The first Seventh-day Adventist missionaries arrived in Grenada in 1892, and the Seventh-day Adventist Church has become the largest Protestant denomination in the island country.
Statistics (June 30, 2018): Membership: 14,414; churches: 46; companies: 5; population: 114,000; ordained ministers: 11; ratio (membership to population) 1:8.1
Grenada is an independent island in the Caribbean at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. The country is known as the tri-island state of Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique, the latter two smaller islands lying to the north of Grenada. Grenada is 348.5 square kilometers (134.6 square miles), has a population of 112,200 people (2018),2 and is situated approximately 90 miles northwest of Trinidad.
Grenada’s production of nutmeg and mace has brought the country fame as the “Isle of Spice.” At one time, it was the world’s highest exporter of these crops, but because of the damage inflicted by hurricanes, Grenada has fallen to the eighth largest exporter in the world.3
On several occasions after Europeans found the island, they attempted to colonize Grenada but were unsuccessful because the Island Caribs resisted their incursions. Nonetheless, French settlement and colonization began in 1650 and continued for the next century. In 1763, the British gained control of the island and continued to claim it until the country gained independence in 1974 (except for a period of French rule from 1779 to 1783).4
When independence came under the leadership of Eric Matthew Gairy, he became the first prime minister of Grenada. In 1979, Gairy’s government was overthrown in a coup d’état (while he was out of the country), and Maurice Bishop became prime minister of the socialist government. Bishop was subsequently executed by hardliners in his party, a move that prompted a U.S.-led rescue mission in 1983 and the restoration of democracy and political stability to the country.5
Grenada is a member of the British Commonwealth, and English is its official language. Based on the lengthy British colonization, much of the culture is akin to British traditions, like driving on the left-hand side of the road and cricket being the most popular sport. Roman Catholicism is the dominant religious persuasion of the country,6 with the Seventh-day Adventist Church having more members than any of the other Protestant churches.7
In family life, extended family households consisting of up to three generations are common. Grandparents help raise children; in their absence, working mothers utilize daycare services. Before the 21st century, large families with 6 to 10 children were common in Grenada, but access to contraceptives and the increasing number of women working outside the home have reduced the number to 3 to 5 children. All children are required to attend school for 12 years, and the adult literacy rate exceeds 90 percent.8
Origins and Pioneers
Seventh-day Adventism in Grenada began when two missionaries—Dexter A. Ball and William Arnold—arrived on the island from the United States of America in 1892. They were followed by Warren G. Neilan and W. A. Sweany in 1904. These first missionaries to Grenada commenced evangelistic work in Mount Rose, Saint Patrick, at the north of the island. They held meetings at the residence of A. J. Nyack, and later at the home of Peter and Henrietta Mark at La Taste, the latter two becoming the first converts to Adventism. They were both baptized in 1904.9
From these meetings in 1904, a total of 20 persons were baptized, and the first church was organized that year at the Marks’ home. The first church leader of that congregation was Frederick De Coteau. Sometime later, the little company moved from La Taste to the nearby village of Mount Rose. As part of her ministry, Mrs. Sweany, the wife of the pastor, conducted a day school for children in the Mount Rose community.10
As Sweany tried to secure land for a church building, a generous landowner, Thomas Henry, donated acreage in Mount Rose for the building. The brethren sacrificed time, effort, and money to build the church, which was completed and dedicated in 1908. Sweany pioneered Adventism in Grenada until 1912, when he was transferred.11
As the years progressed, so did the work. Through intentional evangelistic outreach by other pastors in various parts of the island, many members joined the church. This growth necessitated the erection of more churches under the leadership of S. L. Ash, J. D. Wood, and Glen A. Coon. They were succeeded by Benjamin Yip and Nathaniel Payne.12
In 1939, T. J. Warner assumed work on the island, and his efforts in the capital, Saint George’s, also presented a need for another church building. In 1944, the foundation was laid for the erection of a new building. Later that year, H. E. Nembhard arrived from Jamaica, and he helped to complete the church building on Lucas Street.
During the 1950s and 1960s, churches and companies multiplied in Grenada. One veteran who epitomized this growth was pastor-evangelist George W. Riley, who was transferred from Trinidad to Grenada. He was the longest-serving district pastor (10 years), covering the whole island, and through his ministry, hundreds were baptized, and several churches were planted. In that period, the need for pastoral supervision of the churches became more evident, and there was greater dependence on the elders to assist with church governance.13
In recognition of the growth of the church, the island was gradually subdivided among several pastors, some who were homegrown and others who were called mostly from fields within the Caribbean Union. The pastors who are serving as administrators and directors in the office also carry responsibilities for certain churches.14
It appears that the Adventist message got to the island of Carriacou before the year 1900. The earliest information available reveals that in 1902, for the first time on that island, an Adventist minister conducted a wedding.15 It seems, however, that little progress was made in Carriacou during those early years. During Hurricane Janet in September 1955, the church’s records were destroyed, and no effort was made to restore them.16
The membership in Carriacou as of December 2018 was 122, and in the island Petite Martinique, where Adventism started in the 1970s, the membership was 55.17 Through the years, more than 60 pastors have provided spiritual nurture for the church in Grenada, several of them coming from other territories in the Caribbean Union.18
Spread of the Adventist Message
From the inception of the church in the 1840s in North America, evangelism has been embraced as its lifeblood. In order to spread the gospel in Grenada, clergy and laity have historically teamed up for public and personal evangelism. Many laypeople felt motivated to be a part of the fulfillment of the Great Commission of Matthew 28:19, 20—go, teach, baptize, and make disciples.
Laypeople were often seen giving Bible studies in homes and holding “cottage meetings” or full-blown evangelistic series in villages and towns. Among them was Raeburn Nelson, a dynamic lay preacher who conducted evangelistic series in and out of the country.19 Other powerful lay preachers who gave sacrificial and effective service in spreading the message were James Strachan, Terry Charles, George Phillip, Naomi Jeremiah, and Theresa Panchoo.
Child preachers attracted many people from various communities to the gospel. One such was Mario Phillip, who was baptized in the same evangelistic meetings in which he preached. Years later, he became a pastor, earned a Ph.D. in theology, served his country as a pastor, and trained pastors as a faculty member in the Theology Department of the University of the Southern Caribbean.20 The local conference provided tents for the pastors to help them prepare “neutral ground” for public evangelism. The churches in the pastoral districts usually supported the pastor-evangelists in those outreach efforts.
Many lay workers felt so fulfilled in witnessing during or after their regular work that they interpreted it as a call to full-time ministry. They gave up their jobs, went to train for the ministry, and returned to serve their people. During the three-month summer break from school, many students went to various territories in the Caribbean Union to “canvass” as student literature evangelists. In an arrangement between the Adventist Book Center and the college, the student could earn a scholarship (or more) based on the volume of sales. For many, literature evangelism provided both a training ground and the necessary funds to facilitate their training at Caribbean Training College (later Caribbean Union College, now the University of the Southern Caribbean) in Trinidad.
After their preparation at college, several Grenadian workers felt God’s call to higher education and pursued a career path that eventually led them to serve the church at its highest levels, academically and administratively. Among them were Dr. Walter Douglas, professor and chair of the History Department at the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary, Andrews University; Pastor Harold Baptiste, secretary of the North American Division and general vice president of the General Conference; Dr. Roy Adams, an associate editor of the Adventist Review; and Dr. Christon Arthur, provost of Andrews University.
The gospel was also disseminated through literature evangelists who accepted this task as a full-time ministry. Many colporteurs went from house to house, all over Grenada, on foot or by bus, selling Christian literature and health books. The names of Margaret Alexis and Cosmos Aird, each of whom gave decades of service to literature evangelism ministry, are indelibly written in Grenada’s history.21 The church is replete with testimonies from members who traced their introduction to Adventism through Adventist literature. For instance, young people enjoyed Uncle Arthur’s Bedtime Stories by Arthur Maxwell, while many adults reminisced on the clear messages from Hope of the Race by Frank L. Peterson.
Through the years, the work of local pastors assigned to districts in Grenada was augmented by the efforts of invited evangelists who planted new churches or helped to strengthen already-established churches. These evangelists went from other Caribbean Union territories with the largest baptisms (approximately 500) recorded from the meetings conducted by K. S. Wiggins, Caribbean Union evangelist (Saint George’s), and Stephen Purcell, South Caribbean Conference evangelist (Mount Rose).22
Education played a significant role in the growth of Adventism (besides the churches) in Grenada. In 1910, Mrs. W. A. Sweany, the pastor’s wife, started a primary school with nine students. Currently, there are three pre-primaries, two primaries, and one secondary.
Mount Rose Seventh-day Adventist Primary
When Mrs. Sweany began a private school on the lower floor of the Mount Rose Seventh-day Adventist Church building with nine students, there was no indication that thousands of students would one day benefit from Christian education because of her unselfish initiative. The church building was used as both a church and a school until it was used solely as a school in 1937, when a new building was constructed for the church. There were 15 principals in the history of that school.23 Many of the students remained faithful to the church and served in various ministries until their death.
Saint George’s Seventh-day Adventist Primary
The opening of a primary school in Saint George’s was the culmination of a dream long held by many of the leaders of the church and others who promoted Christian education with evangelical zeal. It was not feasible at the old church site on Lucas Street, but when a new building was erected in Archibald Avenue, there was new vigor for the operation of a school in a more spacious facility.24
In 1973, after significant promotion by members and well-wishers, the school opened its doors on the lower floor of the church, the same year the church was dedicated. Demonstrating their commitment to Christian education, most of the six teachers left other schools and went to start the school in the Saint George’s church, which 207 students attended on its first day.25
During the first year of operation, the school was selected as a center for the annual Common Entrance examination. Despite the school’s limitations, two pupils, Margaret Francis and Sharon Morgan, secured scholarships to a secondary school, thereby helping the school gain recognition. The school sought to educate the whole child, giving them opportunities for spiritual, intellectual, physical, and social development. In the 45 years of the school’s operation, more than 60 teachers have nurtured thousands of students under the leadership of five principals: Winnifred Granger, Gertrude Moore, Sharon Duncan, Verdlyn Bernard, and Jaqueline Noel.
Both Mount Rose and Saint George’s Primary schools have been doing very well in preparing students for Common Entrance (now CPEA, Caribbean Primary Exit Assessment) exams. The successful students receive scholarships to secondary schools.26
Grenada Seventh-day Adventist Comprehensive School
The Grenada Seventh-day Adventist Comprehensive School was started in September 1958, with 19 students enrolled. It was then named the Mount Rose Seventh-day Adventist Secondary School and was housed in the Mount Rose Seventh-day Adventist Church. The first principal was Mr. Henry Bourgeois, and the school was managed by Caleb Edwards, the district pastor. In July 1972, the Grenada government, under the administration of Eric Gairy, donated the land on which the school now stands. In September of that same year, the land was cleared, and by May 1973, students were able to move into the present building, a gift of the British government. The name was then changed to Grenada Seventh-day Adventist Comprehensive School.
The holistic nature of Adventist education led many parents in Mount Rose and its environs to send their children to the school, which could influence their children’s head, heart, hands, and health. Many Week of Prayer sessions have been conducted at the school, and scores of students have made decisions to accept Jesus as their Savior. Following Bible classes, conducted mostly by pastors, these students were baptized and accepted into the church.
In January 1989, one and three-quarter hectares (four and a quarter acres) of land from the Pointzfield Estate were leased to the school as part of the model farms project. The school also conducted many extracurricular and cocurricular activities in that vicinity.27 Academically, the school has been doing well, although there is always room for improvement. The pass rate for the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) and Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) went from 44 percent soon after opening28 to an average of 67 percent more recently.29 There have been 15 principals since the school opened its doors.30
The school offered secondary level courses in the humanities, physical sciences, domestic science, woodwork, and drafting, among many other subjects. The school currently prepares students to take the CSEC exams.31
Adventist Book Centre
Another institution that has reached the church members and the community is the Adventist Book Centre (ABC) owned by the Inter-American Division Publishing Association. For many years, the church operated Adventist Book Centers at its headquarters (Grenville) and in the capital, Saint George’s. These served the Adventists and general public, and they facilitated the availability of books for literature evangelists on the island. They also carried vegetarian foods.32
In the year 2014, the Inter-American Division assumed ownership of the bookstores run by the church within the division. The conference and publishing association worked out the financial arrangements, thus aligning Grenada with the other ABCs in the division. Vegans and vegetarians are attracted to the ABC, and new believers are encouraged to order books, Bibles, and church hymnals through the ABC.
Charles Memorial Home
In 1976/77, Hartwell Murray, Western district pastor, was visiting members of the church with the head elder of the Sauteurs church, George Charles. Finding a member in a deplorable state, they looked at options regarding the provision of some physical assistance for him and other seniors who needed help.
They came up with the idea of a senior care facility and shared the concept with many church leaders in the district, who thought it was a compassionate venture for them to undertake. The leaders collaborated further with the pastor and found a rental property in La Fortune, Saint Patrick’s, which could house 10 people. As such, the first senior care facility was born.
Soon after, they formed a board of nine with the pastor, and George Charles became the driving force in the organization. As residents were identified for the home, it was decided that the churches and the resident’s family would jointly share the cost.
The venture gathered momentum and got the attention of a businessperson in Victoria named Morris Nyack.33 He bought into the idea and donated land for the building. There was a fund-raising drive, plans were drawn up, the conference got involved, and the building was erected with much free labor from members and the community.
When the building was completed and ready to be opened, the board named it Charles Memorial Home, in honor of George Eric Charles. The building was officially opened in 1990 and houses 35 residents.
Six matrons have run the facility, nurses whose expertise was invaluable to the senior citizens who needed chronic care in varying degrees. The first manager was Sister Fredrick, followed by five others, but the administration has since changed to having a manager for the facility and a registered nurse who provides the nursing care.34
Church Administrative Units
Toward the end of the 1970s, as the political climate changed in Grenada, the East Caribbean Conference, of which Grenada was a part, reasoned that it was expedient to give Grenada some limited autonomy in its affairs. Collaborating with the Caribbean Union Conference, the local conference arranged for Grenada to become a semiautonomous administrative unit (1979–1981), then a mission (1981–2003), and, ultimately, a conference in 2003.35
The current church administrative unit in Grenada is the local conference, which is a unit of the Caribbean Union Conference in the Inter-American Division. The division assigns budgets to the unions, which in turn service the local fields according to the assessed needs.
Toward the end of the 20th century, Grenada was the beneficiary of several budgets for three missionary dentists (in succession) who ran a clinic in the capital, Saint George’s. The dental clinic was a significant asset for the church until the dentists left the country and the clinic closed. The presence of the dental clinic in the hand of missionaries helped to create a positive climate for the message.36
Important Points in Membership Growth
The growth of the church accelerated after Grenada achieved the status of a local administrative unit and mission status in January 1983. The membership in Grenada in 1981 was 4,426. After 100 years of Adventism in Grenada (2004), the membership was 10,633. At the end of 2018, membership had risen to 14,528. As such, in the last 37 years, the church added 10,000 members, doubled the number of congregations (46), and quadrupled the number of pastors (20).37
Effect of Political Developments on Seventh-day Adventist Work in Grenada
Through the years of Adventism in Grenada, the church has always strategically maintained a cordial relationship with the government and opposition parties. At one point, one young adult church member was appointed as a senator in the Parliament, a move that created some unease in the local church.38
It was apparent that the Adventist Church continued to earn the respect of the sociopolitical system. This was demonstrated by the fact that after the U.S.-led rescue mission in 1983, while the country prepared for general elections, an interim government was formed, and Walter Douglas, a Grenadian professor at Andrews University, was appointed as ambassador to the Organization of American States. He could not serve because of a potential conflict of interest.
One of the Adventist pastors, Christopher Williams, a former school principal, was also appointed by the governor-general as one of nine cabinet members to govern the country. He was responsible for security and was granted leave from the church organization for the 14 months needed to fulfill that function.39
Adventism’s Place in Grenada
Adventism is well respected in Grenada. As mentioned above, members of the church were appointed to the government because they were recognized as people with integrity and balanced leadership. It was observed that “Adventists are found in every important government office; and they are there by merit.” With such a high ratio of members to population (1:8), that is understandable.40
The church is also known for its leadership in humanitarianism regularly demonstrated in its Community Services program, which is a ministry of compassion in most churches and is organized to help those in need. In the 1980s, a Distinguished Service Award was given by the government to Mavis Maitland for her untiring years of leadership in Community Services to the people of Saint George’s. In times of hurricanes and other natural disasters, Adventists are in the vanguard of disaster assistance as second responders. For example, after Hurricane Ivan battered Grenada in 2004, many Adventists were placed in the leadership of the relief and reconstruction efforts of the country.41
Other Adventists were recognized for meaningful services, such as Christopher Williams, retired school principal, who was the president of the Red Cross Association and chair of the Prison Visitation Committee for almost three decades. He was appointed an OBE (officer of the Order of the British Empire) by the queen. The director-general of the Red Gross, Terry Charles, was awarded a BEM (British Empire Medal),42 and Edmond Emmons was given the MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) award for community services in Carriacou.43
In education, Winnifred Granger also received an honor from the queen, MBE, upon the recommendation of the Ministry of Education, for her sterling contribution during a lifetime of teaching. The Saint George’s Seventh-day Adventist School, of which she was principal, regularly turned out a high percentage of scholarship winners. Many became professionals in the country and abroad. One of them went on to be the island scholar (first Advanced Level student in Grenada that year) and is currently an eminent Adventist physician in the U.S.A.44 Another educator, Sheila Coomansingh, received the MBE award for her sacrificial service.
The Adventist schools are well recognized in Grenada. Many government officials have made them their preferred choice for their children, over public schools. Besides the high percentage of scholarships (from primary schools), the Seventh-day Adventist Comprehensive at Mount Rose (the only Adventist secondary school in the country) also produced at least two island scholars, from the A-Level (Advanced Level) results.45
In addition to excellent student output, several Adventists teachers made an impact in their profession in the public-school system. Many of them, like Charles Modeste and Sebastien Modeste (brothers) and Christopher Williams, became principals of their respective schools.
In medicine, there are several well respected Adventist physicians in Grenada who discharge their duties with professional integrity and discretely share their faith with their patients when appropriate. Some years ago, an Adventist physician was appointed chief medical officer of the country, and the senior medical officer in 2019 is also a practicing Adventist.
Many Adventists were trained in the nursing profession and gave years of dedicated service to the country. Some of them received the MBE honor from the queen, namely Stella Best, Phyllis Baptiste, and Sheila De Silva.
The dental clinic, run by missionary dentists who have redemptive hearts, made a positive impact on the Grenadian society. While it was open, it reinforced the message of kindness and understanding to patients and their families.
Soon after the church received mission status, its media ministry took a leap. The president, Nord Punch, took to the airwaves with a half-hour weekly religious broadcast, Happiness in Jesus, which was heard in Grenada and other Caribbean countries. After several years, this radio ministry ceased, and the church used its resources elsewhere.
Currently, the conference media ministries utilize social media to broadcast four weekly programs: Pastors’ Corner, Lay Preachers’ Corner, Children Empowered to Serve, and Youth Live Unplugged. This approach has proven to be much more cost-effective and technologically relevant than radio or television.46
The Communications Department sometimes uses an online radio frequency from a facility that the church owns in Saint Paul’s, a suburb of Saint George’s, the capital. The facilitators have reported favorable feedback from people as far away as Japan.
Challenges to Mission
The Grenada Conference faces several challenges to mission and the proclamation of the gospel:47
1. Renew emphasis on (a) Lord Transform Me initiative, a spiritual growth concept, (b) stewardship responsibilities, and (c) attention to children, adolescents, and youth
2. Increase emphasis on family life
3. Give attention to school buildings—new Saint George’s Seventh-day Adventist primary, renovation of Mount Rose primary and comprehensive
4. Continue training laity, including Child Preachers’ Workshop
6. Increase the scope of “I Care, so I Share” Community Services ministries
7. Reopen and operate of dental clinic
8. Complete campsite
9. Open an ADRA office and build storage facilities for ADRA and Community Services.
10. Revisit the concept of a convention center
11. Establish a stable radio ministry
2019 Annual Statistical Report, 155th Report of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists for 2017. Silver Spring, Maryland: Seventh-day Adventist Church, 2019.
Education director’s report presented at the fifth quadrennial constituency session of the Grenada Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, July 24–27, 2019. Grenada Conference archives, St. Andrew’s, Grenada.
Executive secretary’s report to the fifth quadrennial constituency session of the Grenada Conference, July 24–27, 2019. Grenada Conference archives, St. Andrew’s, Grenada.
Grenada Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1904–2004. A booklet. Grenada Conference archives, St. Andrew’s, Grenada.
Griffith, George. The Gairy Movement, A History of Grenada, 1947–1997. Washington D.C.: American Legacy Books, 2015.
“Grenada.” Wikipedia. Last modified October 25, 2019, 15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenada.
“Grenada.” Countries and Their Cultures. Accessed November 8, 2019. https://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Grenada.html.
President’s report presented at the fifth quadrennial constituency session of the Grenada Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, July 24–27, 2019. Grenada Conference archives, St. Andrew’s, Grenada.
Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, Idaho: Pacific Press, 2019.
“Grenada Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, Idaho: Pacific Press, 2019), 89; 2019 Annual Statistical Report, 155th Report of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists for 2017 (Silver Spring, Maryland: Seventh-day Adventist Church, 2019), 69.↩
The population is sometimes stated as 114,000, and the area of the country, 133 sq. miles. “Grenada,” Wikipedia, last modified October 25, 2019, 15 01:54 (UTC), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenada.↩
Christopher Williams, long-standing member of Grenada Nutmeg Board, interview by author, August 25, 2019.↩
George Griffith, The Gairy Movement, A History of Grenada 1947–1997 (Washington D.C.: American Legacy Books, 2015), 29. Grenada became independent on February 7, 1974. Some books refer to the U.S. intervention as an invasion, but Grenadians prefer to see it as a rescue mission.↩
Christopher Williams, interview by author, August 25, 2019. Williams is a former school principal, former cabinet minister, and retired SDA pastor. Williams took issue with the published notion that the Anglicans and Methodists were numerically greater than the Adventists. He based his knowledge of the religions of Grenada on his personal and professional experience gained during his 86 years of life and various lines of service.↩
“Where We Came From,” in Grenada Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1904–2004, 4. This is a booklet authorized by the Grenada SDA conference, compiling the history of the Adventist Church from its inception in Grenada in 1904 to 2004. The material in this booklet was researched by a committee under the leadership of Leo Fleary, in preparation for their centennial celebrations.↩
“Where We Came From,” 4. The research showed that “Champion Sweany,” as he was called, created an interest in Adventism, and 20 persons were baptized in a small stream with a pool called “Jordan’s Hole.”↩
“Where We Came From,” 4. In 1912, Sweany was transferred and was succeeded by Linton Rashford. During Rashford’s term in office, the church membership grew, and the church building was enlarged. Rashford performed the first wedding (in July 1915) for Son Lewis and Bertha Johnson.↩
Because of funding restraints, these pastors were mostly given terms of service in succession of each other on the island.↩
During the 1950s and 1960s, some pastors became household names as they traversed the island. Ministers like Luther Jones, S. L Gadsby, C. C. Neblette, George W. Riley, and Phillip Hosten, among others, “stirred up the members to good works.” During the latter decade, the South Caribbean Conference began to send ministerial assistance to relieve the lead pastors on the island, George Riley having served the longest, 1955–1965.↩
Executive secretary’s report to the fifth quadrennial constituency session of the Grenada Conference, July 24–27, 2019.↩
Interview with Leo Fleary, retired pastor and retired conference education director, who grew up in Carriacou and joined the church there as a youth, September 10, 2019.↩
There are some who believe that Adventism got a foothold in Carriacou (from the Grenadines to the north) before missionaries arrived in Grenada, but there are no records to support this claim. Furthermore, Adventism in Grenada is dated from the baptism of the first believers and not from the arrival of the missionaries.↩
Executive secretary’s report.↩
Secretariat, Grenada Conference.↩
Raeburn Nelson recently returned from Antigua, where he conducted an evangelistic series, sponsored by the Caribbean Union, resulting in 50 baptisms.↩
This was Mario Phillip’s reflection on his call to ministry from his youth in Victoria, Grenada, shared with fellow ministerial students and the faculty dean, Fitzroy Maitland, on the campus of Caribbean Union College, where Mario was a theology student (ca. 2003).↩
Interview with Edlyn John, administrative assistant, Grenada Conference of SDA, October 11, 2019.↩
Besides Wiggins and Purcell, other evangelists who made a significant impact in Grenada were H. E. Nembhard, Don Crowder, Gordon Martinborough, Fitzroy Maitland, Henry Peters, Mildred Robinson, Eugene Benjamin, Gandalal Samlalsingh, Roosevelt Daniels, Clive Dottin, Alexander Piscette, Garvin Paul, and Everett Smith. “Where We Came From,” 5.↩
Education Department of Grenada Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. Past principals of Mount Rose Primary School: Lionel D. Braithwaite, Rubin Wilson, Riley Caesar, L. L. Delenney, A. La Touche, Dennis Williams, Hilbert Bryce, N. Premdas, Narine Singh, Joseph Whiteman, Samuel Fleary, Winifred Granger, Francis Jeffrey, and Ivan Abraham. Enrollment in 2019 is 121 students, with eight teachers.↩
Ralph Ogilvie was head elder of the Saint George’s church for many years, and the architect who spearheaded the building of the new 600-person capacity church home in Archibald Avenue, Saint George’s.↩
“Education Profiles,” in Grenada Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1904–2004, 59. Winnifred Granger, who was appointed principal, remembered: “Monday, September 10, 1973, was a ‘red letter day’ in the life of the Saint George’s SDA Primary School, when two hundred pupils were registered, along with a staff of five other teachers. They were Gertrude Moore, Claudia Morgan, James Finlay, Joel Hypolite. and Carol Jones.” Enrollment in 2019 is 347 students, with 12 teachers.↩
President’s report, fifth quadrennial constituency session of the Grenada Conference, July 24–27, 2019, citing most recent trends for CPEA (Caribbean Primary Exit Assessment) passes: Mount Rose, 94% in 2017, 100% in 2018; Saint George’s, 100% in 2017 and 2018.↩
Extra- and co-curricular activities for Seventh-day Adventist Comprehensive School: Red Cross, 4-H, Young Leaders, Junior Achievers, Small Enterprise Development Unit, Food and Nutrition Programs (National and Regional), football—male and female, basketball, cricket, and athletics. “Education,” in Grenada Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1904–2004, 57.↩
List of principals from 1958: Henry Bourgeois (1958–1961), Eglon Wilson (1961–1963), Willie Joseph (1963–1967), L. T. K. Bernard (1967–1972), James A. Bernard (1972–1973), A. Hamming (1973–1974), Lee Buddy (1974–1976), Phillip Finlay (1976–1979), T. Leo Fleary (1979–1983), Baxter Fanwar (1983–1984), Carol Odle (1984–1985), Mary Jeffrey (1985–1997), Gemma Britton (1997–2005), Kimlyn De Coteau 2005–. Enrollment in 2019 is 246 students, with 13 teachers. Conference Education Department.↩
The ABC in Saint George’s began its operations in the building that was the former home and dental clinic of Dr. Lindsay, a local dentist who became an Adventist and later donated the property to the church.↩
Interview with Gordon Baptiste, a former resident of the Victoria Adventist community where Charles Memorial Home was built, September 9, 2019.↩
Interview with Emlyn Thomas, a former matron of Charles Memorial Home, and Nadia Charles, daughter of George Charles, after whom the home was named, September 11, 2019. The home has had six matrons from its inception: Matron Frederick, Rita Edwards, Nerissa Chedick, Uelisia Hamilton, Emlyn Thomas, and Ursuline Charles. Leadership in 2019 was under manager Norbert Courtney and RN Ince Charles.↩
Nord Punch served as superintendent of the administrative unit and then as president of the mission, 1981–2001. Clinton Lewis was appointed by the union as mission president in 2001 and later elected by the Grenada constituency as the first president of the conference in 2003.↩
The author personally knew one of the dentists, Dr. T. F. S. Edwards, who, along with his family, was a standard-bearer of Adventism. He was succeeded by another dentist, Dr. Ted Fliez, and later, Dr. Karla Querra. Following their departure from Grenada, the dental clinic continued to operate for a while in another location in Saint George’s, with an arrangement between a local Adventist dentist and the conference. This arrangement eventually fell apart, and the clinic operations ceased.↩
Executive secretary’s report.↩
When Terry Griffith was appointed (1984), it was the first time in the history of the Saint George’s church that a young adult member (24 years old) was appointed as a senator in the Grenada parliament. The church was ambivalent about it, especially as he was on the Opposition bench; but the headquarters of the church had no problems with a member holding public office.↩
Christopher Williams, interview by author, August 25, 2019.↩
Leo Fleary, interview by author, September 25, 2019.↩
Roy St. Bernard, interview by author, September 12, 2019. St. Bernard is an elder of the Saint George’s church and a friend of the Matthews family. Dwight Matthews eclipsed his competitors when he became island scholar that year.↩
Leo Fleary, interview by author, September 25, 2019. He reported that Lennox Fleary qualified as island scholar in 1984 but elected to attend Pacific Union College in the U.S.A. Two years later, Linwald Fleary (cousin, 1986) topped the A-Level results and in 2019 was a physician in Grenada’s main hospital.↩
John interview. The weekly programs from the media center are Pastors’ Corner (Tuesday, 10:30 a.m.–11:00 a.m.; Lay Preachers’ Corner (Thursday, 4:30 p.m.–5:00 p.m.); Children Empowered to Serve (Friday, 6:30 p.m.–7:00 p.m.); and Youth Alive Unplugged (Friday, 7:30 p.m.–9:30 p.m.).↩