West Kalimantan Region
By Roy Hutasoit
First Published: September 26, 2022
Formerly West Kalimantan Attached District, West Kalimatan Region was organized in 2000 and renamed in 2017. It is a part of the West Indonesia Union Mission in the Southern Asia-Pacific Ocean Division of Seventh-day Adventists. Its office is in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Territory: The province of West Kalimantan.
Statistics (June 30, 2021): Churches, 22; membership, 3,132; population, 6,366,388.1
Origin of the Adventist Work in West Kalimantan
Tjhen Sau Tjhi, a member of the Seventh-day Adventist Church from Singapore, moved to Pontianak in 1924. Khu Khiuk Min, in the Mandor village (about 40 kilometers outside Pontianak), diligently worshiped at his home. Tjhen Hiauw Fung from Mandor village went to Singapore and attended the Malayan Seminary of Seventh-day Adventists, where he was baptized. After completing his education he returned to Pontianak in 1926.These three families worshipped together at the house of Tjhen Sau Tjhi at Pasar Ika (now Jalan Kapuas), and became the pioneers of the Adventist work in West Kalimantan (even on the Indonesian Borneo).2
The 1925-1926 Biennial Meeting of the Malaysian Union Mission voted to send a teacher, Lee Kwet Thin, from Siam Mission to Pontianak. This was followed by the construction of a church in Pontianak. In the same year several students from Malayan Seminary in Singapore, including M.L. Tobing, M.S. Sormin, and Muda Silitonga, came to Pontianak and assisted during their vacation as literature evangelists. In 1928 S.H. Panjaitan was sent from Surabaya to serve the field in Pontianakbefore went to Banjarmasin.3
In 1928 a two-story building was built, located at Gang Borneo 1 (now Jalan Setia Budi, No. 1) where the upper part of the place of worship and the lower part were prepared for classrooms. At that time were about 40 members of the Sabbath School Branch. After opening a Chinese-language Adventist School of Pontianak in 1931, the teachers were Tjhen Hiauw Fungand Tjhung Thi Jin, who came from China, and also served as principal). In January 1933 Elder B. Ohme visited Adventist members in Pontianak, who were mostly ethnic Chinese, witnessing that some had moved from Pontianak to other places because of the economic crisis. At that time only 14 Adventists still survived in Pontianak, including teachers at the Adventist School of Pontianak, which only had 35 students. However, the economic situation had recovered when
K. Tilstra visited the Adventists in Pontianak in June 1941. The church members revived and grew by the Chinese-language Adventist School of Pontianak, led by Tjhen Hiauw Fung, with five teachers educating 170 students. Some of the Adventists in Pontianak were the Phang family, Tupang family, Monte family, Tjhen Sau family, Tjhen Hiauw family, and the five teachers, who worshiped in Chinese and Malay.4
The expansion of Japanese colonialism to West Kalimantan from 1941-1945 began with the occupation of Pontianak, beginning December 28, 1941. The work of the Seventh-day Adventist Church became very slow until Indonesia’s independence. Even the Adventist School of Pontianak, which had hundreds of students, was closed by the Japanese invaders, the school teacher killed.5
In 1950, a gospel worker named John arrived in Pontianak. In March 1954, two families of literature evangelists, Iber Pangkey and F. Singal, came to Pontianak from North Sulawesi and Jakarta. They were also nurses and led Bible studies. A Bible student, J. A. Walintukan ,was taught the Bible by the two literature evangelists diligently for 100 days, and was baptized in July 12, 1954 by Elder E.A. Brodeur, the first baptism in Pontianak after Indonesian independence. At the end of December 1954, the Adventists in Pontianak, with 14 members, were able to be reorganized as a Sabbath School Branch by Elder Elman Hutapea (president of Kalimantan Mission).The church and school buildings which had been neglected since the Japanese occupation and been used by other parties were restored and used once again.6
After independence, the West Java Mission sent the Bible teacher Z. H. Macarewa as the first pastor in Pontianak. After the arrival of Macarewa at Pontianak in September 1956, five souls were baptized on the day the congregation was reorganized on August 3, 1957, as one of twenty congregations recorded in the West Java Mission.7
In June 1957, West Java Mission President Theo D. Manullang and Z. H. Macarewa discussed with the government the establishment of the Adventist Clinic of Pontianak. Indonesia Union Mission Health Director Donald N. Holm oversaw licensing and the provision of clinical facilities. Two nurses, Samuel Manueke and Mrs. Manueke, were voted on at the Triennial Meeting of Indonesian Union Mission, January 16-27, 1958, The Adventist Clinic of Pontianak opened March 25, 1958, located at Gang Borneo 1. Its first day it served 20 patients, growing in the following years to serve up to 70 people a day. Despite facing many clinical challenges, it continues today, starting from the leadership of Samuel Manueke (1958-1963), then successively George Mandry (1964- 1967), Perry Alus Siboro (1968-1970), Erep Simatupang (1970-2002), Yusuf Teguh Prahara (2003-2004), Dyah Eva Hutagalung (2005-2013), Demisianus Ramedida (2014), and Natalina Selanno (2014-present).8
Twenty two years after its sudden closure, Pontianak Adventist School reopened on October 15, 1963, on the Adventist compound at Gang Brunai 1. The school educated 70 students that first year and 100 the next, with Branson Siagian as principal, and later Tigor Lumban Tobing. Justus Lontaan and Salmon Wagiu served as teachers.9
In 1938, M. L. Tobing returned from Singapore to West Kalimantan through the Tujuh Islands, Mida Island, and Terempa island. As a literature evangelist, he entered Sambas, then Mempawah and Pontianak. The books he sold prepared the way for future church growth. In 1957, Hiong Lian was appointed a literature evangelist and Sukampto became a part-time literature evangelist. In 1960 as many as nine literature evangelists served full time Pontianak, including R. Purba, J. Hutagalung, and Sukampto.10
In 1958 the literature evangelist Sukamptoe rached out to Kampung Ipoh (90 kilometers outside Pontianak), and met Tjin Bie Pin, a teacher at the Chinese School Bintang Duabelas, in Ngarak, and a well-known community leader. Sukampto’s efforts led to the first 10 baptisms in 1959, among them Tjin Bie Pin, Tjin Bie Cung, Ganeng, Aris, Uban, Jani, and Ajidin. In June 1964 a 40-day evangelist series was held by Sukampto, Justus Lontaan, and Robert Oscar Tilaar, with 128 baptisms. The mission assigned Z.H. Macarewa and a team of evangelists from Pontianak to serve every Sabbath in Ipoh, Pak Peleng Kayutanam, and Ngarak.11
In 1963 a church and school was raised at Ipoh, where Branson Siagian and Welly Parengkuan served as teachers and ministers of the Ipoh congregation from 1963 to1965. In 1963 an Adventist Clinic of Ngarak was established, led by Rahman (1963-1967). The Ngarak Congregation, which worshiped at the clinic, was pastored by Gustav A. Gultom, the mission’s associate director of publishing. The Pak Peleng Kayutanam Congregation was pastored by Johan Tan. In 1965, Tjin Bie Pin was appointed with Jarden Jonathan to serve in Ipoh, Pak Peleng Kayutanam, and Ngarak. Church membership in this territory was estimated to be half of the total members in the West Kalimantan Mission, primarily ethnic Chinese.12
In 1960 there were no Adventists in Singkawang. Z. H. Macarewa went there with two literature evangelists, R. Purba and J. Hutagalung. R. Purba met with Tjhay and Z.H. Macarewa led Tjhay and two of his two friends, Soong and Tjia, in Bible studies. In July 1960 Macarewa baptized Tjhay, Soong, and Tjia, the first Adventists in Singkawang. R. Purba served as pastoral care for about 30 members of the branch which was organized in 1961. The progress of work in Singkawang was great. In 1963, on a land area of 400 meters, a church was built to become a place of worship for the congregation. There were around 200 members, the majority of them Chinese.
In 1961 the Indonesian Union Mission made plans to establish a clinic in Sedau, 20 kilometers outside of Singkawang. The Adventist Clinic of Sedau opened May 19, 1963, inaugurated by West Kalimantan Mission President Elder Nelson Gamaliel Hutauruk Samuel Manueke directed the clinic. On June 18, 1963, a group of believers in Sedau organized with 16 members. M.T. Silitonga, district pastor in Singkawang and Sambas, held evangelistic meetings in Sedau and baptized 44 people on September 13, 1969 at Pasir Panjang Beach Singkawang. Perry Alus Siboro led the clinic (1966-1967), then Erep Simatupang (1968-1970).13
In September 1963, Robert Oscar Tilaar was assigned by his military battalion to duty in Pontianak. In December 1965 he moved to Sanggau, and found Adventists in Balai Karangan, including Mulyadi and two soldiers, Samuel and his friend, sent from Java. They worshiped in Sanggau several times. R. Purba and J. Hutagalung focused their work on Sambas, where many Chinese had been reached by books. In 1960 the West Java Mission had sent Gustav A. Gultom to serve as associate director of publishing and to promote soul winning. In Sakura, a town in Sambas near the Sarawak border, 22 were baptized in 1966, and a congregation organized. In Pemangkat the organized group of believers included the Thia Tji Tat family.14
During the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation of 1963-1966, the PGRS/Paraku in northern Kalimantan, and their troops in West Kalimantan were mostly Chinese. The Mangkuk Merah attacks of 1967 were accompanied by the expulsion and killing of tens of thousands of Chinese in villages and several places in West Kalimantan. The terrifying pursuit from September to December 1967 caused almost all Adventist church members in Sakura, Pemangkat, Ipoh, Pak Peleng Kayutanam, Ngarak, and Toho, as well as branches in Tanah Hitam and Sin Nam, to flee for safely. Congregations and branches in the territory became deserted, so there were very few Dayak peoples left. The Adventist Clinic of Ngarak was demolished and all equipment and medicines destroyed. Jarden Jonathan and family, with a small number of Chinese members from Ipoh and precincts, fled and joined with the congregation in Mempawah, which had previously been organized in 1968. The Sedau congregation became deserted, and the Sedau clinic was closed in 1970. The remnant members joined worshippers in Singkawang.15
Since the early 1970s, various revivals have been held to reclaim members in the Mandor and precincts areas. Atek Rahim was sent to Ngarak to gather the remaining Adventist members, holding a revival and rebaptizing 14 members on March 13, 1971. At the end of February 1971, Eddy Saerang was sent with Atik Rahim to conduct evangelism, and baptized 15 souls in March 1971 and 18 souls in June 1971. Albert James Pardede from Pontianak also held revivals in Kayutanam. Lucius Pardamean Simanjuntak held evangelistic meeting in October 1984, and baptized eight people in Pak Peleng Kayutanam and Mandor. The congregation was reorganized on November 27, 1984, and started to build a church for worship.16
Robert Oscar Tilaar moved to Sintang in May 1966, and met Welan as a soldier. They first worshiped in June 1966 at Tilaar’s house. Sukampto came from Pontianak to Sintang, becoming the pioneers of Adventist believers in Sintang. When M. T. Silitonga came to Sintang in 1967 to serve as a pastor, worship moved to the Silitonga house. One Friday, Tilaar and Silitonga met Sanis Martaatmaja, a Muslim. A week later they took his family to worship, then Martaatmaja and his daughter studied the Bible and were baptized by West Kalimantan President W.H. Silitonga in 1967. In 1969 evangelists conducted meetings in Makong and Penyangkak II. M.T. Silitonga held evangelistic meetings in Makong, baptizing 30 baptized on May 20, 1972.
Then M. W. Siahaan came to Sintang and the gospel spread to Penyangkak II, 30 kilometers outside of Sintang. A public effort resulted in 34 baptized on June 22, 1974, and 10 souls on July 20, 1974. At the end of 1974, Pengangkak II Branch was organized with 89 members, worshiping in the government-owned elementary school. Though attendance dwindled over time, in January 1994, Thomas Surbakti revived the members in Sintang and Penyangkak II and reorganized the congregation at BTN Sintang. A church was built in Pengangkak II, still in use today. The Welan family later moved to Nangapinoh, proclaiming the Adventist message in Nangapinoh and to Nangakebra in Melawi. Thia Tji Tat (Robert Thomas), an Adventist in Pemangkat, moved to Singkawang and became friends with Siau Djun Khin. Thomas introduced him to T.M. Sihotang, a minister in Singkawang. Sihotang baptized Siau Djun Khin and his wife in June 1971. Siau Djun Khin invited Thomas and Sihotang to preach to Siau’s relatives in Roban, and 24 people were baptized November 13, 1971. The next pastors to serve in Singkawang were Erkanus R. Pasaribu, Samson Sahe, and Yoseph Butje Tumengkol.17
Tumengkol conducted an evangelistic meeting in Kulor, baptizing 20 people July 23, 1977.The Kulor Congregation was organized in October 1977 with 75 church members. The message spread to the villages of Pasi, Saumbang, and Bagak, led by Manuel H. Wauran, conducted three weeks of evangelistic meetings in Kulor. Jarden Jonathan baptized 74 people on December 31, 1977. Churches were built in Pasi and in Bagak. One day in 1977, Lasarus Soreng, a well-known leader in Sutisemarang, visited an orphanage belonging to another denomination in Singkawang. Attending a Bible class Tumengkol led at the orphanage, Soreng was touched by what he heard, and brought 60 people from his village to study the Bible and be baptized.18
After a great fire in Muhiriam in 1978, Bill Tol, a pilot from Kalimantan Mission brought aid, opening the Adventist message there. In 1979, a ministerial student from ITKA (now Adventist University of Indonesia) conducted meetings in Sutisemarang, Muhiriam, and Kiung, leading to 72 baptisms. In 1980 Houtman Elisa Sinaga and Reymand Marasitua Hutabarat were sent to serve in Sutisemarang, Muhiriam, and Kiung. A congregation was organized in Sutisemarang and branches in Muhiriam and Kiung. In May 1978, Y.B. Tumengkol met his friend Yoksan Suparno, a pastor of another denomination who lived in Habang, 30 kilometers from Singkawang. Tumengkol shared literature about the Sabbath, and Suparno shared what he had learned with his congregation. On June 17, 1978, the end of the revival Tumengkol held for Suparno and his members, Bill Tol from the Kalimantan Mission baptized 25 souls.They included Yoksan Suparno, Mrs. Suparno, Mother Suparno, Daniel Usman, Anini, Murni, Mrs. Murni, Roy Mundus, and Luntu, Atta. Suparno became a literature evangelist. The church in Habang was built in 1990, and was organized into a congregation on July 25, 2020 by West Kalimantan Region President Roy Maju Hutasoit.19
In October 1970 the West Kalimantan Mission sent Jarden Jonathan to Ketapang. Jonathan baptized 12 people on August 14, 1971. Ketapang was organized as a branch in July 1991, when Stimson Hutagalung served as pastor. The congregation purchased a plot of land in the center of the city, and built a house of worship in 1995. Another branch opened in Teluk Batang, led by volunteer Paul Kusbini, in June 1994. The Adventists in Menjalin were organized as a congregation in 1994, and the message spread to many regions, including, for example, Apo (1998), Malino (2001), Setutuk (2003), and Sebau Amil (2005).20
Although since 1926 there has been a group of Adventist believers in Pontianak, the capital of the province of West Kalimantan, the official beginning of work there was in 1927, when Lee Kwet Thin was sent to serve in Pontianak. Pontianak was served in cooperation between the British Borneo Mission and Siam Mission under the Malaysian Union Mission, then part of the Far Eastern Division.21
In 1928, the Central European Division appealed to the General Conference that Indonesia (named Netherland East Indies) become its mission field, given the numbers of Germans and Dutch in Indonesia. In February 1929 the Malaysian Union Mission voted to organize the Netherlands East Indies Union Mission as part of the Central European Division. West Kalimantan was included in the territory of the West Java Mission, under the Netherlands East Indies Union Mission. Elder B. Ohme, President of the Netherlands East Indies Union Mission, came to serve on his working visit to Pontianak in 1933.22
The political turmoil leading up to World War II led to the mission’s returned to the Far Eastern Division on January 1, 1938. Pontianak is still under the West Java Mission.23
In January 1953 the Indonesian Union Missions Committee voted that all church work in Kalimantan be joined in one mission. As of January 1, 1954, the Kalimantan Mission was headquartered in Banjarmasin.24
The Triennial Meeting of the Indonesian Union Mission, held January 31, 1963 in Bandung, voted to organize West Kalimantan into a new mission, its office located in Gang Brunai 1, Pontianak. The Mangkuk Merah attacks of 1967 saw the number of members reduced to 239 in six remaining congregations. The Executive Committee of the West Indonesia Union Mission, meeting in December 1971, voted that the West Kalimantan become a district of the Java West Mission, effective January 1972. In 1973 the West Kalimantan district was merged into the Kalimantan Mission.25
To encourage more effective advancement of God’s work in West Kalimantan, because it is far from the center of leadership in Balikpapan, the Executive Committee of the Kalimantan Mission voted to propose that West Kalimantan be an attached district of the union. In December 1999 the Triennial Meeting of the West Indonesia Union Mission voted that West Kalimantan be separated from the Kalimantan Mission, and reorganized into an attached district under the West Indonesian Union Mission in the Southern Asia-Pacific Division. In 2017 it received region status.26
Chronology of Presidents
Nelson Gamaliel Hutauruk (1963-1965), Charles S. Silalahi (1966-1968), W. H. Silitonga (1969-1972), Eddy Sarmun Kartagi (2000-2003), Glory Wangania (2004-2009), Yance Fina (2010-2015), Erincan Naibaho (2016), Albertho Samuel Martin Tulalessy (2017-2018), Roy Maju Hutasoit (2018-present)
Kalimantan Mission’s Executive Committee, Minutes of November 1, 1999. Kalimantan Mission Archives, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan.
Petebang, Edi. Dayak Sakti: Pengayauan Tariyu, Mangkok Merah, Konflik Etnis di Kalbar 1996/1997. Pontianak: Insitut Dayakologi, 1999.
Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, various years. https://www.adventistyearbook.org/.
Tambunan, Emil H. Gereja Masehi Advent Hari Ketujuh di Indonesia, Sejarah Perintisan dan Pengembangannya. Bandung: Indonesian Publishing House, 1999.
Warta Gereja Advent.
“West Kalimatan Region,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (2022), https://www.adventistyearbook.org/entity?EntityID=20211.↩
Emil H. Tambunan, Gereja Masehi Advent Hari Ketujuh di Indonesia, Sejarah Perintisan dan Pengembangannya (Bandung: Indonesian Publishing House, 1999), 341.↩
“Malaysian Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1927), 168; “Repot Conferentie dari Malaysian Union Mission Dalam Doea Tahoen 1925-1926,” Warta Geredja Advent, February-March 1927, 7; Tambunan, 341.↩
Elman Hutapea, “Berita dari Daerah Kalimantan,” Warta Geredja Advent, June 1955, 3; Tambunan, 341; Tjhen Mee Po, oldest daughter of Tjhen Hiauw Fung, interview by author, Kediri, May 8, 2021; “Pontianak (Borneo Barat),” Warta Geredja Advent, March 1933, 3.↩
Ooi Keat Gin, The Japanese Accupation of Borneo 1941-1945 (New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2011). To occupy Kalimantan, the Japanese began by occupying Miri in Tarakan (East Kalimantan), then to Pontianak (West Kalimantan) which came from Sarawak, Malaysia. See Peter Post (Gen. Ed), Encyclopedia of the Indonesia in Pacific War, 1939-1945 (Leiden: Brill, 2010), xvii; Syafaruddin Usman dan Isnawita Din, Peristiwa Mandor Berdarah (Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo, 2009), 19; E. Turangan, “Melawat ke Kalimantan Barat,” Warta Geredja Advent, January 1957, 11.↩
Elman Hutapea, “Berita dari Daerah Kalimantan,” Warta Geredja Advent, June 1955, 3; Iber Pangkey, “Bahaja Maut di-antata Djakarta dan Pontianak,” Warta Geredja Advent, September 1954, 15; J.A. Walintukan, “Seratus Hari Bertempur, Menang dan Pikul Salib,” Warta Geredja Advent, February 1955, 11; Rompas Tong, “Kesan dari Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat,” Warta Geredja Advent, October 1954, 12; Njoo Liang Seng, “Laporan Konperensi Djawa Barat,” Warta Geredja Advent, March 1957, 40.↩
E. Turangan, “Melawat ke Kalimantan Barat,” Warta Geredja Advent, January 1957, 11; Theo D. Manullang, “Madju Bersama Allah, Sedjarah Sidang Pontianak,” Warta Geredja Advent, November 1957, 165; Oei Jung Fie, “Sidang Pontianak Diorganiser Kembali,” Warta Geredja Advent, November 1957, 165.↩
Theo D. Manullang, “Lapuran Daerah Mission Djawa Barat,” Warta Geredja Advent, March-April 1960, 50; Donald N. Holm, “Kemadjuan di Poliklinik Pontianak,” Warta Geredja Advent, November 1958, 180; Donald N. Holm, “Klinik Baru,” Warta Geredja Advent, July 1958,116- 117; “West Kalimantan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1964), 136.↩
Nelson G. Hutauruk, “Sekolah-sekolah di Pontianak,” Warta Geredja Advent, December 1963, 185.↩
Robert Oscar Tilaar, interview by author, Pontianak, April 24, 2021; Sukampto was a full-time employee of Bumiputra Life Insurance in Pontianak, but was passionate as a part-time literature evangelist to spread the gospel in new areas. As told by Robert Oscar Tilaar, interview by author, Pontianak, April 24, 2021.↩
W. L. Wilcox, “Hasil Pekerjaan Dinjatakan,” Warta Geredja Advent, November 1960, 171.↩
Tjin Djun Siang, son of Tjin Bie Pin, interview by author, Mempawah, April 14, 2018; W. H. Silitonga, “Bangun dari Tidur Tiga Tahun,” Warta Geredja Advent, September 1971, 16; Sei Jais, interview by author, Pontianak, April 20, 2021.↩
W. L. Wilcox, “Kemadjuan Pekerjaan Penjiaran Tahun 1960,” Warta Geredja Advent, February 1961, 19; W.L. Wilcox, “Hasil Pekerjaan Dinjatakan,” Warta Geredja Advent, November 1960, 171; Samuel Manueke, “Berita dari Daerah Kalimantan Barat. Balai Pengobatan Advent di Kabupaten Sambas,” Warta Geredja Advent, July 1963, 134.↩
Jona L. Draha, “Perkara-perkara Jang Besar dari Tuhan di Kalimantan Barat,” Warta Geredja Advent, February-March 1968, 11; Manuel H. Wauran, “Kalimantan Barat Menghadapi Tugas Berat,” Warta Geredja Advent, Juli 1970, 5.↩
Edi Petebang, Dayak Sakti: Pengayauan Tariyu, Mangkok Merah, Konflik Etnis di Kalbar 1996/1997 (Pontianak: Insitut Dayakologi, 1999), 13. Manuel H. Wauran, “Kalimantan Barat Menghadapi Tugas Berat,” Warta Geredja Advent, July 1970, 5. W. H. Silitonga, “Bangun dari Tidur Tiga Tahun,” Warta Geredja Advent, September 1971, 16.↩
“Kalimantan Bergelora,” Warta Gereja Advent, March 1984, 22. J. B. Banjarnahor, “Karya Bakti Jemaat Pak Peleng,” Warta Gereja Advent, December 1984, 7.↩
T. M. Sihotang, “Tjeramah Ketjil-ketjilan,” Warta Geredja Advent, April 1972, 16. R. H. Simbolon, “Gubernur Kalbar Menyumbang Pembangunan Gereja Advent Kulor,” Warta Gereja Advent, November 1978. “Kelas Alkitab,” Warta Gereja Advent, October 1977, 15.↩
Manuel H. Wauran, “Kampung-kampung Sekitar Singkawang Menerima Pekabaran Advent,” Warta Gereja Advent, March 1978, 27.↩
Reymand Marasitua Hutabarat (president of Adventist University of Indonesia, 2010-2017), interview by author, Bandung, November 7, 2020. Rindu Hutapea, interview by author, Jakarta, Desember 17, 2020. Yoseph Butje Tumengkol, “Seorang Pendeta Menjadi Evangelis Literatur,” Warta Gereja Advent, October 1978, 13. Daniel Usman, interview by author, Habang, April 22, 2021.↩
Syamsir Simanjuntak and Repiana Doloksaribu, interview by author, Menjalin, April 18, 2021; D. Masela, “Kegiatan Jemaat di Rasau-Menjalin, Kalbar,” Warta Gereja Advent, August 1989, 14. Syamsir Simanjuntak and Repiana Doloksaribu, interview by author, Menjalin, April 18, 2021.↩
“Repot Conferentie dari Malaysian Union Mission Dalam Doea Tahoen 1925-1926,” Warta Geredja Advent, February-March, 1927, 7. Pontianak was served in cooperation of two missions under the Malaysian Union Mission, because the field was a sister territory of the British Borneo Mission but the gospel worker was provided by the Siam Mission. See “Borneo Inggris Missioan” and “Siam Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1927), 166, 168. Also “Repot Conferentie dari Malaysian Union Mission Dalam Doea Tahoen 1925-1926,” Warta Geredja Advent, February-March 1927, 3.↩
Biennial Meeting 1927-1928 of Malaysian Union Mission, February 5-8, 1929, Minutes No. 3-12, 3-13, 3-15, 3- 16 and 3-18. Malaysian Union Mission Archives, Singapore. “Netherlands East Indies Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1929), 123. “West Java Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1929), “Melawat Pontianak (Borneo Barat),” Warta Geredja Advent, March 1933, 3-4.↩
“Netherlands East Indies Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1938), 130. “West Java Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1938), 132.↩
Elman Hutapaea, “Berita dari Daerah Kalimantan,” Warta Geredja Advent, June 1955, 3. “Indonesia Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1954), 109.↩
“West Kalimantan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1971), 170. Jarden Jonathan, “Stop Press,” Warta Geredja Advent, February 1972, 22. “Kalimantan Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1973), 176.↩
Kalimantan Mission’s Executive Committee, Minutes of November 1, 1999. Kalimantan Mission Archives, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan. “Konferensi GMAHK Uni Indonesia Kawasan Barat,” Warta Gereja Advent, April 2001, 11.↩