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Kate Lindsay.

Photo courtesy of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives.

Lindsay, Catharine “Kate” (1842–1923)

By Lorena M. Jeske

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Lorena Jeske, a registered nurse of 48 years with the last 31 years spent serving public health in county and state government. She received a BSN from Walla Walla College (now Walla Walla University) in 1963 and an MN from the University of Washington in 1998. She has two married children and six grandchildren. A longtime church pianist and organist, she has retired near the Blue Ridge Mountains in a one-stoplight town known for the arts and folk music.

First Published: January 29, 2020

Catharine “Kate” Lindsay was the first female Seventh-day Adventist physician and medical missionary. An educator, professor, and author, Lindsay was a leader in the development of the first Seventh-day Adventist school of nursing.

Early Life (1842-1867)

Catharine Lindsay was born September 11, 1842, in Dane County, Wisconsin,1 to Thomas and Catherine (McIntyre) Lindsay (September 15, 1818-May 30, 1890; April 10, 1815-July 8, 1891), both of Scottish ancestry and born in Scotland. Thomas and Catherine Lindsay married on June 28, 1841, in Glasgow, Scotland, and the next day sailed for the United States,2 arriving in New York on August 11, 1841.3 They traveled towards Madison, Wisconsin, arriving in September that same year. After two years of living in a log cabin near Madison, in the spring of 1843 they relocated to the farm in Dane County that would be their home ever afterward.4

Catharine,56 or “Kate,” Lindsay was the eldest of eight children, three of whom died in early childhood and one as a teenager: Thomas (1843-1844), Thomas, Jr. (1846-1862),7 Andrew (1848-1929),8 Willie (1850-1854), Mary (Winkler, Patton, 1852-1943),9 Euphemia (Christiansen, 1855-1948),10 Willie (1858-1860).11 Janet Livingstone McIntyre, widowed by 1841, immigrated from Scotland around 1850 to be near her daughter, Catherine McIntyre Lindsay.12

As Kate Lindsay grew older, she assisted her parents with work around the farm and home. She preferred to work outdoors rather than inside the home, yet always helped her mother with the care of the younger children. In the evenings, her mother read books and literature to the children, instilling in them a desire to learn more. Lindsay was nine years old when she began her eight years of formal elementary school, first from a traveling teacher who spent a week at each home. Later she walked four miles to an eight-grade schoolhouse with sawed slab seats. After completing the eighth grade she continued her education at home by reading every book and magazine she could find.

Lindsay’s “critical approach in evaluating the reliability of what she read caused her to read her Bible with renewed spiritual interest. She desired a deeper understanding of God’s Word.”13 Although she had enjoyed church attendance with her staunch Scotch Presbyterian parents, her personal studies led her to join the Methodist Church against her parent’s wishes. Later, Isaac Sanborn,14 a Seventh-day Adventist itinerant preacher, arrived to teach and preach in the little schoolhouse. Lindsay began to attend regularly, along with three other families in the area. Initially her parents did not share her interest. However, her father joined one evening and thereafter became a regular attendee bringing along her hesitant mother.15 In the fall of 1859, Sanborn baptized Kate, her parents, and her brother Thomas, Jr.16 Eighty-nine years later Lindsay’s parents, James and Catherine, would be described as “pioneer Seventh-day Adventist parents.”17

As a girl of seventeen, Kate Lindsay sacrificed clothes and personal appearance for her books and magazines in her continued search for knowledge, which concerned her parents. One day she received a book containing a biography of Florence Nightingale, a trained English nurse who reformed the nursing profession during the Crimean War. Reading this biography created in Lindsay a desire to become a nurse. She began to expand her areas of study, some of which included phrenology, geology, zoology, and other sciences. Lindsay continued to follow Nightingale in the news, reading about her 1860 development of a professional school for nurses at London’s St. Thomas Hospital. Her sister, Mary Lindsay Patton, wrote that after Kate Lindsay completed the eighth grade, “she studied algebra, astronomy, and Latin at home all by herself” although their parents “had been brought up to think it a disgrace for a woman to seek to pursue a profession of any kind. It was not a woman’s sphere. Consequently, she received very little help or sympathy from home.”18

When Lindsay was eighteen, a Mr. Porter arrived to teach school in the neighborhood. They began a friendship and soon became engaged. Shortly after their engagement, he enlisted as a soldier in the Civil War and died weeks later of pneumonia in a Milwaukee, Wisconsin, training camp.19 After his death, Lindsay was grief stricken and “became even more seclusive and forbidding in her attitude toward those about her.”20 She never married.

During the next seven years Lindsay continued to study at home in her spare time. An avid reader, not only did she continue her studies of science, literature, the classics, and languages, she also followed the current news, both local and afar. Lindsay read in The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald about the Western Health Reform Institute at Battle Creek, Michigan, which opened in 1866.21 She “longed for the time to come when she could be identified as a worker in it.”22 In a later publication, May 28, 1867, she read the Institute’s objectives which included “to treat disease upon Hygienic principles, and give instruction in the theory and practice of the recovery and preservation of health.”23

Lindsay had promised her mother she would remain home to assist with care of the younger children until her sister Mary was sixteen years old, although she greatly desired to move forward with becoming a trained nurse. So, in 1867, at the age of twenty-five, Lindsay announced to her parents that she was leaving home to work and learn at the new Western Health Reform Institute. Her parents had disparaged her reading as well as her desire for further education and a profession, thus Lindsay left for school without their encouragement or financial assistance.24

Education for Nurse and Physician (1867-1875)

In 1867, during Lindsay’s initial time at the Western Health Reform Institute (later the Battle Creek Sanitarium) and while at her assigned work “of dusting, scrubbing, and mopping,”25 she observed the standard of patient care and was greatly disappointed to discover there was no qualified nurse on staff.

While reading The Water-Cure Journal, Lindsay learned about Dr. Russell Thatcher Trall–a well-known non-Adventist hydropath–who opened a hydropathy (or water cure) facility in Florence Heights, New Jersey, in 1867.26 It is unknown precisely when she learned this facility offered a two-year training program in nursing, but before the end of the year Lindsay left Battle Creek for Trall’s school of nursing in New Jersey. There is no record as to the full content of Trall’s course for nurses. Lindsay did acquire skills in administering many of the treatments which were later termed physical therapy. Little is known of her personal life during these two years. Her sister indicated Lindsay paid her tuition by doing “family washings.”27Although she wrote home often, her parents still offered no financial assistance. “For two years she worked faithfully as a nurse, saving her money for that future time when she could perhaps study nursing somewhere on a post graduate level.”28

Upon her return to the Western Health Reform Institute during the fall of 1869,29 Lindsay soon found that her knowledge and skills as a trained nurse were not welcomed.30 This was an era when briefly-taught bath attendants were considered adequately trained to give nursing care for patients. In 1869, there were no professionally trained physicians at the Institute. Lindsay recognized that having a trained female physician on staff could fill a great need. So, although she knew that such an idea had not yet been fully accepted in other hospitals and institutions of learning, she decided to study medicine. She had already augmented her education by attending some medical courses at Bellevue Medical College in New York during 1868 and 1869.31 To pursue her dream of training others to become nurses, she recognized she would need additional education that was credible. Lindsey discussed her plans with the Institute’s Chairman of the Board, James White, and with the medical superintendent and other men in Battle Creek. All encouraged her to study medicine.32

After more than a decade of controversy and debate, in January 1870 the University of Michigan School Board of Regents voted to allow admission of women state residents. Their decision was called by many “a dangerous experiment.” The first woman was accepted at Ann Arbor in February 1870. However, there was a delay in accepting women into the medical school. Some members of the all-male faculty believed women would be offended by the content of certain classes, while others believed women did not have the physical capacity to practice medicine. A compromise was not reached until the following summer. Women would receive separate instructions in courses such as anatomy and gynecology, and the instructors of those courses would each be paid an additional $500 per year.33 In the fall of 1870, Lindsay, along with seventeen other women, was admitted to the medical school at Ann Arbor.34

Prior to admission to the medical school, applicants were required to pass rigorous all-oral entrance exams, which included mathematics, algebra, geometry, Greek, and Latin. Lindsay’s persistent study prior to these exams enabled her to pass them all. She was subjected to intense questioning by the Greek professor who greatly opposed admitting women to the university. “He would have kept on indefinitely had the room not darkened so that it was difficult to see.”35

She was twenty-eight years old when she entered Ann Arbor as a medical student. University of Michigan records indicated that during October 1875 she was thirty-three years old and a senior.36 While at Ann Arbor, besides classes, labs, and studies, Lindsay remained current on national events. She supported Susan B. Anthony’s crusade for women’s suffrage, and on one occasion actively participated in an on-campus debate. Her eloquent half-hour speech resulted in many of the male students supporting Anthony’s crusade despite their previous prejudices.37

By the time Lindsay left for medical school in 1870, the Western Health Reform Institute was facing major challenges.38 It had opened with two physicians, Horatio S. Lay and John F. Byington;39 one untrained nurse; three or four helpers; and two bath attendants.40 Phoebe Lamson returned in the spring 1867 with a Doctor of Medicine degree from Dr. Trall’s four-month medical school.41 Dr. Lay resigned during 1869.42 The Institute was in debt over $13,000.43 The available rooms were too few in number for the number of patients desiring treatment. If a new facility was to be built, then more physicians would be needed. James and Ellen White and a few others recognized this need and supported the necessity for more trained physicians.44

In November 1872,45 the Whites sent twenty-year-old John Harvey Kellogg, along with Jennie Trembley, Edison White, and Willie White, accompanied by Merritt Kellogg, to Trall’s short-course four-month medical school at Hygieo-Therapeutic College in Florence Heights, New Jersey.46 In April 1873, the attendees returned to the Institute with Doctor of Medicine degrees.47 Later that same year, Kellogg continued his medical training at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and then left for Bellevue Hospital Medical School in New York.48 James White provided him $1,000 to cover expenses in New York.49 Kellogg returned to Battle Creek in the spring of 1875 with his medical degree.50

Battle Creek Sanitarium and Hospital (1875-1896)

Lindsay’s medical education was self-financed. Following graduation from the University of Michigan Medical School, she returned to the Institute late in 1875.51 During 1876, Kellogg became Medical Superintendent and Head of Surgery of the Institute; Lindsey became Head of Obstetrics, Women’s Health, and Pediatrics.52 In 1877, the Institute was renamed the Battle Creek Medical and Surgical Sanitarium. 

Lindsay remained at Battle Creek through 1896, maintaining her private practice, working with the staff at Battle Creek Sanitarium, teaching both nursing and medical students, and writing articles for publication, while keeping current on medical information and news. In 1889, she presented a paper to the Michigan State Medical Society in which “she insisted upon [female physiology] education of mothers that they might pass on instruction to daughters.” Numerous male physicians disagreed adamantly with her belief that women needed such information. “This is the reason why I prepared this paper,” she said.53

Lindsay was a creative physician. During an asthma attack, she had experienced much relief when she placed a light bulb over her chest. Later, with the assistance of a tinsmith, she created for her use an appliance that confined the light and heat.54 Kellogg later wrote that Lindsay “was as far as we know the first one who conceived the idea of electric light as a cure in the treatment of disease.” 55 Her idea inspired Kellogg to design an electric-light bath cabinet in 1891.56

During 1896, Lindsay took a five-month leave of absence to assist the medical staff at Boulder Sanitarium in Colorado to establish both a sanitarium and a school of nursing.57 She returned to Battle Creek in early November 1896.58

First Seventh-day Adventist School of Nursing (1883)

Upon Lindsay’s return to Battle Creek Sanitarium in 1875, and until the School of Nursing was opened in 1883, she “never ceased to urge Dr. J. H. Kellogg and his associates of the great need for the professional service of the well-trained nurse in the prevention of disease and in the treatment and care of the sick.”59

In 1880, Lindsay returned to Bellevue Hospital Medical School in New York City for a postgraduate course in medicine. While there, she also observed nurses and interviewed administrators of the Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing,60 which had been reorganized in 1873 on the principles of nursing established by Florence Nightingale.61 When Lindsay returned to Battle Creek Sanitarium, she tenaciously promoted her vision for a school of nursing at that institution.62

With Kellogg’s support, Lindsay’s vision was realized in the spring of 1883 when a nursing training program,63 called the Sanitarium Medical Missionary and Training School, opened.64 Two women completed the three-month course. A second class, lengthened to six months, was offered in November. In 1884, the third class, although initially offered as a six-month course,65 was expanded into a two-year program,66 the format which the program would retain for approximately the next twenty years when a third year was added to the program.67 In 1888, a five-year course was also offered that included further advance training classes.68 “The first two years consisted of the general courses offered at that time in the nursing schools that were springing up throughout the country, and in addition, hydrotherapy, calisthenics, Swedish gymnastics, massage and electricity were included.”69 The remaining three years included “electrophysics, anthropometry, and symptomatology, as well as sanitary science, chemistry, bacteriology, and pharmacy.”70 In 1892, the school provided three training tracks–medical students, health missionaries, and medical missionary nurses. The medical missionary nurses track required five years of training.71

The textbooks provided to the first nursing class in 1883 were pamphlets compiled from Lindsay’s handwritten notes.72 She later supplemented her pamphlets and lectures with A Text-Book of Nursing for the Use of Training Schools, Families, and Private Students authored by Clara S. Weeks.73 Published in 1885, this was the first textbook for nurses written by an American nurse. It codified the necessary knowledge and skills for nursing practice. Prior to this time, physicians were the authors of textbooks for nurses and mothers providing care for families at home.74 Lindsay’s lectures for nursing students were published as a book, entitled Lectures: The Sanitarium Medical Missionary School for Nursing Students,75 around 1894.76

Lindsay, although not director of the school of nursing, maintained oversight of the policies and training from 1883 until 1896. She was unafraid as she zealously opposed management when a proposed policy was not consistent with sound educational principles, or when students missed organized classes because they were providing care to patients due to a shortage of staff. It was unusual for people to confront Kellogg, but Lindsay was not intimidated. Dr. M. E. Olson noted, “‘It was a little comical sometimes, when others were inclined to draw back, to see Dr. Lindsay look the medical superintendent [Kellogg] squarely in the eye and tell him what had to be done. She assumed that he knew what he ought to do.’”77

South Africa (1896-1899)

Although Lindsay received a call in December 1895 from the Seventh-day Adventist Medical Missionary and Benevolent Association Board (called Medical Missionary Board; renamed International Medical Missionary and Benevolent Association in 1896) to assist the medical and nursing staff in South Africa, she did not leave Battle Creek until late 1896.78 During a brief stopover in London she joined a Seventh-day Adventist family also traveling to Cape Town.79 They arrived early 1897.80 Lindsay did not remain long enough in London to obtain British authorization to practice medicine in South Africa. Subsequently, she was required to work under Dr. R. S. Anthony, a young physician who had begun work in March 1896,81 as a local physician and administrator of the sanitarium in Claremont, a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. Lindsay’s medical abilities were very soon recognized and she was called to consult with not only Dr. Anthony, but also other physicians in Cape Town.82

As soon as Lindsay ascertained that the training school for nurses at Claremont Sanitarium, started in November 1896, was following the same regulations and course of study as the Battle Creek School of Nursing, she turned her attention to the Matabele Mission,83 later known as Solusi Mission, an interior mission station among the Matabele tribe, near Bulawayo, in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). On December 20, 1897,84 she left Kimberly for Matabele Mission, traveling approximately 1,430 miles by train to Bulawayo, and from Bulawayo another 30 miles by a wagon drawn by a team of mules. This was the rainy season and the road was almost impassable.85 When the wagon broke down she completed her journey by riding a mule and arrived at the mission one week prior to the arrival of Ole Andres Olsen, former General Conference president, on January 1, 1898.86

Within a month of Lindsay’s arrival, six residents of the Matabele Mission became ill and died of either pneumonia or malaria during late February through March.87 Their immune systems, greatly compromised due to overwork, exposure, and famine during the Matabele War, made them more susceptible to illnesses and malaria parasites.88 Lindsay’s observations from her visits to Matabele Mission and other isolated mission stations in South Africa resulted in her numerous letters with timely instruction to the Medical Missionary Board of the need for better preparing missionaries, both prior to and after their arrival, for foreign service. She emphasized the need for medical committees to confer with local physicians, medical missionaries in the field, and military surgeons in foreign countries, as to malarial seasons of the year. She noted precautions needed during the malarial season, including where to build homes, prevention of exposure, and treatment of malaria.89

During Lindsey’s thirty-four months of service in South Africa, in addition to her development of recommendations for the health of workers in the area, she provided medical care along with educational work and medical consultation at the outlying missions and in Cape Town.90 From her personal funds she provided Matabele Mission with a well and windmill for raising water and grinding corn.91On the plains near Matabele Mission were bleached-bones of natives from the recent famine, which Lindsay collected to create a skeleton for educational use at the School of Nursing in Cape Town.92

Due to the Boer War, Lindsey was forced to leave South Africa earlier than planned. She traveled to America via Europe. In a letter to friends, dated Oct 24, 1899, she described some of the destruction from the war and the lack of availability of current news in the Cape Town area. She noted that “Sir Redvers Buller will be here Friday with 20,000 English troops.”93 On October 31, 1899, a few hours prior to the start of her voyage, Lindsay with her party witnessed the arrival of the vessel carrying Buller and his troops.94

Europe and North Carolina (1899-1901)

Lindsay arrived in London November 22, 1899.95 She remained in Europe about six months visiting friends, relatives, and several sanitariums. “In a lengthy letter to her sister, written May 2, 1900, from the sanitarium in Skodsborg, she described with careful detail life in a Danish home in Europe. This letter was representative of the descriptions she wrote her family as she visited various areas of the old continent.”96

Upon her return to the United States, Lindsay chose to reside in North Carolina, believing this to be a better climate for her asthma,97 which she had suffered since childhood.98 “Here she hoped to become established in some sort of self-supporting medical missionary work.”99 In a letter to her sister, Phemie Christiansen, dated January 31, 1901, she described her life in Asheville, North Carolina, and the land with a house she had purchased.100 About a year later, she donated recently purchased property near Hildebran, North Carolina, to the North Carolina Conference for sanitarium that became known as Piedmont Sanitarium.101

Boulder Colorado Sanitarium (1901-1923)

During mid-1901, upon the encouragement of Kellogg, Lindsay moved to Boulder, Colorado,102 and again joined the medical staff at Boulder Colorado Sanitarium (renamed Boulder Memorial Hospital in the 1950s). During 1902 she served as medical superintendent.103 Her focus of work continued to center on nursing education and the medical practice of obstetrics, gynecology, and pediatrics.

In early 1912, Francis M. Wilcox wrote concerning challenges the sanitarium had been experiencing, and noted that

We are pleased to find still in active service Dr. Kate Lindsay, who for the last twelve years has done hard, faithful, and competent service in this sanitarium at times carrying a heavy load of medical work when changes have been made in the medical staff, and at all times carrying the chief burden of teaching in the nurses’ training-school. Although past seventy years of age, her optimistic view of life keeps her hard at work, and the scores of excellent young men and women who have gone out as nurses from this institution can bear witness to the faithfulness and efficiency of her instruction.104

During late 1913, Wilcox wrote that Lindsay was “still earnestly at work training and educating young men and women for lives of usefulness.”105 Avis Baker wrote, “[Lindsay], who bears most of the burden of teaching our training school classes,” provided an evening medical lecture on December 15, 1915.106 No information was found regarding the last year she taught. During the October 1919 Autumn Council of the General Conference Committee, held at Boulder Colorado Sanitarium, Lindsay was listed among “present management” at the sanitarium and included in a photograph of the Boulder-Colorado Sanitarium faculty. She was seventy-seven years old.107

About 1905, Lindsay wrote a nurses’ pledge which for numerous decades was familiar to all nurses in Seventh-day Adventist schools of nursing as The Kate Lindsay Pledge:

Realizing the serious nature of the duties and the grave character of the responsibilities of the professional nurse, and especially appreciating the solemn obligations of the missionary nurse, I hereby solemnly pledge myself, by the help of God, faithfully to perform the duties of my calling, sacredly to regard its obligations and responsibilities, conscientiously to teach and practice the principles taught me by my instructors, to keep inviolate the professional confidences which may be reposed in me by those under my care, and to labor earnestly and truly for the relief of human suffering and the amelioration of human woe, and especially for the fellow mortals who may be in need of my assistance, wherever duty may call me to labor.108

Lindsay, a writer for several periodicals and journals,109 and a regular contributor to Good Health for numerous years, penned articles which varied from recommendations for home nursing care to infectious diseases, quarantine regulations, dress, dress patterns, equal rights for girls during formative years, and exercise.

One of her former nursing students from the late 1880s, who later became a physician, noted that Lindsay had “bronchial asthma, which troubled her until her death. It caused her much coughing; consequently, when lecturing, she was often obliged to stop to cough.”110 While in her seventies Lindsay continued to teach nurses’ classes now from a wheelchair because of her arthritis.111 The students met in her home. During her final years she remained mentally alert and continued to live in her little cottage on the grounds of Boulder Colorado Sanitarium. Due to frailness, rheumatism,112 and arthritis-related reduced mobility, during her last few years a nurse became her constant companion.113 Lindsay was eighty years old when she died in her home on March 31, 1923.114 She was buried in Dane County, Wisconsin,115 among other members of her family.

Lindsay devoted nearly fifty years to working in Seventh-day Adventist sanitariums (Battle Creek, Claremont, Boulder) and nearly forty years teaching nursing students at these institutions. In addition to her time and service to others, she also generously donated financially towards various needs. At the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Lindsay donated several endowed beds that allowed patients to receive care at no cost.116 In Chicago, Illinois, she was one of the first five contributors, each of whom donated at least $1,000, to the development of the Medical Missionary College.117 She provided her services without cost to the Haskell Home for Orphans (Haskell Memorial Home), in Battle Creek, Michigan–the first Seventh-day Adventist orphanage.118 Lindsay also contributed funds to build the Life Boat Rescue Home119 (later known as Suburban Home for Girls, a home for unwed pregnant teens and adults)120 in Hinsdale, Illinois; provided tuition assistance for nursing students;121 and bequeathed $2,000 for the nurses’ dorm in Boulder.122

Lindsay’s influence went far beyond what she envisioned. For example, in 1904 Drs. David and Mary Paulson, encouraged by Lindsay,123 established the Hinsdale Sanitarium and Hospital (now Adventist Hinsdale Hospital)124 at Hinsdale, Illinois. About fifty years later, Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Kettering, impressed by care provided by Hinsdale Sanitarium during the polio epidemic in the 1950s, led efforts to build a local hospital in memory of his father: Kettering Medical Center founded in 1964, Kettering, Ohio.125

Lindsay was described as "a nurse as well as a physician [who] brought to this first school a richness of fundamental principles relative to both theory and the practical work needed by a nurse, so that as we view those early years we can but look upon Dr. Lindsay as a Florence Nightingale to this people. Indeed, she was inspired by the dynamic spirit of Florence Nightingale to devote her life to this work, and until the day of her death her heart was in the work of training medical missionary nurses."126

During 1936, the College of Medical Evangelists (now Loma Linda University) Board of Trustees, upon recommendation by their School of Nursing faculty, named the original “girls’ dormitory” built in Loma Linda in 1910 Kate Lindsay Hall. On May 26, 1959, during the groundbreaking ceremony for the new Kate Lindsay Hall, Dean K. J. Reynolds said,

It is to be hoped that when women students of this college inquire about the name of this beautiful new residence hall, they will be told that it is named for a person who was a sincere Christian whose life was dedicated to service in the medical arts, that she was respected as a physician and a scientist in a man’s world, that she helped to create professional nursing, that whether in America or overseas she was always the missionary, her giving strength and talents selflessly to those who needed her, that she loved excellence and virtue above all else and sought to exemplify both. It is hoped that much of Kate Lindsay will rub off on those who for a brief period of their lives call this residence hall their home.127

Contribution

Catharine “Dr. Kate” Lindsay was an important figure of first generation Seventh-day Adventism. She “is the dominant female figure in pioneer Adventist medical work.”128 She founded the first Seventh-day Adventist school of nursing,129 and was integral in establishing sanitariums and schools of nursing at both Boulder Sanitarium, Colorado, and Claremont Sanitarium, South Africa. She exemplified her belief in these words from her address to Battle Creek’s graduating class of November 9, 1891: “That your mission is to do good to your fellows, to heal the sick and alleviate suffering.”130

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———. “Report of Nursing Education 1922-1926.” ARH, January 20, 1927.

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Notes

  1. Ancestry.com, accessed September 2017, https://www.ancestry.com.

  2. Kate Lindsay, “Thomas Lindsay obituary,” ARH, October 13, 1891, 639.

  3. Ancestry.com, accessed September 2017, https://www.ancestry.com.

  4. Lindsay, “Thomas Lindsay obituary,” 639.

  5. Mark Dionne, Catharine “Kate” Lindsay 1842-1923, accessed September 2017, http://markdionne.com/ged/individual.php?pid=I9619

  6. Mark Dionne, email message regarding Catharine Lindsay and other of her family members on his website, September 23, 2017.

  7. C. W. Stanley, “Thomas Lindsay, Jr. obituary,” ARH, December 30, 1862, 39.

  8. E. H. Oswald, “Andrew Lindsay obituary,” Lake Union Herald, January 8, 1930, 6.

  9. J. J. Dollinger, “Mary Lindsay Patton obituary,” Lake Union Herald, February 16, 1943, 14.

  10. “Euphemia Lindsay Christiansen obituary,” ARH, October 28, 1948, 20.

  11. This and nine preceding birth and death dates of the Lindsay family were all accessed from Ancestry.com, September 2017, https://www.ancestry.com.

  12. Kathryn Jensen Nelson, Kate Lindsay, MD (Nashville, TN: Southern Publishing Association, 1963), 21.

  13. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 29.

  14. W. T. Thurston, “Life Sketch of Elder Isaac Sanborn,” ARH, June 19, 1913, 597.

  15. Lindsay, “Catherine Lindsay obituary,” ARH, September 29, 1891, 22.

  16. Lindsay, “Thomas Lindsay obituary,” 639.

  17. “Euphemia Lindsay Christiansen obituary,” ARH, October 28, 1948, 20 (emphasis added).

  18. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 22-23.

  19. Ava C. Wall, “New Worlds to Conquer” in They Also Served (Takoma Park, Washington, DC: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1940), 63.

  20. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 24.

  21. Uriah Smith, “A Great Fact Accomplished,” ARH, September 11, 1866, 116.

  22. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 37.

  23. Smith, “Meeting of the Health Reform Institute,” ARH, May 28, 1867, 279.

  24. Adriel D. Chilson, “Bike-riding Doctor–Kate Lindsay” in They had a World to Win (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2001), 156; Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 38.

  25. Chilson, They Had a World, 156.

  26. Wall, They Also Served, 54; Dores Eugene Robinson, “Movements Toward Therapeutic Reform” in The Story of Our Health Message: The Origin, Character, and Development of Health Education in the Seventh-day Adventist Church, rev. 3rd ed. (Nashville, TN: Southern Publishing Association, 1965), 36.

  27. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 41.

  28. Nelson, 43.

  29. Nelson, 43.

  30. Maxine Attebery, “Seventh-day Adventist Nurses: A Century of Service, 1883-1983,” Adventist Heritage: A Journal of Adventist History 8, no. 2 (Fall 1883): 4, http://scholarsrepository.llu.edu/advent-heritage/19/

  31. Lindsay, “The Rise and Progress of Nursing,” The Life Boat, August, 1911, 231.

  32. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 45-46.

  33. Howard Markel, “The University of Michigan Medical School, 1850-2000: ‘An Example Worthy of Imitation’,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 283, no. 7 (February 16, 2000): 917-918, https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/109748

  34. Markel, “University of Michigan,” 917.

  35. Wall, They Also Served, 56.

  36. Wall, 57.

  37. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 62-64. Debate on Susan B. Anthony’s crusade.

  38. Ronald L. Numbers, “The Western Health Reform Institute” in Prophetess of Health: A Study of Ellen G. White, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2008), 165-166.

  39. Arthur Whitefield Spalding, Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists vol. 1, “Medical Ministry” (Washington, DC: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1961), 369.

  40. Robinson, “Let Us Arise and Build,” 153.

  41. Numbers, Prophetess of Health, 162.

  42. Numbers, 171-172.

  43. Smith, “Business Proceedings,” ARH, May 26, 1868, 356.

  44. William C. Andress, Adventist Heritage of Health, Hope and Healing (Ringgold, GA: TEACHServices, Inc. Nov 21, 2013), 64-67.

  45. Floyd Greenleaf and Jerry Moon, “Builder,” in Ellen Harmon White: American Prophet, eds. Terrie Dopp Aamodt, Gary Land and Roland L. Numbers (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2014), 132.

  46. Numbers, Prophetess of Health, 176-177.

  47. Greenleaf and Moon, “Builder,” 132.

  48. Numbers, Prophetess of Health, 179.

  49. Spalding, Origin and History, 375.

  50. Numbers, Prophetess of Health, 179.

  51. Wall, They Also Served, 57.

  52. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 72-73.

  53. Michigan State Medical Society, and C. B. Burr, Medical history of Michigan, vol. 2, “Women Physicians” (Minneapolis and Saint Paul, MN: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1930), 602, accessed February 2018, http://cdn.loc.gov/service/gdc/lhbum/1995b/1995b.pdf

  54. Nelson, Kate Lindsay,110.

  55. John Harvey (J. H.) Kellogg, ed., “Electric Light Treatment” in “Questions and Answers,” Good Health, November 13, 1913, 348.

  56. Kellogg, ed., “The Incandescent Electric-Light or Radiant-Heat Bath” in “A Doctor’s Chats,” Good Health, December 1, 1894, 379.

  57. “Brief History – Boulder, Colorado Sanitarium,” Boulder, CO Public Library, 1, https://boulderlibrary.org/cpdfs/328-145-18.pdf; Kellogg, ed., “Publishers’ Department,” Good Health, August 1896, 256-257. Colorado Sanitarium dedicated July 1; Lindsay part of faculty.

  58. Kellogg, “Graduation Exercises,” Good Health, November 1896, 370.

  59. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 74.

  60. Kate Lindsay, “The Rise and Progress of Nursing,” The Life Boat, August, 1911, 231.

  61. Bellevue School of Nursing. Historical/Biographical Note. New York University Health Sciences Libraries, accessed October 2017, https://archives.med.nyu.edu/collections/bellevue-school-nursing

  62. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 74.

  63. Atteberry, “Seventh-day Adventist Nurses,” 6.

  64. Helen L. Manning, “Missionary Nurses,” ARH, November 29, 1892, 747.

  65. Atteberry, “Seventh-day Adventist Nurses,” 7.

  66. Battle Creek Sanitarium, “Sanitarium Training School for Nurses,” [Two-year course], Advertisement, Good Health, June 1887, 193-194.

  67. Atteberry, “Seventh-day Adventist Nurses,” 7.

  68. Nelson, “Our Medical Work from 1866-1896 – No. 13. The Opening of the First Seventh-day Adventist School of Nursing.” The Ministry, January, 1941, 30, 32.

  69. Nelson, “Our Medical Work,” 31.

  70. Nelson, 31.

  71. Manning, “Missionary Nurses,” 747.

  72. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 83.

  73. Nelson, “Our Medical Work,” 31.

  74. Women’s Achievements in Medical History, accessed October 2017, https://womensachievmentsinmedicalhistory.weebly.com/timeline-for-nursing.html; University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, accessed October 2017, https://www.nursing.upenn.edu/nhhc/nursing-through-time/1870-1899/.

  75. This work is listed in the Loma Linda University Libraries’ catalog as The Sanitarium Medical Missionary School: Lectures.

  76. Mary Colby Monteith, “Seventh-day Adventist Schools of Nursing,” The American Journal of Nursing 51, no. 2 (February 1951): 114, accessed April 13, 2019, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3459242; Maria Jankovic, “The Development of the First School of Nursing in the Seventh-day Adventist Church” (MA thesis, Andrews University, 2018), 104.

  77. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 95-96.

  78. H. M. Walton, “Establishing Medical Work in South Africa,” The Ministry, March 1941, 32.

  79. “Editorial Notes,” ARH, January 5, 1897, 16. Walston and family will meet Lindsay in London.

  80. Kellogg, ed., “Publishers’ Department,” Good Health, January 1897, 53. Lindsay arrived in London.

  81. Walton, “Medical Work South Africa,” 31.

  82. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 119.

  83. Nelson, 120.

  84. Nelson, 122.

  85. Nelson, 126.

  86. O. A. Olsen, “A Visit to the Mission in Matabeleland,” ARH, March 22, 1898, 189-190.

  87. Estella Houser, “The Story of our Matabele Mission,” The Youth’s Instructor, December 25, 1902, 3.

  88. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 149-150.

  89. Nelson, “Our Medical Work from 1866-1896 – No. 14: Doctor Lindsay’s Contribution to the Progress of S. D. A. Missions,” The Ministry, February, 1941, 30-32.

  90. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 119, 137, 147.

  91. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 120; Jean Cripps, “Moon Eclipse Triggers Rebellion.” Trans-African Division Outlook, August 15, 1971, 8.

  92. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 147-148.

  93. Nelson, 151-152.

  94. Nelson, 153.

  95. Nelson, 153.

  96. Nelson, 154-166. Lindsay’s letter to her sister.

  97. Nelson, 166.

  98. Evelyn Adams, “A Brilliant Shadow,” The Youth’s Instructor, August 24, 1937, 13.

  99. Mark L. Bovee, “Battle Creek’s Kate Lindsay: She Won Respect as a Physician and Scientist in a Man’s World,” Battle Creek Enquirer (Battle Creek, MI), October 11, 1964.

  100. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 166-168.

  101. O. F. Hayward, “Medical Missionary Work in the Southern Union Conference,” ARH, August 5, 1902, 16; H. E. Osborne, ed., The General Conference Bulletin, September 30, 1902, 633; Jeannie Thayer, ed., “The Carolina Conference,” Atlantic Union Gleaner, April 23, 1902, 184.

  102. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 181.

  103. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, 2nd rev. ed., s.v. “Boulder Memorial Hospital,” (Hagerstown, MD, Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996).

  104. Francis McLellan Wilcox, “Editorial Correspondence: Boulder Colorado, Feb. 6, 1912,” ARH, February 29, 1912, 8.

  105. Wilcox, “The Colorado Sanitarium,” ARH, October 2, 1913, 15.

  106. Avis E. Baker, “Boulder Sanitarium Notes,” Central Union Outlook, January 5, 1915, 8.

  107. Wilcox, “The Boulder-Colorado Sanitarium,” ARH, January 29, 1920, 20-21.

  108. Nelson, “Our Medical Work from 1866-1896 – No. 13: The Opening of the First Seventh-day Adventist School of Nursing,” [The Kate Lindsey Pledge,] The Ministry, January, 1941, 32-33.

  109. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 173.

  110. Nelson, 91.

  111. Nelson, 184.

  112. Wall, They Also Served, 63.

  113. Evelyn Fabian, “Kate Lindsay, M.D,” The Youth’s Instructor. July 13, 1943, 13.

  114. Wilcox, “Death of Dr. Kate Lindsay,” ARH, April 12, 1923, 24; H. A. Green, “Dr. Kate Lindsay obituary,” ARH, May 10, 1923, 22.

  115. US GenWeb Archives Project, digital image. Photograph of the tombstone of Catharine Lindsay, Sep.11, 1842-Mar. 31, 1923, 100 Mile Grove Cemetery, Dane County (Vienna Township), WI, accessed September 2017, http://www.usgwarchives.net/wi/cemetery/images/dane/100milegrove/lindsaycatharine.jpg; Larry Kopet, email from photographer of Lindsay’s tombstone, September 26, 2017. Photograph taken approximately 2002.

  116. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 78; E. H. Whitney, “Endowed Beds,” The Medical Missionary, August, 1893, 184.

  117. Kellogg, “Fund for the Erection of the Medical Missionary College in Chicago,” ARH, May 28, 1901, 349.

  118. Allan William Freed, “Arthur Whitefield Spalding: A Study of His Life and Contributions to Family-Life Education in the Seventh-day Adventist Church” (PhD diss., Andrews University, 1995), included in endnote: Haskell Memorial Home “earliest orphanage of the Seventh-day Adventist church.”; Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, 2nd rev. ed., s.v. “Orphanages,” (Hagerstown, MD, Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996).; Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 96.

  119. Hannah Swanson, “With the Suburban Home Founders,” The Life Boat, December 1907, 372.

  120. Elsie D. Whisler, “Healing the Wounds Sin Has Made,” The Life Boat, March 1913, 78.

  121. Nelson, Kate Lindsay, 90.

  122. Bovee, “Battle Creek’s Kate Lindsay,” Sec. 2, p. 15.

  123. Bovee, Sec. 2, p. 15.

  124. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, 2nd rev. ed., s.v. “Hinsdale Hospital,” (Hagerstown, MD, Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996).

  125. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, 2nd rev. ed., s.v. “Kettering Medical Center,” (Hagerstown, MD, Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996).

  126. Jensen, “Advance Steps in the Education of Missionary Nurses,” ARH, September 20, 1928, 6.

  127. Richard Schaefer, “Heritage Snapshot: Part 131 [Dr. Kate Lindsay],” Loma Linda City News (Loma Linda, CA), October 15, 2014, accessed April 13, 2019, http://lomalinda.citynewsgroup.com/articles/9fa6050f219f64589a40167593afa5ce

  128. Kit Watts, “Ellen White’s Contemporaries: Significant Women in the Early Church” in A Woman’s Place: Seventh-day Adventist Women in Church and Society, ed. Rosa Taylor Banks (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1992), 56.

  129. Spalding, “Strengthening the Right Arm,” in Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists, vol. 2, 329.

  130. Helen L. Manning, “Seventh Annual Commencement of the Sanitarium Training School for Nurses,” ARH, November 24, 1891, 733.

     

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Jeske, Lorena M. "Lindsay, Catharine “Kate” (1842–1923)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Accessed June 24, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=69OS.

Jeske, Lorena M. "Lindsay, Catharine “Kate” (1842–1923)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Date of access June 24, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=69OS.

Jeske, Lorena M. (2020, January 29). Lindsay, Catharine “Kate” (1842–1923). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved June 24, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=69OS.