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Adventist Women’s Ministries, the Centenary Celebrations of the Establishment of the SDA Church in Papua New Guinea (1908-2008).

Photo courtesy of Barry Oliver.

Papua New Guinea

By Milton Hook

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Milton Hook, Ed.D. (Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, the United States). Hook retired in 1997 as a minister in the Greater Sydney Conference, Australia. An Australian by birth Hook has served the Church as a teacher at the elementary, academy and college levels, a missionary in Papua New Guinea, and as a local church pastor. In retirement he is a conjoint senior lecturer at Avondale College of Higher Education. He has authored Flames Over Battle Creek, Avondale: Experiment on the Dora, Desmond Ford: Reformist Theologian, Gospel Revivalist, the Seventh-day Adventist Heritage Series, and many magazine articles. He is married to Noeleen and has two sons and three grandchildren.

First Published: January 29, 2020

Papua New Guinea is located between 0 and 10 degrees south of the equator, to the north of Australia. It occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea.

Introduction

In the nineteenth century German traders came searching for supplies of coconut oil along the northern shores of modern-day Papua New Guinea. Pockets of British traders established themselves on the southern coastline. In 1885 an Anglo-German Agreement was reached that divided the eastern half of the island along the mountain ridge that divided the north from the south. In 1902 the control of British New Guinea in the south was ceded to Australia. During World War I Australia captured German New Guinea. It was henceforth known as New Guinea. The south was referred to as Papua. Papua and New Guinea were administered as a territory of Australia until it was granted independence in 1975 and became Papua New Guinea, with Port Moresby as the capital.

Ethnoculturally, Papua New Guinea is one of the most complex in the world. There are approximately seven hundred indigenous languages. Hiri Motu is the lingua franca in the former Papua, and Pidgin English is the lingua franca in the former New Guinea. A large proportion of the population continues to hold on to clan animistic practices in conjunction with traditional Christian beliefs. Christianity is represented by the Roman Catholic Church, Lutheran Church, United Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church, and others.1

Arrival of Seventh-day Adventists in Papua

An aborted beginning to the SDA mission in Papua was made in 1895 in the context of the voyages of the Pitcairn. The schooner had carried many missionaries to pioneer various South Pacific islands, and a similar enterprise for Papua was planned at General Conference headquarters. Albert Read, who was engaged in medical studies at the time, was nominated and about to sail to Papua to establish a mission station when Dr. John Kellogg heard of the plans and wrote a hasty letter to Ellen White, objecting to the idea as one that did not consider the health and training of Read.2 Church leaders therefore rescinded their plans.3

In 1902 Edward Gates sailed through the territory on his way to Singapore, making stops at the Louisiade Islands, New Britain, and ports along the north coast of German New Guinea. He took the opportunity to distribute some literature among the Englishmen and gather information about the indigenous people.4 Griffiths Jones made a similar trip in 1904,5 and George Irwin sailed into the same ports in 1905.6 These visits served to familiarize church leaders with the need for the SDA mission to enter the area as soon as possible.

Bisiatabu and Efogi

Responsibility for the South Pacific mission field had been transferred from American headquarters to Australasian headquarters, where funds were being stretched to the limit. Mission stations were scattered over a vast area, requiring many individuals to service them and extra finances to supply them. Funds to begin in Papua took time to accumulate. The initial move was to earmark the third quarter Sabbath School offerings of 1906 for the new field.7 Then Septimus and Edith Carr, expatriate teachers at the Buresala Training School in Fiji, were nominated in 1907 to spearhead the enterprise.8 They chose one of their students, Benisimani “Bennie” (or “Benny”) Tavodi, to assist them. Youth societies in New Zealand, South Australia, and Queensland collected funds to finance Tavodi.9 The missionary group arrived in Port Moresby in June 1908 and found a hut to rent on the outskirts of town.10

Carr spent considerable time searching for a suitable place to begin. He explored along the coast as far west as Hisiu.11 He traveled by packhorse to the Sogeri Plateau northeast of Port Moresby, where he was impressed with the cooler climate and better soil.12 There were no other denominations at work in the area, so he applied to the government, asking them to purchase 150 acres from the local people so that he could lease it long-term.13 Late in 1909 these arrangements were completed. At the same time help arrived in the persons of Gordon and Maud Smith, nursing graduates, together with a Cook Islands man named Tuaine Solomona.14 Tavodi and Solomona did much of the hard labor, clearing and preparing the ground and planting taro, bananas, citrus, and rubber trees. The property, named Bisiatabu, had an altitude of 1,600 feet.15 A mission home of local materials was erected, which, together with the land, was dedicated on February 28, 1910.16

John Fulton, president of the Australasian Union Conference, made a one-day stopover in Port Moresby on July 11, 1910, organising the first SDA church in Papua. It seemed premature, for there were only six charter members, and it was peculiar because it was called the Bisiatabu church, but formed and met in Port Moresby.17 Frank Chaney spent most of 1911 with the missionaries, building a European-style mission home in Port Moresby and another at Bisiatabu. The Carrs moved from their rented quarters into the Port Moresby home.18 When Arthur Lawson joined the mission team, he built a storeroom at Sapphire Creek in 1913. It was the endpoint of the road navigable by motorized vehicles, halfway between Port Moresby and Bisiatabu. Incoming supplies and outgoing farm produce were held under lock and key at Sapphire Creek.19

Carr hired local Koiari tribesmen as laborers and they signed on for a year, earning £6 each for their term of work. He also operated a store so that the men received value for their money, selling them tomahawks, pocketknives, lanterns, kerosene, matches, razors, clothing, and cooking pots. They learned to trust Carr as one who guarded their best interests. The men belonged to the villages located along the track leading to Kokoda, on the other side of the Owen Stanley Range. In 1912 Tavodi walked home with some of the men to explore the possibilities for mission expansion.20 The following year Carr and Lawson trekked the same arduous track to Kokoda via Efogi and Kagi. They found that some of the returned men were trying to observe a Saturday Sabbath as they had learned at Bisiatabu, but they had no calendar and had lost track of the days.21 Later that year, 1913, Tavodi and four men made another treck, this time only as far as Efogi, visiting Kagi, Seragina, Hagari, Bapari, Kotoi, Naori, and Ilibane. He was frustrated because the coastal Motuan language he had learned was not known in the mountains, each village having their own local language.22 In 1914 Carr made an exploratory trip northwest across the Goldie River,23 and Lawson trekked in a southeasterly direction.24 Bisiatabu proved to be a splendid spot for agriculture, but it was not a populous region

When Carr returned to Australia in 1914, only one young lad, Taito, had been baptized,25 and he went back to his family and old ways, returning a decade later. Another lad, Baigani, was baptized in 1920. He adopted the Christian name Timothy.26 Carr’s school had failed to retain students. He and Lawson were basically serving as plantation owners. Lawson admitted that the decade 1908 through 1918 had yielded no tangible results.27 The death of Tavodi from snakebite in 1918 was a cruel blow that exacerbated the dire situation and brought some degree of despondency.28 Lawson and Mitieli, another Fijian assistant, maintained the outpost at Bisiatabu, where the crops flourished and the station became self-supporting.29

Captain Griffiths Jones and his wife, Marion, arrived in mid-1921 to replace the Lawsons, bringing fresh optimism.30 Jones restarted the school at Bisiatabu in January 192231 after trekking into Koiari territory with Mitieli, encouraging the parents to send their young people to Bisiatabu.32 “Many devils are coming,” Jones told them, “and they will gather all your young men to a faraway white man’s land to fight and they will never see New Guinea again.” The wily Koiari answered, “We will hide.”33 Nevertheless, he attracted forty of the lads. Some ran away and had to be enticed back. Jones said he found them to be incorrigible and undisciplined, but he had some success teaching elementary arithmetic, some writing, and how to pray for the sick.34

Jones had planned to begin another mission station on the Kokoda Track at Efogi, but he became distracted with government exhortations to expand into the deltas of the Fly and Kikori rivers. The lure of access by boat and of coastal terrain compared to the gruelling Koiari tracks was tempting, but his three-year term expired before he could implement the coastal project.35 Before leaving, he made one last trek among the Koiari people, receiving an offer of land from Chief Odila at Nauro village.36

In 1924 William and Mollie Lock were appointed to Papua for the express purpose of pioneering a new station at Efogi, high in the Owen Stanley Range.37 They would bypass Nauro and take up a lease offered by the government further inland on the track to Kokoda.38 Albert Bateman came to assist in the building of the station.39 Nurse Emily Heise also arrived at Bisiatabu,40 as supplies were assembled into thirty-pound packs for native carriers to haul over 12 mountain ranges and through numerous river crossings.41 Lock and Bateman went ahead, arriving at Efogi on August 20, 1924, to construct living quarters of bush materials that would later be used as their church and school.42 On his return to Bisiatabu, Lock baptized 11 young men and three young girls on Sabbath, October 25, all having received instruction in the Bisiatabu school.43

The Efogi contingent set out from Bisiatabu on Sunday, October 26, 1924, for their arduous trek. The Locks and their four children, Jean, Lester, Lois, and Maynard, together with Bateman and Heise, rode horses for the first part of the journey, and then clambered up and down forested mountains for fifty miles through heat and rain for six days. Forty-one Koiari carriers, some women with their babies, carried bedding and tents, food and medical supplies, tools and utensils, while lads shepherded a string of 11 goats. Later Lock and others made a second trip to bring in fowls and further supplies.44 The establishment of the Efogi station was, arguably, the most strenuous enterprise ever attempted by Seventh-day Adventists in the South Pacific mission field. Lock used the outpost as his home base for patrols to surrounding mountain villages,45 venturing across the Owen Stanley Range into New Guinea as far as the Kumasi River via Kokoda.46

Bougainville Island

At the same time as Lock was establishing the Efogi station in Papua, plans were being made to enter Bougainville Island, a territory politically aligned with New Guinea but ethnically aligned with the Solomon Islands. In January 1924 a teenage boy named Sarago from southern Bougainville had enrolled at the Telina school in the Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands. He urged superintendent Harold Wicks to send a missionary to Lavilai, his home village on the southeastern coast. Wicks explored the prospect in August by sailing the Melanesia to Bougainville, taking with him Robert Tutty, Sarago and Solomon Island missionaries Nano and his wife, Pigiduri. Nano and Pigiduri were left at Lavilai to build some huts of bush materials. Robert and Hilda Tutty moved to the village in October that year.47 The site had disadvantages, principally the lack of a safe anchorage, but it served as headquarters for some years as several outstations were developed further south along the coast at Sirovai and Taki and inland at Leulo, Ogbu,48 and Raratui.49 More Solomon Island missionaries from Batuna Training School in the Marovo Lagoon were appointed to assist, such as Udumu,50 Seijama, Rongapitu,51 Rario, Bili, and Oti. Within three years it was reported that the six Sabbath Schools had a total attendance of two hundred individuals.52

Expansion in Papua, the New Guinea Islands, and the Highlands

The government blocked Lock’s plans for expansion into the Kokoda region and beyond, citing a long-held agreement that it was Anglican mission territory.53 Lock, as superintendent of the SDA mission, therefore turned his attention to the Papuan delta region, where the government had earlier suggested that Jones investigate. The climate there was oppressive and malaria was rife but in 1927 he sailed west from Port Moresby to the Vailala River54 and found a plantation owner willing to lease land for a mission site.55 Some local men returned to Bisiatabu school with Lock.56 A start was made on the eastern bank of the river at Hiloi village.57 When the lease expired three years later, the station was relocated nearby to higher ground at Belepa.58 By 1935 other villages upstream, such as Iari, provided land and huts for further outstations.59

In 1929 the missionaries sailed east from Port Moresby along the coast to Macfarlane Lagoon, where they soon had two stations operating, with approximately six hundred attending services. It became known as Vilirupu. One village was named Wanigela, erected on poles in the waters of the lagoon.60 The following year a separate station was established near the beach at Aroma, closer to Port Moresby.61 Others were created at Bukuku and further south on the coast at Domara.62 In the early 1930s Monamona aboriginal mission was resourced for couples willing to do service on the Papuan coast. Dick and Jessie Richardson were the first to respond. They located at Aroma.63 Will and Minnie Sheppard went to Vilirupu soon after. Stanley and Mabel Sheppard went to Mirigeda in 1937.64

The push from the Solomon Islands through Bougainville continued on into eastern New Guinea, when Jones briefly returned to the region and explored openings near Rabaul. He was accompanied by Solomon Islanders Oti and Salau. Jones took the team on board the Melanesia, arriving at Rabaul June 4, 1929. Near the entrance to the harbour they chose a site at Matupi Island because it was said to be free of malaria and well populated. A European home had already been erected on site. Andrew Stewart praised the location, not mentioning the fact that it lay very close to the active volcano Tavurvur, and across the harbor from another volcano, Vulcan.65 Eight years later, on Sabbath, May 29, 1937, he and church members narrowly escaped with their lives when both volcanoes erupted simultaneously. Many people died in the pumice and ash eruption.66 The mission station at Matupi continued to function, but a new center for activities in New Guinea was begun in 1938 some distance from the volcanoes. It was located on the coast of New Britain at Put Put on Rugen Harbor, and an adjacent plantation where the Kambubu Training School was built.67

Late in 1931 Oti was transferred from Matupi to pioneer Mussau Island.68 At the same time Salau was appointed to neighbouring Emirau Island. These two men had remarkable success. Virtually the entire population of Emirau began attending services69 and the large number of villages on Mussau that requested schools prompted the allocation of eight teachers to fill the need.70 Arthur and Nancy Atkins began a central school at Boliu on Mussau for advanced students. By 1935 they had graduated thirty missionaries who made a significant contribution to the church by entering new territory,71 reducing the necessity to bring missionaries from Fiji and the Solomon Islands.

Meanwhile, in Papua, the growing number of stations on the Papuan coast underlined the necessity to shift headquarters from Bisiatabu and prepare to service the more productive coast by boat. This led to the search for a safe harbor and the development of a sister station for Bisiatabu. Not far from Port Moresby an ideal site was located at Bootless Inlet. By September 1932 a mission station on Mirigeda Creek was opened.72 The Mirigeda Training School grew quickly,73 and in mid-1933 the arrival of the new boat, the Diari (Motuan for “light”), was welcomed. It was immediately put to work ferrying supplies and personnel to such places as Vailala, Aroma, and Vilirupu.74

Lock’s pioneer effort into the mountains from Bisiatabu to Efogi in 1924 was arduous. A decade later, July 1934, a second thrust into the highlands was made from Salamaua on the northeast coast of New Guinea.75 Gilbert McLaren gathered together Oti,76 Salau,77 three Mussau men, and five from the Matupi area and sailed from Rabaul to Salamaua, where they were flown to Kainantu in the Eastern Highlands region. In their reports the missionaries incorrectly spoke of the area as the Ramu instead of the Eastern Highlands. In actual fact the Ramu River valley was across the mountain divide to the north of Kainantu. McLaren directed the young men to build two homes of local materials, and he then left. William Petrie and Stanley Gander settled in when the buildings were near completion. The ten men from the coast had never experienced such cold weather, and were glad when their task was completed. When the time came to leave, after seven months of work, one insisted on being flown back to Salamaua but the others had to walk for six days down the Ramu Valley to Madang in order to board a boat to Rabaul.78

After only a brief time in Kainantu, Oti and Salau were assigned in 1935 to pioneer the Admiralty Islands, off the northern coast of New Guinea. Oti developed a station on Baluan Island, and Salau originated one on Tong Island.79 Within a few months Oti reported 130 believers at his services, and Salau reported nearly two hundred attendees.80 These ventures were a prelude to entrance sometime later onto the larger Manus Island.

World War II

Initially the conflict further north left Papua and New Guinea unaffected. The first indication that things were about to change occurred when a German naval vessel arrived unannounced at Emirau Island in December 1940 to off-load approximately five hundred individuals they had rescued from various sunken ships of their enemies. Trevor Collett, a self-supporting SDA missionary on the island, arranged with government authorities at Kavieng, New Ireland, to collect them and take them to safety.81

The following year, 1941, witnessed the rapid expansion of Japanese military activities in the region. In December 1941 most expatriate women and children of missionary and civil service families were ferried from Port Moresby to Australia.82 As Japanese troops moved further south, Alma Wiles and Marie Pascoe, with others, were transferred from Kieta, Bougainville, in January 1942.83 Soon after, Cyril Pascoe had to scramble from Bougainville and join up with other SDA missionaries in Port Moresby.84 Jack Radley took the mission boat Ambon from Rabaul to Australia via Samurai.85 Arthur Atkins and Trevor Collett, the most isolated men on Mussau and Emirau, left it very late to leave but managed to sail through enemy lines at night, with the Malalagi reaching Kambubu, on the east coast of New Britain. There the Veilomani picked up Aubrey Hiscox and Colin Sharpe, and the two boats sailed southwest along the New Britain coast, only to be shelled by a Japanese vessel. All swam ashore and hid. The Japanese destroyed the boats.86 Hiscox and Sharpe chose to walk to a bay where Allied flying boats were collecting escapees. They were among the last to be lifted out and flown to safety.87 Atkins could not walk far because he was suffering from asthma so badly that Collett made the gallant offer to get him back by canoe to the Roman Catholic hospital at Vunapope near Rabaul, at the same time placing themselves at the mercy of the Japanese.88 Soon after, Atkins died in the hospital, and Collett became a prisoner of war.89 He joined two other Seventh-day Adventists in the camp, Malcolm Abbott and Leonard Thompson.90 It was reported by local SDAs that the three men were taken from the camp in a vehicle that returned without them. Apparently they were executed by the Japanese. Their graves were pointed out at Matupi to returning missionaries after the war.91

SDA missionaries who had gathered in Port Moresby prepared the mission vessel Diari for a journey to Australia while Japanese bombers were peppering the area. Among those on board were Pascoe, George Engelbrecht, Kenneth Gray, Thomas Judd, Lester Lock, Robert Frame, Charles Mitchell, and Willie Shepherd. They left under cover of darkness, steering west along the coast and taking Ward Nolan on board at Orokolo. They had planned to pick up Laurie Howell and Eric Boehm at Vailala, but those men had been given passage to Australia on an oil company boat. The Diari reached Australian waters safely.92

Gander, Alexander Campbell and David Brennan, missionaries in the Highlands, had more time to plan their departure. Floods had stopped the Japanese advance up the Markham Valley toward Kainantu, but the waters were subsiding, so on April 16, 1942, the three men began a two-hundred-mile trek westward.93 For nine days they walked and rode horses up and down mountains to the Wagi Valley,94 where they boarded a plane for Australia.95

Papuan and New Guinean leaders cared for the church and its property for the duration of the war. Many of the church members wisely went into hiding, but the teachers at the various stations remained to protect the properties as far as possible. Just before Gander left the highlands, he arranged for Mamatau, an assistant from Bougainville, and Loras, a man from Manus Island, to establish a station near Madang on the north coast. The Japanese were bombing the area at the time but Mamatau and Loras persevered and carried the responsibility throughout the war years. It served as the spearhead into the district and eventually penetration into the Sepik River district.

Many stories emerged of faithfulness under adversity. The best-known example is of Deni Mark, who was tortured by the Japanese and died of his wounds at Kambubu station.96 Other members, also, were murdered there.97 Mamatau’s church, gardens, and hut at Madang were deliberately destroyed,98 and Oti in the Admiralty Islands had his Bible confiscated by the Japanese, who used the pages to roll their cigarettes.99

The Japanese troops did little to endear themselves to the local population, who learned to fear them. On the other hand, church members did all they could to assist the Allies. In the mountains leading to Efogi a small group hiding with Faole led four lost soldiers to safety.100 Three SDA men in the Baining Mountains acted as guides for two hundred native police fleeing from Rabaul.101 Okira, a teacher at the Omaura Training School, received the Loyal Service Medal for his assistance to the Allies.102 And on many stations valuables were buried by the members for safe keeping. Mitchell discovered that in his absence a young woman had cared for his hens, sold the eggs, and handed him the money when he returned.103

After the Hostilities

In September 1942 the Allied soldiers began to gain the upper hand in the conflict. Twelve months later prospects of peace looked even brighter, and church leaders began to plan for a few missionaries to return without their families. By January 1944 Brennan, Campbell, Howell, and Mitchell were on their way to the Gulf stations west and east of Port Moresby.104 Nurse Alma Wiles followed in June,105 Lock in August,106 and Gray107 and Boehm in December.108

Within five years Kabiufa School near Goroka was established, as were two outposts in the Chimbu Valley and another at Wabag in Enga. Gander, in 1949, took the mission boat Lelaman on a five-week exploratory trip from Madang to the Schouten Islands at the mouth of the Sepik River,109 and then, with some trepidation, ventured upstream against the strong flow that swept logs and islands of earth out into the ocean. He was thankful the vessel was securely screened to keep out mosquitoes in plague proportions, noting that the local Sepik people daubed their bodies with mud and slept with their pigs in long, tightly woven cane baskets to protect themselves from the pests.110 The following year, 1950, it was reported that a start had been made along the river with a village school at Ambunti.111

In the same year a generous plantation owner on Buka Island, near Bougainville, donated land and prepared a hut where Oti was pioneering a station.112 In the Vailala district, Papua, a significant thrust was being made into the mountains in a northeasterly direction. Native missionary Hilaki at Ke Ka was stationed the furthest inland and had walked even farther to begin work among the Kukukuku people.113

In 1954 Salau and a team of assistants paddled and walked inland from their base station at Wewak on the north coast in response to favorable reports that the local Maprik people were anxious to have a station established. Occasional visits were continued, but it was not until 1960 that finances became available to develop a permanent presence. Sydney and Beryl Stocken were the first expatriates to serve at Maprik.114

The Southern Highlands were off-limits to expatriates until 1954. The government opened an outpost in 1952 at Tari, together with a small airstrip. Patrol officers and Papuan police then did a major trek in 1954 from Lake Kutabu into the Tari Valley115 and considered the region to be safe, provided Europeans kept within a two-mile radius of the government station.116 With these limitations in mind three SDA missionaries flew into Tari and during March/April 1955 negotiated with local people for a mission site close to the airport. Louis and Ora Greive transferred from Wabag to pioneer among the Huli people.117 Over time many outstations were established in all directions reaching to Harguipa, Margarima, Nipa, Komo, Hibuda, Koroba, and Lake Kopiago. The most extreme outpost, beyond Huli territory, was set up among the Biami cannibals in 1968 at Nomad River.118

The Path to Maturity

The earliest years of the SDA mission in Papua New Guinea witnessed the assistance of Fijians, followed by Solomon Islanders. Each mission station then contributed to an army of local young men who led the services in the outposts. Some had very limited education. By 1950 the only ordained islanders were a handful of Solomon Islanders. This dynamic then began to change. In August 1950 a group of expatriates and twelve hundred highlanders gathered at Bena Bena in the highlands for both devotional and committee meetings. On the Sabbath afternoon, August 26, the first Papua New Guineans, Taula and Guibau, were ordained.119 In the same year Wari Kai was elected the assistant education secretary for the Papuan Mission, a first in departmental office. He was proficient in the inspection of village schools and making reports of his work.120

Immediately after the war the educational system was reactivated at three main centers. The Mirigeda school was replaced by one at Bautama, nearer to Port Moresby, by Gray and carpenter George Johnson.121 The school at Put Put on New Britain, first known as Kambubu Training School, had been destroyed by bombing, but was rebuilt,122 and in 1955 renamed Jones Missionary School (later College). The school at Omaura, known as the Central Highlands Missionary School, continued for a few years, but the soil was deemed unsuitable for major expansion, so an alternative site at Kabiufa near Goroka began to be developed in 1949.123 In the 1960s the Omaura site became the Coral Sea Union Mission Bible Workers’ Training School.124 By 1970 many more schools were operating at strategic locations. For example, there was Bena Bena (Central Highlands), Boliu (New Ireland), Rumba (Bougainville), Pisik (Manus), Paglum (near Mount Hagen), Kikori (Gulf region), Nagum (near Wewak), Panim (near Madang) and Gabensis (near Lae).125 In 1968/1969 a major training college was established at Sonoma near Kokopo, New Britain.126 It became a feeder institution for Pacific Adventist College (later University), which was opened in 1984.127

A similar proliferation of institutions took place with the medical ministry. In the early days most expatriate missionaries had some elementary medical training sufficient to conduct small clinics for outpatients at their district centers. The government provided most of the medical supplies. After the war these conditions continued, but there was an increasing emphasis on developing clinics and hospitals dedicated to training Papua New Guinean nurses and the treatment of inpatients, including surgical and maternity cases. One of the earliest examples was the tiny hospital at Boliu, Mussau.128 In 1949 Leonard Barnard pioneered the New Guinea Highlands Leprosy Hospital at Togoba, near Mount Hagen.129 Soon after, another, named Hatzfeldthaven Leprosy Hospital, was established at Dogamur on the northeast coast.130 By 1955 a hospital was functioning at Omaura.131 The responsibility for training nurses shifted when a major enterprise, Sopas Hospital, opened in 1963 near Wabag in the Western Highlands.132 By 1967 a floating clinic was being utilized on the Sepik River. This motor vessel, christened Pathfinder, carried two expatriate nurses up and down the vast river system to provide medical care for the numerous villages along its banks.133 There remains today a network of 34 clinics, aid posts and health centers strategically located throughout the country.134

In the 1950s and 1960s a number of significant advances occurred that made evangelism easier. One was the introduction of portable gramophones in the mid-1950s. They were a lightweight plastic model developed by the Radio Corporation of America. These devices were operated simply by turning the disc with a finger. For that reason the units were called Finger Fones. Eventually they were produced for forty different language groups and were used primarily in the primitive areas to tell a simple gospel message.135 In the more developed parts of the country transistor radios were becoming common in the 1960s. To take advantage of this fact, the SDA mission appointed speakers for a regular Voice of Prophecy broadcast. In 1968 the speakers were listed as Jonathon Paiva for the Rabaul, New Britain, area and brothers Pelaso and Paul Yamu for the mainland broadcasts centered at Lae.136 Recently a broadcasting studio has been opened in Lae under the banner of Hope FM.137

Perhaps the most significant advance was the introduction of mission aircraft in 1964, for it dramatically changed the dynamic within the territory. Finances were rapidly diverted from mission boats to mission planes. Barnard was the chief promoter of this aviation arm. Funds for the first plane were raised in America, Hong Kong, Australasia, and Papua New Guinea itself. Barnard and a test pilot flew the Cessna 180 from Australia, arriving in Papua New Guinea on June 29, 1964, after its dedication and naming as Andrew Stewart. It had been registered with the appropriate call sign VH-SDA and was based at Barnard’s station at Laiagam, Western Highlands.138 A second plane was purchased from funds raised on the J. L. Tucker Quiet Hour radio program in America. It was named Malcolm Abbott, arriving in Lae on April 28, 1966. Colin Winch was the initial pilot. Tucker’s program financed the third aircraft, a twin-engined Piper Aztec named J. L. Tucker, arriving in March 1970. A fourth plane, a Cessna 207, was purchased in 1971.139 These aircraft were kept busy transporting supplies and personnel to all corners of the mission territory, including remote western stations that had no other access except by air, such as Telefomin, Tabubil, Kiunga and Nomad River. Over time these aircraft were replaced. The most recent acquisition was a Pacific Aerospace Corporation 750 XSTOL with call sign P2-SDA, placed in service with two similar aircraft in 2016.140

The SDA mission in Papua New Guinea has brought commendable results in terms of thousands trained as ministers, teachers, and medical workers. Not only has the church been mutually blessed, but the nation itself has benefited, as many church members who have been educated in the institutions of the church have risen to responsible positions in government service. The following is a sample listing of some well-known Papua New Guinean Seventh-day Adventists who hold or have held public office: Sir Silas Atopare, seventh governor general of Papua New Guinea; James Marape, finance and rural development minister, also prime minister of Papua New Guinea, 2019– ; Sir Gibbs Salika, chief justice; John Giheno, a mining and petroleum minister, also acting prime minister, 1997; Don Polye, an opposition leader and one-time deputy prime minister; Belden Namah, an opposition leader and one-time deputy prime minister; John Pundari, environment and conservation minister; Ben Micah, public enterprise and consumer affairs minister; Benny Allen, housing, agriculture and livestock minister; John Numoi Kaupa, housing and urbanization minister; Richard Maru, national planning minister; Job Pomat, parliamentary house speaker; Amgben Kadakase, deputy chief justice; Ivan Pomaleu, ambassador to the Asia-Pacific Economic Commission; Joshua Rimarkindu Kalinoe, ambassador to Belgium; Betty Palaso, former commissioner-general for Internal Revenue, now ambassador to the republic of the Philippines; Ray Paul, chief commissioner of customs; Dickson Guina, secretary for provincial affairs; David Were, secretary for the Department of Works; Dr. Lohi Matainaho, chief of the Secretariat of Science and Technology; Gaona Gwaibo, financial controller of the National Bank of Papua New Guinea; Aho Baliki, a general manager of the Bank of South Pacific and member of the General Conference Executive Committee.141

Conclusion

The first decade of the presence of Seventh-day Adventist missionaries in Papua New Guinea caused much soul searching as expatriates from Australia and Fiji labored under trying conditions and saw very few results. The following era, when a small contingent of Solomon Islanders came to assist, brought a revival of morale and witnessed an army of young converts who spread out into far-flung outposts in all directions. Island after island, village after village, called for the mission to enter their corner of the territory. The war years brought a slowing of the momentum, but there followed a rapid recovery to the point where membership numbers exceeded all areas of the South Pacific. That strength persists as the churches, schools, and clinics continue to thrive.

Sources

“A few words from a letter . . .” Australasian Record, December 15, 1924.

“A Wonderful Venture in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, August 13, 1934.

“Another native brother from Mona Mona mission . . .” Australasian Record, November 8, 1937.

Atkins, A[rthur] S. “Later Word From New Guinea.” Australasian Record, March 14, 1932.

Baird, R[aymond] H. “Pacific Adventist College.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, March 31, 1984.

Barnard, L[eonard] H. “Unique General Meeting in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, October 2, 1950.

Barnard, Leonard H. “A Dream Come True: Aerial Evangelism in Papua New Guinea, 1964-1972.” Journal of Pacific Adventist History, December 2001.

“Brother A. H. Bateman . . .” Australasian Record, August 11, 1924.

“Brother A. S. Atkins writes . . .” Australasian Record, November 25, 1935.

“Brother Carr of New Guinea wrote . . .” Union Conference Record, December 13, 1909.

“Brother W. N. Lock reports . . .” Australasian Record, August 11, 1924.

Campbell, A[lexander] J. “Late News From New Guinea.” Australasian Record, April 2, 1945.

———. “Leaving New Guinea.” Australasian Record, July 13, 1942.

———. “Leaving New Guinea.” Australasian Record, July 20, 1942.

———. “Mandated Territory.” Australasian Record, September 19, 1927.

———. “Three Save Two Hundred.” Australasian Record, March 12, 1945.

Campbell, Belle. “Missionary McLaren’s Visit to Avondale.” Australasian Record, October 29, 1934.

Carr, [Edith M.] “New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, August 17, 1908.

Carr, E[dith] M. and S[eptimus] W. Carr. “Advancement in New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, January 17, 1910.

Carr, S[eptimus] W. “A Home for Bennie and a Produce Store in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, September 1, 1913.

———. “Annual Report of the New Guinea Mission.” Union Conference Record, September 27, 1909.

———. “Bisiatabu, New Guinea, Seventh-day Adventist Church.” Union Conference Record, August 8, 1910.

———. “Inland New Guinea.” Australasian Record, September 15, 1913.

———. “New Guinea.” Australasian Record, July 29, 1912.

———. “New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, October 26, 1908.

Carr, S[eptimus] W. “New Guinea Mission.” Australasian Record, September 28, 1914.

Carr, S[eptimus] W., and E[dith] M. Carr. “New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, January 4, 1909.

Cavanagh, Paul. “Beginnings: Through Indigenous Eyes.” Journal of Pacific Adventist History, June 2007.

Cholohei, Natalie. “Hope for Papua New Guinea.” Record, February 2, 2019.

Collett, Trevor. “More Details From Emirau.” Australasian Record, March 31. 1941.

Devine, Lester [D.] “The Finger Fone Story in Papua New Guinea.” Journal of Pacific Adventist History, June 2003.

Ellison, R[oderick] M. “National Development in Papua.” Australasian Record, October 2, 1950.

Engelbrecht, G[eorge] H. “Observations on the West Coast of Papua.” The Missionary Leader, November 1928.

———. “Preparing to Open a New Mission, Papua.” The Missionary Leader, November 1928.

Fraser, A[rchie] M. “Union Conference Annual Meeting.” Australasian Record, December 11, 1944.

“From Dick and Jessie Richardson.” Australasian Record 36, no. 11 (March 14, 1932).

Fulton, J[ohn] E. “Last Actions by the Australasian Union Conference Committee.” Australasian Record, February 13, 1911.

———. “New Guinea Next.” Union Conference Record, July 9, 1906.

Gale, Thomson. “Papua New Guinea.” Encyclopedia.com, 2007. Retrieved from https://www.encyclopedia.com./places/australia-and-oceania/pacific-islands-political-geography/papua-new-guinea.

Gander, Greta. “News From Inland New Guinea.” Australasian Record, April 20, 1942.

Gander, S[tanley] H. “Sepik Survey.” Australasian Record, December 5, 1949.

———. “Sepik Survey, New Guinea.” Australasian Record, November 21, 1949.

Gates, E[dward] H. “From Sydney to New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1902.

Greive, Constance M. “Smiling ‘Seven Day’ Boys From New Guinea.” Australasian Record, October 28, 1946.

Greive, L[ouis] T. “Modern Hospital Opened in the Wilds of New Guinea.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, October 28, 1963.

“Half-yearly Meeting of the Coral Sea Union Mission.” Australasian Record, October 2, 1950.

Harvey, Liam. “New Aircraft Dedicated for PNG Work.” Record, October 15, 2016.

Hill, Emma. “A Rest by the Way.” Union Conference Record, July 6, 1908.

Hiscox, Aubrey R. [“Memories of Escaping From the Japanese,” n.d.]. Personal collection of Wiladelle (Hiscox) Brown.

Hook, Milton [R.] “Walkabouts Can Be Fun—Sometimes.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, June 2, 1968.

Howell, C[ecil] J., and M[yrtle] A. Howell. “Starting a New Training School in Papua.” Australasian Record, November 13, 1933.

Irwin, G[eorge] A. “En Route to the General Conference.” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1905.

Jones, G[riffiths] F. “Among the Koiari Villages in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, September 4, 1922.

———. “Hunting and Finding the Koiari People.” The Missionary Leader, December 1922.

———. “In Melanesia.” Union Conference Record, December 15, 1904.

———. “Into the Interior Mountains of New Guinea.” The Missionary Leader, April 1924.

———. “Openings in New Guinea.” The Missionary Leader, December 1923.

———. “Report of the New Guinea Mission.” Australasian Record, October 30, 1922.

———. “The Melanesian Mission.” Australasian Record, October 21, 1918.

———. “To New Guinea.” Australasian Record, May 30, 1921.

Judd, T[homas] F. “Snapshots From the Bismarck Archipelago Mission.” Australasian Record, February 27, 1950.

Kellogg, J[ohn] H. J[ohn] H. Kellogg to E[llen] G. White. April 19, 1895. Ellen G. White Estate.

Lawson, A[rthur] N. “New Guinea.” The Missionary Leader, June 1918.

———. “The Death of Bennie Tavodi.” Australasian Record, December 9, 1918.

Lawson, E[nid] and A[rthur] N. “New Guinea.” Australasian Record, September 14, 1914.

Lawson, Enid. “First Fruits in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, September 6, 1920.

Lee, C. M. “With Our Young People.” Australasian Record, September 13, 1926.

Lemke, E[rnest] C. “Maprik’s Heathen Thousands—Your Task for God.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, March 7, 1960.

“Letters From Pastor E. M. Abbott . . .” Australasian Record, June 1, 1942.

Liversidge, W[illiam I.] “All Roads Lead to Kanganaman.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, January 15, 1968.

Lock, Lester [N.] Locks That Opened Doors. Warburton,VIC: Signs Publishing Company, n.d.

Lock, M[ollie] E. “Moving to Efogi, New Guinea.” Australasian Record, January 12, 1925.

Lock, W[illiam] N. “An Advent Movement in New Guinea.” The Missionary Leader, March 1925.

———. “Brief Survey of the Papuan Field.” Australasian Record, March 23, 1936.

———. “Crossing the Owen Stanley Range.” Australasian Record, August 2, 1926.

———. “God’s Working.” The Missionary Leader, April 1927.

———. “News From New Guinea.” Australasian Record, July 11, 1927.

———. “Opening a New Mission in the Interior of New Guinea.” Australasian Record, November 10, 1924.

———. “Opening a New Mission Station, Papua.” Australasian Record, January 9, 1933.

———. “Opening Work in a New District, Papua.” The Missionary Leader, June 1930.

———. “The Diari Enters Upon Her Mission Work in Papua.” Australasian Record, August 14, 1933.

———. “The Regions Beyond Efogi.” Australasian Record, June 22, 1925.

Lock, W[illiam] N., and M[ollie] E. Lock. “Arrival in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, September 8, 1924.

Maberly, F[rank] T. “150,000 More Natives.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, April 18, 1955.

Maekera, W. Oti. “Letter From Oti.” Australasian Record, November 19, 1934.

Martin, E[lwyn] L. “Faith Takes Wings Into Tari.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, May 23, 1955.

“Mission Panorama—North-East New Guinea.” Australasian Record, October 10, 1949.

Mitchell, C[harles] E. “A New Sabbath School in Papua.” The Missionary Leader, April 1930.

———. “A Sabbath School in the Wilds.” The Missionary Leader, April 1930.

———. “Among the Kukukukus.” Australasian Record, May 22, 1950.

———. “Papua to Australia on the Diari.Australasian Record, March 30, 1942.

———. “Progress in Papua.” Australasian Record, February 19, 1945.

Mitchell, Evelyn M. “Vilirupu Mission, Papua.” Australasian Record, December 10, 1934.

Olsen, O[le] A. “The Union Conference Council.” Union Conference Record, September 23, 1907.

“Our Island Missionaries.” Australasian Record, January 19, 1942.

“Our Missionaries.” Australasian Record, June 15, 1942.

“Overland Patrol of the Tari-Strickland Gorge Region.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, March 14, 1955.

Pascoe, C[yril]. “First News From Bougainville.” Australasian Record, May 15, 1944.

Pascoe, Cyril. “Flight From Bougainville.” Australasian Record, September 28, 1942.

Peacock, G[erald]. “Baptism at Bisiatabu, New Guinea.” Australasian Record, December 15, 1924.

Peterson, A[rchie] W. “In the Coral Sea Union.” Australasian Record, September 5, 1949.

Pretyman, C[ecil] H. “Travels in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, January 5, 1914.

Radley, Rose-Marie. Captain Jack Radley and the Heyday of the Fleet. Warburton, VIC: Signs Publishing Company, 2018.

“Remarkable Openings in Papua.” The Missionary Leader, June 1931.

Salau, [Robert]. “Over 300 Believers in the Admiralty Group.” Australasian Record, October 21, 1935.

———. “St. Matthias Group.” Australasian Record, February 5, 1945.

Salau, Robert. “Letter From a Solomon Island Worker in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, October 1, 1934.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, Idaho: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2015–2017.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1909–1983.

“Sister A. Wiles has now returned . . .” Australasian Record, June 12, 1944.

Smith, G[ordon], and M[aud] Smith. “Arrival in New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, January 17, 1910.

Smith, Gordon. “Bisiatabu, New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, August 15, 1910.

“Some time ago we announced . . . .” Australasian Record, February 21, 1927.

Stewart, A[ndrew] G. “A Marvellous Transformation in the St. Matthias Group, Territory of New Guinea.” Australasian Record, July 4, 1932.

———. “Amidst Volcanic Fires.” Australasian Record, June 28, 1937.

———. “Opening a New Mission Field in the Territory of New Guinea.” Australasian Record, July 8, 1929.

Stratford, S. V[ictor]. “News From New Guinea.” Australasian Record, April 13, 1942.

———. “Secretary’s Report.” Australasian Record, November 20, 1944.

———. “Three Months in the South Seas.” Australasian Record, July 31, 1933.

Tavodi, Benny. “Go Ye.” Australasian Record, December 22, 1913.

Tenney, G[eorge] C. “The General Conference.” ARH, March 12, 1895.

“The last mail from New Guinea . . .” Australasian Record, July 17, 1911.

Thrift, Lyn[don R.] “A Triumph of Improvisation.” Journal of Pacific Adventist History 7, no. 1 (June 2007).

“Trials of Madang Native Teachers.” Australasian Record, December 4, 1944.

Turner, W. G[ordon]. “A New Group Entered in the Southern Seas.” ARH, September 26, 1935.

———. “Secretary’s Report of the Australasian Union Conference.” Australasian Record, September 15, 1924.

Tutty, R[obert] H. “Awakening in Bougainville.” Australasian Record, June 21, 1926.

“We are glad to report . . .” Australasian Record, August 28, 1944.

“We are pleased to announce . . .” Australasian Record, February 9, 1942.

“We are pleased to report . . .” Australasian Record, December 13, 1943.

Were, Eric. “Balus Belong Seven-day He Come!” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, July 20, 1964.

Weslake, David [L.] “The Sonoma Project—1968-69.” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, May 26, 1969.

“While awaiting transport to Papua . . .” Australasian Record, January 22, 1945.

White, H[erbert] C. “Spending a Sabbath in the Interior of New Guinea.” Australasian Record, February 18, 1924.

White, Herb[ert]. “Put Put’s Day of Dedications.” Australasian Record, July 18, 1938.

Wicks, H[arold] B. P. “Entering Bougainville.” Australasian Record, January 19, 1925.

———. “Itinerating in Bougainville, Mandated Territory.” The Missionary Leader, September 1927.

Wiseman, Barbara. “Papuan Missionary School’s First Birthday.” Australasian Record, September 13, 1948.

Notes

  1.  Thomson Gale, “Papua New Guinea,” Encyclopedia.com, 2007, accessed September 25, 2018, https://www.encyclopedia.com/places/australia-and-oceania/pacific-islands-political-geography/papua-new-guinea.

  2.  J[ohn] H. Kellogg to E[llen] G. White, April 19, 1895, Ellen G. White Estate.

  3.  G[eorge] C. Tenney, “The General Conference,” ARH, March 12, 1895, 170, 171.

  4.  E[dward] H. Gates, “From Sydney to New Guinea,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1902, 7, 8.

  5.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “In Melanesia,” Union Conference Record, December 15, 1904, 2.

  6.  G[eorge] A. Irwin, “En Route to the General Conference,” Union Conference Record, March 1, 1905, 3, 4.

  7.  J[ohn] E. Fulton, “New Guinea Next,” Union Conference Record, July 9, 1906, 7.

  8.  O[le] A. Olsen, “The Union Conference Council,” Union Conference Record, September 23, 1907, 1, 2.

  9.  Emma Hill, “A Rest by the Way,” Union Conference Record, July 6, 1908, 3, 4.

  10.  [Edith M.] Carr, “New Guinea,” Union Conference Record, August 17, 1908, 5.

  11.  S[eptimus] W. Carr, “New Guinea,” Union Conference Record, October 26, 1908, 2, 3.

  12.  S[eptimus] W. Carr and E[dith] M. Carr, “New Guinea,” Union Conference Record, January 4, 1909, 3.

  13.  S[eptimus] W. Carr, “Annual Report of the New Guinea Mission,” Union Conference Record, September 27, 1909, 3.

  14.  “Brother Carr of New Guinea wrote . . . ,” Union Conference Record, December 13, 1909, 8.

  15.  E[dith] M. Carr and S[eptimus] W. Carr, “Advancement in New Guinea,” Union Conference Record, January 17, 1910, 3; G[ordon] and M[aud] Smith, “Arrival in New Guinea,” Union Conference Record, January 17, 1910, 3, 4.

  16.  Gordon Smith, “Bisiatabu, New Guinea,” Union Conference Record, August 15, 1910, 4, 5.

  17.  S[eptimus] W. Carr, “Bisiatabu, New Guinea, Seventh-day Adventist Church,” Union Conference Record, August 8, 1910, 3.

  18.  J[ohn] E. Fulton, “Last Actions by the Australasian Union Conference Committee,” Australasian Record, February 13, 1911, 8; “The last mail from New Guinea . . . ,” Australasian Record, July 17, 1911, 8.

  19.  S[eptimus] W. Carr, “A Home for Bennie and a Produce Store in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, September 1, 1913, 5.

  20.  S[eptimus] W. Carr, “New Guinea,” Australasian Record, July 29, 1912, 2.

  21.  S[eptimus] W. Carr, “Inland New Guinea,” Australasian Record, September 15, 1913, 2.

  22.  Benny Tavodi, “Go Ye,” Australasian Record, December 22, 1913, 3.

  23.  C[ecil] H. Pretyman, “Travels in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, January 5, 1914, 3.

  24.  E[nid] and A[rthur] N. Lawson, “New Guinea,” Australasian Record, September 14, 1914, 3.

  25.  S[eptimus] W. Carr, “New Guinea Mission,” Australasian Record, September 28, 1914, 48-50.

  26.  Enid Lawson, “First Fruits in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, September 6, 1920, 3.

  27.  A[rthur] N. Lawson, “New Guinea,” The Missionary Leader, June 1918, 7.

  28.  A[rthur] N. Lawson, “The Death of Bennie Tavodi,” Australasian Record, December 9, 1918, 6.

  29.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “The Melanesian Mission,” Australasian Record, October 21, 1918, 53, 54.

  30.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “To New Guinea,” Australasian Record, May 30, 1921, 5.

  31.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “Report of the New Guinea Mission,” Australasian Record, October 30, 1922, 90–92.

  32.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “Among the Koiari Villages in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, September 4, 1922, 6.

  33.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “Into the Interior Mountains of New Guinea,” The Missionary Leader, April 1924, 1, 2.

  34.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “Hunting and Finding the Koiari People,” The Missionary Leader, December 1922, 1, 2.

  35.  G[riffiths] F. Jones, “Openings in New Guinea,” The Missionary Leader, December 1923, 1, 2.

  36.  H[erbert] C. White, “Spending a Sabbath in the Interior of New Guinea,” Australasian Record, February 18, 1924, 3, 4.

  37.  W[illiam] N. Lock and M[ollie] E. Lock, “Arrival in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, September 8, 1924, 2.

  38.  W. G[ordon] Turner, “Secretary’s Report of the Australasian Union Conference,” Australasian Record, September 15, 1924, 1–3.

  39.  “Brother A. H. Bateman . . . ,” Australasian Record, August 11, 1924, 8.

  40.  “Brother W. N. Lock reports . . . ,” Australasian Record, August 11, 1924, 8.

  41.  M[ollie] E. Lock, “Moving to Efogi, New Guinea,” Australasian Record, January 12, 1925, 3, 4.

  42.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “Opening a New Mission in the Interior of New Guinea,” Australasian Record, November 10, 1924, 2, 3.

  43.  G[erald] Peacock, “Baptism ay Bisiatabu, New Guinea,” Australasian Record, December 15, 1924, 3; “A few words from a letter . . . ,” Australasian Record, December 15, 1924, 8.

  44.  M[ollie] E. Lock, 3-4; W[illiam] N. Lock, “An Advent Movement in New Guinea,” The Missionary Leader, March 1925, 1, 2.

  45.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “The Regions Beyond Efogi,” Australasian Record, June 22, 1925, 3.

  46.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “Crossing the Owen Stanley Range,” Australasian Record, August 2, 1926, 2.

  47.  H[arold] B.P. Wicks, “Entering Bougainville,” Australasian Record, January 19, 1925, 3, 4.

  48.  H[arold] B.P. Wicks, “Itinerating in Bougainville, Mandated Territory,” The Missionary Leader, September 1927, 1, 2.

  49.  A[lexander] J. Campbell, “Mandated Territory,” Australasian Record, September 19, 1927, 3.

  50.  R[obert] H. Tutty, “Awakening in Bougainville,” Australasian Record, June 21, 1926, 3.

  51.  C. M. Lee, “With Our Young People,” Australasian Record, September 13, 1926, 3.

  52.  Wicks, “Itinerating in Bougainville, Mandated Territory.”

  53.  W[illiam] N. Lock. “God’s Working.” The Missionary Leader, April 1927, 7, 8.

  54.  “Some time ago we announced . . . ,” Australasian Record, February 21, 1927, 8.

  55.  G[eorge] H. Engelbrecht, “Preparing to Open a New Mission, Papua,” The Missionary Leader, November 1928, 11, 12.

  56.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “News From New Guinea,” Australasian Record, July 11, 1927, 5.

  57.  G[eorge] H. Engelbrecht, “Observations on the West Coast of Papua,” The Missionary Leader, November 1928, 12.

  58.  “Remarkable Openings in Papua,” The Missionary Leader, June 1931, 7, 8.

  59.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “Brief Survey of the Papuan Field,” Australasian Record, March 23, 1936, 3.

  60.  C[harles] E. Mitchell, “A New Sabbath School in Papua,” The Missionary Leader, April 1930, 8.

  61.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “Opening Work in a New District, Papua,” The Missionary Leader, June 1930, 7.

  62.  Evelyn M. Mitchell, “Vilirupu Mission, Papua,” Australasian Record, December 10, 1934, 3, 4.

  63.  “From Dick and Jessie Richardson,” Australasian Record, March 14, 1932, 2.

  64.  “Another native brother from the Mona Mona mission . . . ,” Australasian Record, November 8, 1937, 8.

  65.  A[ndrew] G. Stewart, “Opening a New Mission Field in the Territory of New Guinea,” Australasian Record, July 8, 1929, 3, 4.

  66.  A[ndrew] G. Stewart, “Amidst Volcanic Fires,” Australasian Record, June 28, 1937, 2.

  67.  Herb[ert] White, “Put Put’s Day of Dedications,” Australasian Record, July 18, 1938, 4, 5.

  68.  A[rthur] S. Atkins, “Later Word From New Guinea,” Australasian Record, March 14, 1932, 8.

  69.  A[ndrew] G. Stewart, “A Marvellous Transformation in the St. Matthias Group, Territory of New Guinea,” Australasian Record, July 4, 1932, 7.

  70.  A[rthur] S. Atkins, 8.

  71.  “Brother A. S. Atkins writes . . . ,” Australasian Record, November 25, 1935, 7.

  72.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “Opening a New Mission Station, Papua,” Australasian Record, January 9, 1933, 4, 5.

  73.  C[ecil] J. Howell and M[yrtle] A. Howell, “Starting a New Training School in Papua,” Australasian Record, November 13, 1933, 2.

  74.  W[illiam] N. Lock, “The Diari Enters Upon Her Mission Work in Papua,” Australasian Record, August 14, 1933, 8.

  75.  “A Wonderful Venture in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, August 13, 1934, 8.

  76.  W. Oti Maekera, “Letter From Oti,” Australasian Record, November 19, 1934, 3.

  77.  Robert Salau, “Letter From a Solomon Island Worker in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, October 1, 1934, 2, 3.

  78.  Paul Cavanagh, “Beginnings: Through Indigenous Eyes,” Journal of Pacific Adventist History 7, no. 1 (June 2007): 28, 29.

  79.  W. G[ordon] Turner, “A New Group Entered in the Southern Seas,” ARH, September 26, 1935, 11, 12.

  80.  [Robert] Salau, “Over 300 Believers in the Admiralty Group,” Australasian Record, October 21, 1935, 8.

  81.  Trevor Collett, “More Details From Emirau,” Australasian Record, March 31, 1941, 3, 4.

  82.  “Our Island Missionaries,” Australasian Record, January 19, 1942, 8.

  83.  “We are pleased to announce . . . ,” Australasian Record, February 9, 1942, 8.

  84.  Cyril Pascoe, “Flight From Bougainville,” Australasian Record, September 28. 1942, 5.

  85.  Rose-Marie Radley, Captain Jack Radley and the Heyday of the Fleet (Warburton, VIC: Signs Publishing Company, 2018), 176, 177.

  86.  S. V[ictor] Stratford, “News From New Guinea,” Australasian Record, April 13, 1942, 4.

  87.  Aubrey R. Hiscox, [“Memories of Escaping From the Japanese,” n.d.], personal collection of Wiladelle (Hiscox) Brown.

  88.  Stratford, “News From New Guinea.”

  89.  “Our Missionaries,” Australasian Record, June 15, 1942, 8.

  90.  “Letters From E. M. Abbott . . . ,” Australasian Record, June 1, 1942, 8.

  91.  Radley, 208–210.

  92.  C[harles] E. Mitchell, “Papua to Australia on the Diari,” Australasian Record, March 30, 1942, 3, 4.

  93.  A[lexander] J. Campbell, “Leaving New Guinea,” Australasian Record, July 13, 1942, 3.

  94.  A[lexander] J. Campbell, “Leaving New Guinea,” Australasian Record, July 20, 1942, 3.

  95.  “Our Missionaries.”

  96.  Constance M. Greive, “Smiling ‘Seven Day’ Boys From New Guinea,” Australasian Record, October 23, 1946, 5.

  97.  A[lexander] J. Campbell, “Late News From New Guinea,” Australasian Record, April 2, 1945, 5.

  98.  “Trials of Madang Native Teachers,” Australasian Record, December 4, 1944, 5, 7.

  99.  S. V[ictor] Stratford, “Secretary’s Report,” Australasian Record, November 20, 1944, 1-5, 7.

  100.  Lester [N.] Lock, Locks That Opened Doors (Warburton,VIC: Signs Publishing Company, n.d.), 38, 39.

  101.  A[lexander] J. Campbell, “Three Save Two Hundred,” Australasian Record, March 12, 1945, 5.

  102.  A[lexander] J. Campbell, “Late News From New Guinea,” Australasian Record, April 2, 1945, 5.

  103.  C[harles] E. Mitchell, “Progress in Papua,” Australasian Record, February 19, 1945, 5.

  104.  “We are pleased to report . . . ,” Australasian Record, December 13, 1943, 8.

  105.  “Sister A. Wiles has now returned . . . ,” Australasian Record, June 12, 1944, 8.

  106.  “We are glad to report . . . ,” Australasian Record, August 28, 1944, 8.

  107.  “While awaiting transport to Papua . . . ,” Australasian Record, January 22, 1945, 8.

  108.  A[rchie] M. Fraser, “Union Conference Annual Meeting,” Australasian Record, December 11, 1944, 4.

  109.  S[tanley] H. Gander, “Sepik Survey, New Guinea,” Australasian Record, November 21, 1949, 6.

  110.  S[tanley] H. Gander, “Sepik Survey,” Australasian Record, December 5, 1949, 6.

  111.  “Half-yearly Meeting of the Coral Sea Union Mission,” Australasian Record, October 2, 1950, 2–4.

  112.  T[homas] F. Judd, “Snapshots From the Bismarck Archipelago Mission,” Australasian Record, February 27, 1950, 3.

  113.  C[harles] E. Mitchell, “Among the Kukukukus,” Australasian Record, May 22, 1950, 2, 3.

  114.  E[rnest] C. Lemke, “Maprik’s Heathen Thousands—Your Task for God,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, March 7, 1960, 1, 2.

  115.  “Overland Patrol of the Tari-Strickland Gorge Region,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, March 14, 1955, 3, 4.

  116.  F[rank] T. Maberly, “150,000 More Natives,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, April 18, 1955, 3.

  117.  E[lwyn] L. Martin, “Faith Takes Wings Into Tari,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, May 23, 1955, 2.

  118.  Milton [R.] Hook, “Walkabouts Can Be Fun—Sometimes,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, June 2, 1968, 8, 9.

  119.  L[eonard] H. Barnard, “Unique General Meeting in New Guinea,” Australasian Record, October 2, 1950, 5.

  120.  R[oderick] M. Ellison, “National Development in Papua,” Australasian Record, October 2, 1950, 4.

  121.  Barbara Wiseman, “Papuan Missionary School’s First Birthday,” Australasian Record, September 13, 1948, 3, 4.

  122.  A[rchie] W. Peterson, “In the Coral Sea Union,” Australasian Record, September 5, 1949, 4.

  123.  Lyn[don R.] Thrift, “A Triumph of Improvisation,” Journal of Pacific Adventist History, June 2007, 39–42.

  124.  E.g., “Institutions in the Australasian Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1965/1966), 102.

  125.  “Institutions: Australasian Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1970), 113, 114.

  126.  David [L.] Weslake, “The Sonoma Project—1968-69,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, May 26, 1969, 8, 9.

  127.  R[aymond] H. Baird, “Pacific Adventist College Opened,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, March 31, 1984, 1.

  128.  [Robert] Salau, “St. Matthias Group,” Australasian Record, February 5, 1945, 8.

  129.  “Mission Panorama—North-East New Guinea,” Australasian Record, October 10, 1949, 4, 5.

  130.  “Institutions in the Australasian Inter-Union Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1952), 96.

  131.  E.g., “Institutions in the Australasian Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1958), 83.

  132. L[ouis] T. Greive, “Modern Hospital Opened in the Wilds of New Guinea,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, October 28, 1963, 8–10.

  133.  W[illiam I.] Liversidge, “All Roads Lead to Kanganaman,” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, January 15, 1968, 2.

  134.  “Clinics and Dispensaries,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, Idaho: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2017), 718–728.

  135.  Lester [D.] Devine, “The Finger Fone Story in Papua New Guinea,” Journal of Pacific Adventist History, June 2003, 19–21.

  136.  “Radio-TV Production Centers and Bible Correspondence Schools,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1968), 106.

  137.  Natalie Cholohei, “Hope for Papua New Guinea,” Record, February 2, 2019, 9.

  138.  Eric Were, “Balus belong Seven-day He Come!” Australasian Record and Advent World Survey, July 20, 1964, 1, 2.

  139.  Leonard H. Barnard, “A Dream Come True: Aerial Evangelism in Papua New Guinea, 1964–1972,” Journal of Pacific Adventist History 1, no. 2 (December 2001): 3–8.

  140.  Liam Harvey, “New Aircraft Dedicated for PNG Work,” Record , October 15, 2016, 3.

  141.  Thomas Davai, email message to Milton Hook, January 8, 2019.

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Hook, Milton. "Papua New Guinea." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Accessed June 27, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=F826.

Hook, Milton. "Papua New Guinea." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Date of access June 27, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=F826.

Hook, Milton (2020, January 29). Papua New Guinea. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved June 27, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=F826.