since 2000. They gathered at church families on Friday evening to worship, and on March 12, 2005, with the help of the Trans-European Division, a worship meeting was organized. In May of that year, Pastor Myung-Joon Choi was appointed as a missionary and promoted the development of the church. In March 2006 Pastor Ji-Hyun Koo's family moved to Vienna to take care of the church, and in March 2007 Pastor Sung-Il Kim was dispatched as a pastor to the Korean church in Vienna. Since 2008 the church has been attended by about twenty members.38
As of 2020 there are 149 churches/companies in the Americas, according to statistics from KUC. There are six churches/companies in Asia (three in Japan, one in China, one in Kyrgyzstan, and one in Thailand). There are 11 churches/companies in Oceania (10 in Australia and one in New Zealand). There are five churches/companies in Europe (three in Germany, one in Austria, and one in France).39
Nowadays most Korean churches are having difficulty growing their churches, especially in missionary work for the youth, due to a decrease in the number of church members. Korean churches in the U.S. have formed a council to work together to develop the Korean Adventist church, but in other regions, the Korean Adventist churches are not receiving administrative support. Nevertheless, each church is committed to missionary work for Koreans in their community with the help of the local conference.
2020 Address Book of Korean Union Conference. Seoul: Korean Publishing House, 2020.
Amstrong, V. T. “Dedication of Korean Church in Tokyo.” ARH, September 4, 1947.
Church Compass. December 1951; January 1989.
Kammer, Jerry. “The Hart-Celler Immigration Act of 1965: Political figures and historic circumstances produced dramatic, unintended consequences.” Center for Immigration Studies, September 30, 2015.
Kim, Hyung-Ryul. “A Study on the Mission Strategy of the Korean Adventist Church through the Review of Sakhalinsk Mission in Russia.” M.Div. thesis, the seminary of Sahmyook University, 2000.
Korean Adventist News Center, June 14, 2021.
Lee, Yung Lin. A Comprehensive Study in the History of the Adventist Church in Korea. Seoul: Sunmyung Cultural Press, 1968.
Lee, Yung Lin. A History of Korean Adventist Churches in the Americas. Los Angeles: Korean Adventist Press, 2008.
Ministry of Government Legislation, “The Case of the Overseas Migration Act,” Act No. 1030. March 9, 1962.
Minutes of the 29th General Meeting of KUC. Seoul: Korean Union Conference, 1991.
Nam, In-Soo. “A Study on the History of Missionary Work and the Missionary Policy of the Chinese Korean Adventist Church.” M.Div. thesis, Sahmyook Theological Seminary, 2006.
Oh, Man Kyu. History of One Hundred Years of Korean Seventh-day Adventists. vol. 2. Seoul: Korean Publishing House, 2021.
Wangerin, Theodora. “Baptism at Nunobiki, Kobe, Japan. Historic Occasion in 1904 Recall.” ARH, July 5, 1951
Yoo, Young-Gil. A Record of Pioneering Northern Mission: No name, No Light. Seoul: Korean Publishing House, 2001.
2020 Address Book of Korean Union Conference (Seoul: Korean Publishing House, 2020), 416-423.↩
Ministry of Government Legislation, “The Case of the Overseas Migration Act,” Act No. 1030 (March 9, 1962). http://theme.archives.go.kr/viewer/common/archWebViewer.do?singleData=Y&archiveEventId=0049281541#1.↩
Jerry Kammer, “The Hart-Celler Immigration Act of 1965: Political figures and historic circumstances produced dramatic, unintended consequences,” Center for Immigration Studies, September 30, 2015. https://cis.org/Report/HartCeller-Immigration-Act-1965.↩
V. T. Amstrong, “Dedication of Korean Church in Tokyo,” ARH, September 4, 1947, 17.↩
Yung Lin Lee, A Comprehensive Study in the History of the Adventist Church in Korea (Seoul: Sunmyung Cultural Press, 1968), 271.↩
Man Kyu Oh, History of One Hundred Years of Korean Seventh-day Adventists, vol. 2 (Seoul: Korean Publishing House, 2021), 686-687.↩
Church Compass, December 1951, 95. Theodora Wangerin, “Baptism at Nunobiki, Kobe, Japan. Historic occasion in 1904 recall,” ARH, July 5, 1951, 57.↩
“News column,” Mission, September 1953.↩
Church Compass, January 1989, 35.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 688.↩
Young-Gil Yoo, A Record of Pioneering Northern Mission: No name, No Light (Seoul: Korean Publishing House, 2001), 60-63.↩
In-Soo Nam, “A Study on the History of Missionary Work and the Missionary Policy of the Chinese Korean Adventist Church,” M.Div. thesis, Sahmyook Theological Seminary, 2006, 10.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 684, 685.↩
2020 Address Book of Korean Union Conference (2020), 422.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 685.↩
Ibid., 688, 689.↩
2020 Address Book of Korean Union Conference (2020), 423.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 689, 690.↩
Ibid., 691, 692.↩
Hyung-Ryul Kim, “A Study on the Mission Strategy of the Korean Adventist Church through the Review of Sakhalinsk Mission in Russia,” M.Div. thesis, the seminary of Sahmyook University, 2000, 29.↩
Korean Adventist News Center, June 14, 2021. http://www.adventist.or.kr/app/view.php?id=News&page=1&sn1=&divpage=1&sn=off&ss=on&sc=on&keyword=%BB%E7%C7%D2%B8%B0&select_arrange=headnum&desc=asc&no=10613.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 694.↩
Yung Lin Lee, A History of Korean Adventist Churches in the Americas (Los Angeles: Korean Adventist Press, 2008), 43.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 699, 700.↩
Ibid., 701. Korean Adventist News Center, May 13, 2021. http://www.adventist.or.kr/app/view.php?id=News&page=1&sn1=&divpage=1&sn=off&ss=on&sc=on&keyword=%C6%C4%B6%F3%B0%FA%C0%CC&select_arrange=headnum&desc=asc&no=10557.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 701, 702.↩
Ibid., 702, 703.↩
2020 Address Book of Korean Union Conference (2020), 420-422.↩
Yung Lin Lee, 188, 189.↩
Ibid., 189, 190.↩
Man Kyu Oh, 705.↩
2020 Address Book of Korean Union Conference (Seoul: Korean Publishing House, 2020), 416-423.↩