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Ohio Conference headquarters  

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Ohio Conference

By Heidi A. Shoemaker

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Heidi A. Shoemaker, B.A. in psychology (University of Michigan-Dearborn), has served as communication director for the Ohio Conference since 2013. Before serving in Ohio, she was communication director for the Dakota Conference. A communication and ministry professional with experience across non-profit, private and public spheres, Heidi has a demonstrated history to lead collaborative initiatives, which positively impact visibility, strategic direction, and reputation among conference constituents and the public.

First Published: September 30, 2020

The Ohio Conference is an administrative unit of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the Columbia Union Conference.

Territory: Ohio

Statistics (June 30, 2019): churches, 90; membership, 12,047; population, 11,831,075.1

Origins

According to reports in the Review and Herald, Seventh-day Adventist teachings were introduced in Ohio in 1851, first by H. S. Case, and then J. N. Andrews, who preached in Cleveland, Cincinnati, Norwalk, and Milan.2

In 1853, Joseph Bates conducted meetings in Olena, Seville, Akron, Parma, Clarksville Hollow, and Rochester, and reported visiting “the church at Milan” in September 1853. From there he went to Sandusky County, where Ira Day took him by carriage to a number of places to meet former Millerites who had lost their interest “in these precious truths” after the Great Disappointment. He was invited to speak in a public hall in Green Springs, and nearly the entire village attended. He also preached in Marysville, Glendale, and Cincinnati.3

Two months later, in December of the same year, J.N. Loughborough followed up the interest stirred by Bates, holding five meetings in Green Springs. At the final lecture on Sunday night the schoolhouse was filled, “and many stood round the house, who placed their ears against the windows, anxious to catch every word.”4

In February 1858, G. W. Holt gave a course of evangelistic lectures in a schoolhouse at Lovett’s Grove, about two miles north of Bowling Green in Wood County. The meetings lasted only two weeks, but as a result at least 30 people began keeping the Sabbath. The next month Ellen and James White met with several scattered groups of Sabbathkeeping Adventists throughout Ohio. For two weeks a Brother and Sister Tillotson drove their horse-drawn carriage to take the Whites to where the various small groups held their meetings in Green Springs, Gilboa, and Lovett’s Grove. It during this trip that Ellen White, while attending a funeral service in a schoolhouse at Lovett’s Grove on March 14, was given a two-hour vision on “the great controversy” theme that would be central to her writings.5 In November 1858, M. E. Cornell reported that the Gilboa congregation was building a church and that the Lovett’s Grove members were preparing a home for the minister.6

In 1860 James and Ellen White held a series of meetings in a tent, and the 30 Sabbathkeepers at Lovett’s Grove were organized into a company.7 On February 8, 1862, Oliver Mears, a farmer-preacher, and H. S. Case organized this group into a church. This was the first Seventh-day Adventist church to be organized in Ohio.8

Organizational History

After the adoption of the denominational name on October 1, 1860 and the formation of the Michigan Conference (1861), steps were taken toward organization in other states, including Ohio. In 1862 churches were organized at Cass, Portage, Lovett’s Grove, Green Springs, Attica, Jackson, Gilboa, and Ayersville.9 Even before the local churches had been formally organized, there was an embryonic state organization in Ohio as early as 1859 in the form of an annual conference (in the sense of a meeting) with business sessions conducted with a chairman, a secretary, and delegates from the churches, in addition to preaching services. The 1859 conference, as reported in the Review and Herald, transacted business to finance “the [evangelistic] tent enterprise in Ohio,” and recommended the plan of systematic benevolence to all in the churches in Ohio.10

On May 31, 1863, shortly after the organization of the General Conference as a permanent body, the Ohio Conference was organized by the adoption of the constitution recommended by the recently organized General Conference. Oliver Mears was elected president.11

As late as 1866, though, Ohio had no ministers of its own but was dependent upon those coming from neighboring states. That summer I. D. Van Horn and R. J. Lawrence came from Michigan with their tent and held meetings in Belleville and Fredericktown. A report by Joseph Clarke in November mentions about 14 worshiping on the Sabbath in Fredericktown and 30 or 40 in Belleville.12 Literature evangelists, who traveled on horseback, also had a part in strengthening the small but growing membership of the state. Until funds became available for representative places to worship, Sabbath services were held in tents, private homes, and rented halls.

In Bowersville, for example, a new convert, William Cottrell, wrote early in 1866 of visiting home to home sharing his faith, and stated that he and his wife knew of no other Sabbathkeepers in the area.13 Two years later, though, on February 23, 1868, Van Horn organized a church of 16 in Bowersville, with William Cottrell chosen and ordained as elder.14

The first camp meeting in Ohio was held at Clyde in 1869.15 Subsequent ones were held in Mansfield, Newark, Galion, Columbus, Springfield, Cleveland, Marion, Findlay, Akron, Dayton, Canton, and Mount Vernon.

The Cleveland church was organized in January 1877, with 16 charter members and “prospects fair for worthy additions to their number,” followed in 1878 by the organization of churches in Van Wert and Newark, and in 1879 by Blooming Grove (known then as Corsica).16 In 1882 A. J. St. John and R. A. Underwood, who held meetings in Akron, reported 21 adherents in the city, seven of whom had been baptized recently.17

In Mount Vernon, which later became a conference center, a church was organized in 1885, with a membership of 15. It met first in rented quarters, then moved in 1889 to the gymnasium constructed by the Mount Vernon Sanitarium (operated 1888—1892). It met there until 1926, when it moved to the chapel of Mount Vernon Academy (founded 1893) and later to the new academy gymnasium (completed in 1953). Finally, a colonial-style church building was erected, which was occupied in 1957.18

In the early 1890s the membership of the Ohio Conference passed 1,300.19 Churches that were organized in that decade included Millersburg, Washington Court House, Dayton, and Hicksville.20 The Wilmington, Youngstown, Akron, Portsmouth, and Columbus churches were founded between 1900 and 1905.21

When union conferences were organized in North America in 1901, the Ohio Conference became part of the Lake Union Conference. In 1907 Ohio was transferred to the newly-formed Columbia Union Conference.22

The conference began publishing a semimonthly paper, the Ohio Welcome Visitor, in 1896 at the subscription price of 25 cents per year. In 1901 it was changed to a weekly, and in 1907 this publication became the Columbia Union paper, renamed the Columbia Union Visitor.23

The Ohio Conference is credited with forming the first conference-wide young people’s organization in 1899. Eight years later, at the 1907 General Conference council in Switzerland, it was recommended that a separate department for young people’s work be established, and the founding meeting of the Young People’s Society was held in Mount Vernon later that year.24

By December 1920 there were 2,860 Adventists in 65 churches throughout Ohio.25 In 1944 the membership reached 6,553 in 89 churches.26 As of July 2019, the conference was comprised of more than 12,000 Adventists in 100 diverse churches and companies.27

Ethnic Ministries

The Cleveland German church, organized in 1909, reached a peak of more than 200 members in the 1930s. In 1972, the congregation, then numbering 128, voted to change to an English-speaking church and changed its name to Brooklyn church.28

In 1974 there were three foreign-language churches in the Ohio Conference. The largest, with 161 members, was the Youngstown Spanish church, organized in 1962.29 The Cleveland Hungarian church, organized with 17 charter members in 1958, has since been re-named Westlake. Though primarily English-speaking, members retain their Hungarian language and roots.30 The Cleveland Yugoslavian church, organized in 1939 and later called All Nations church, closed in 2011.31

Ohio Conference Hispanic Ministries launched an online, internet-based radio station in January 2018. Called Stereo Adventista, the main studio is located at the First Cleveland Spanish church, designed as a means to enlighten the territory of the Ohio Conference with the three angels’ messages, and to encourage and teach church members.32 Programming is accessed via their website (www.stereoadventista.org) or through their app, and additional studio locations were being developed in Columbus and Dayton in 2019.

Headquarters Changes

The Ohio Conference office, housed at 111 South Mulberry Street in Mount Vernon since 1920, moved in 1959 to new headquarters constructed at Fairgound and Wooster Roads.33 In September 2017, the Ohio Conference Executive Committee voted to accept the gift of a $3.2-million office building on 2.6 acres located in the greater Dayton area. The nearly 30,000 square-foot building was donated by a Christian couple who owned a growing home healthcare company with connections to Kettering Adventist HealthCare.34 Delegates voted at the 42nd regular constituency meeting in May 2018 to make the gifted building in Dayton the principle office, discontinue the use of the Mount Vernon office, and take the necessary steps to sell the Mount Vernon property, which was sold in July 2019.35

Camp Mohaven

Camp Mohaven, a 700-acre facility on the Mohican River, just north and west of Brinkhaven, Ohio, was purchased in 1961.36 The new conference camp was equipped with a lodge, staff house, bathhouse, and swimming pool when it opened for the 1962 camping season. Various additions and improvements have been made to the camp, most recently an equine therapy program, high-speed internet and cell service, upgrades to the pool, and new bathhouses.37

Hospitals and Health Foods

The presence of Adventist medical institutions and health food enterprises in Ohio has made a large impact on the work of the conference. On July 7, 1961, ground was broken in Kettering, Ohio, for the Charles F. Kettering Memorial Hospital; the name was later changed to the Kettering Medical Center.38

In 1967 Kettering College of Medical Arts was established, offering professional and preprofessional degrees in the health sciences.39 As of September 2018, 839 students were enrolled at the college.40

Kettering Medical Center expanded its work with a second hospital, Sycamore Medical Center, that opened in Miamisburg, south of Dayton, in 1978.41 By 2019, Kettering Adventist HealthCare had grown into a network of eight hospitals and over 120 outpatient facilities serving southwest Ohio. These institutions are known for their high-quality maternity care, state-of-the-art cancer fighting technology, revolutionary brain and spine surgery, as well as being one of Ohio’s leading heart hospitals. With nearly 12,000 employees and 2,100 physicians, Kettering Health continues to expand its mission across the region.42 Due to the influence of both Kettering Adventist HealthCare and College, there were 12 Adventist churches and 3,629 members in the Dayton area as of September 2019.43

In 1916, George T. Harding II, M.D., brother of President Warren G. Harding, founded a small psychiatric hospital in Worthington, Ohio. The name of the hospital changed to the Harding Sanitarium in the 1930s, and subsequently to Harding Hospital. Six generations of physicians in the Harding family made significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.44 For over 80 years, Harding Hospital provided cutting-edge residential treatment programs directed toward the whole person, combining medicine, psychiatry, and concern for spiritual issues. In 1999 Harding Hospital was integrated into the Ohio State University Medical Center.45

Worthington Foods was founded in 1939 by George T. Harding III, M.D., to provide healthy, meatless protein food products designed to appeal to vegetarians and nonvegetarians alike. Good nutrition was emphasized in the total care of the mind, body and spirit at Harding Sanitarium.46 Early product development coincided with meat rationing efforts during World War II, increasing demand.47 Worthington Foods was acquired by a variety of companies over the years, ultimately being given new life by Atlantic Natural Foods Company in 2015.48

Education

Mount Vernon Academy, begun in 1893, ceased operations June 30, 2015. Its property and assets were sold at auction June 22, 2016.49

Spring Valley Academy (SVA), previously known as Dayton Junior Academy, began operation as a coeducational K-12 school in 1969.50 Located on a campus of nearly 50 acres in Centerville, the school is operated by constituent churches in the metropolitan area of greater Dayton. SVA is accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association and Middle States Association, and is a chartered nonpublic school with the Ohio Department of Education.51 In 2019, the high school division accommodated 107 students in a college preparatory program and the total school enrollment was 407.

The Clarksfield school, built in 1897, at one time boasted 100 students. By 2012 enrollment had dwindled to five. Through an intentional effort of educational evangelism in the surrounding community on the part of school and church leadership, the school’s enrollment surged to 49 by May 2016, outgrowing its building.52 A closed public school building in Sheffield Lake, about 30 minutes west of Cleveland, was purchased, affording continued growth into areas where students and church members lived. Named Northern Ohio Adventist Academy, the school is supported by several churches in northeastern Ohio and remains a valuable educational resource for that area of the state.53

Conference Vision and Mission

Recognizing the average age of Adventists in the Ohio Conference is 62 and continues to rise, conference leadership embarked upon a journey for growing young churches in 2019. Ten Ohio Conference churches have partnered with the North American Division “Growing Young Adventists” (#GYA) initiative leadership.54 #GYA goes beyond youth and young adult ministry, focusing upon creating a culture within the church that is intergenerational – bringing both youth and young adults with all ages together to worship, serve, and fellowship together. The initiative envisions the positive changes making these congregations healthier to in turn attract other churches to join the program.

This intentional mission has been incorporated into other departments, including education, women’s, and Hispanic ministries. The Ohio Conference Education Department advocates the incorporation of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs in local church schools. The department co-hosted the conference’s first Adventist Robotics League with Kettering College in March 2019, enabling students to hone their skills in these areas, as well as inspiring them in the areas of medical arts and sciences for the future.55 Women’s Ministries has restructured to include more one-day programs and relevant topics, drawing record attendance of teens, young adults, and busy professionals in September 2018.56 Hispanic Ministries, in addition to the Revive second-generation church, cultivates younger generations through specific programming, such as Children’s Festivals and youth camps, where more than 300 young people attended in July 2019.57

In early 2018 the Ohio Conference launched an initiative designed to help congregations regain their focus on growing spiritually. The program, known as Disciple Ohio, seeks to help churches, in practical and tangible ways, become more effective in reaching their communities. At Elyria, the first church to participate, more than 18 new members joined the church, rekindling the enthusiasm of the congregation and doubling their attendance.58 Disciple Ohio continues across the state, with more churches such as Xenia adopting the program, and a new church plant to meet on the campus of Northern Ohio Adventist Academy expected in 2020.

Presidents: Oliver Mears, 1863-1866; I.N. Van Gorder, 1866-1867; J. H. Waggoner, 1867-1868; General Conference Committee, 1868-1869; Oliver Mears, 1869-1870; William Chinnock, 1870-1872; O. T. Guilford, 1872-1873; Oliver Mears, 1873-1875; H. A. St. John, 1875-1878; D. M. Canright, 1878-1881; H. A. St. John, 1882-1883; R. A. Underwood, 1883-1889; G. A. Irwin, 1889-1895; I. D. Van Horn, 1895-1897; R. R. Kennedy, 1897-1901; A. G. Haughey, 1901-1902; H. H. Burkholder, 1902-1911; E. K. Slade, 1911-1918; F. H. Robbins, 1918-1919; W. H. Heckman, 1919-1920; N. S. Ashton, 1920-1928; C. V. Leach, 1928-1934; F. H. Robbins, 1934-1939; W. M. Robbins, 1939-1950; M. E. Loewen, 1950-1957; D. W. Hunter, 1957-1964; F. W. Wernick, 1964-1967; Philip Follett, 1967-1976; D. G. Reynolds, 1976-1980; John W. Fowler, 1980-1985; Edward D. Motschiedler, 1985-1998; Raj Attiken, 1998–2013; Ron Halvorsen Jr, 2014 –2019 .

Headquarters: 1251 E Dorothy Ln, Dayton, Ohio, 45419. The conference forms a part of the Columbia Union Conference.

Sources

Aastrup, Alfred. “Ohio Opens New Academy.” Columbia Union Visitor, September 5, 1969.

“Academics.” Spring Valley Academy. Accessed August 23, 2019, springvalleyacademy.org/academics.

Andrews, J. N. “Dear Bro. White.” ARH, November 25, 1851.

Baker, H. J. Baker, “Report of the Ohio Conference.” ARH, June 16, 1863.

Bates, Joseph. “From. Bro. Bates.” ARH, September 13, October 4, and November 1, 1853.

Beeler, Charles L. “Historical Marker Set at Lovett’s Grove.” Columbia Union Visitor, September 26, 1974.

“Blooming Grove Celebrates Centennial Anniversary.” Columbia Union Visitor, May 31, 1979.

“Bro. H. S. Case writes from Milan, Ohio April 3,” ARH, April 21, 1851.

“Brooklyn Church Holds Reconsecration Service.” Columbia Union Visitor, August 15, 1974.

Burkholder, H. H. “The Conference.” Welcome Visitor, November 27, 1907.

Butler, T. J. “Ohio Conference.” ARH, November 3, 1859.

Clarke, Joseph. “New Interest in Ohio.” ARH, November 6, 1866.

“Cleveland Yugoslavian Church Dedicated.” Columbia Union Visitor, October 3, 1968.

Cornell, M. E. “Meetings in Ohio.” ARH, November 25, 1858.

Cornell, M. E. “Meetings in Ohio.” ARH, March 11, 1862.

Cornell, M. E. “Report of Meetings in Ohio.” ARH, February 25, 1862,

Cottrell, William. “Forbidden to Teach God’s Law.” ARH, February 27, 1866.

Davidson, Myrtle. “Dedication of Millersburg Church.” Columbia Union Visitor, July 31, 1947.

Delafield, D. A. “Ohio Church Celebrates Centennial.” ARH, April 26, 1962.

Gates, E. H. “Ohio Conference.” ARH, September 19, 1878.

“The Harding Hospital.” Worthington Memory. Accessed August 23, 2019, www.worthingtonmemory.org/exhibits/2016-8-1/harding-hospital.

“Harding Sanitarium.” Worthington Memory. Accessed August 23, 2019, www.worthingtonmemory.org/scrapbook/pictures/harding-sanitarium.

Hecht, Alan and Monte Sahlin. “A Look at the Columbia Union Conference’s Beginnings.” Columbia Union Conference. Accessed August 23, 2019, www.columbiaunion.org/about-us/our-history.

Kennedy, R. R. “Tidings from the Field.” Welcome Visitor, November 14, 1901.

“Kettering Medical Center South to Open This Fall.” Columbia Union Visitor, May 18, 1978.

“Kettering Health.” Accessed August 23, 2019, www.ketteringhealth.org/aboutus.

Lindsey, D. E. “Organization of the Ohio Conference, Retrospective.” Welcome Visitor, December 28, 1904.

“Loma Linda-Worthington Brand Given New Life by Atlantic Natural Foods Company.” Adventist Today, January 7, 2015. Accessed August 23, 2019, atoday.org/loma-linda-worthington-brand-given-new-life-atlantic-natural-foods-company.

Loughborough, J. N. “From Bro. Loughborough.” ARH, December 27, 1853.

Merriam, E. A. “Ohio Conference Proceedings.” ARH, September 25, 1894.

Mohaven’s Beginnings.” Camp Mohaven. Accessed August 23, 2019 www.mohaven.org/page/mohavens-history.

“New Cleveland Hungarian Church Organized.” Columbia Union Visitor, September 4, 1958.

“New College to Open Soon at Kettering.” Columbia Union Visitor, March 9, 1967.

“Northern Ohio Adventist Academy's Miracles at Work.” YouTube, December 14, 2017. Accessed August 23, 2019, www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=14&v=dbNgSTZGbhI.

“Our History.” Westlake Seventh-day Adventist Church. Accessed August 23, 2019, www.westlakeadventistchurch.org/about/history.

Roth, D. A. “New Headquarters Building Opened in Ohio.” Columbia Union Visitor, June 11, 1959.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (2020). https://www.adventistyearbook.org/entity?EntityID=15724&highlight=Ohio|Conference.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “10 Churches Embark Upon ‘Growing Young.’” Columbia Union Visitor, June 2019.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Camp Mohaven Is Not Just a Summer Camp.” Columbia Union Visitor, April 2019.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Conference Gifted Building Worth $3.2 Million.” Columbia Union Visitor, November 2017.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Conference Transitions Headquarters to Dayton.” Columbia Union Visitor, June 2018.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Delegates Elect Conference Leadership Team.” Columbia Union Visitor, June 2018.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Disciple Ohio Rekindles Church Enthusiasm.” Columbia Union Visitor, July/August 2019.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Educational Evangelism Grows Clarksfield School.” Columbia Union Visitor, July/August 2016.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Hispanic Ministries Children’s Festival 2019.” Columbia Union Visitor, September 4, 2019. Accessed March 24, 2020, http://columbiaunionvisitor.com/2019/400-attend-hispanic-ministries-children%E2%80%99s-festival

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Hispanic Ministries Launches Online Radio Station.” Columbia Union Visitor, July/August 2018.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Mansfield’s Space Cows Win Grand Champion’s Award.” Columbia Union Visitor, May 2019.

Shoemaker, Heidi. “Mount Vernon Academy Assets Auctioned For $1.595 Million.” Columbia Union Visitor Magazine, June 23, 2016. Accessed August 23, 2019 www.columbiaunionvisitor.com/2016/mount-vernon-academy-assets-auctioned-1595-million.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Ohio Conference Sells Mount Vernon Property.” Columbia Union Visitor, October 24, 2019. Accessed March 24, 2020, http://www.columbiaunionvisitor.com/2019/ohio-conference-sells-mount-vernon-property.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Ohio Youth Camp Attracts More than 300.” Columbia Union Visitor, October 9 2019. Accessed March 24, 2020, http://columbiaunionvisitor.com/2019/ohio-hispanic-youth-camp-attracts-more-300.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “One-Day Retreat Attracts Record Attendance.” Columbia Union Visitor, December 2018.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. “Prayer Helps Open New School in Sheffield Lake.” Columbia Union Visitor, November 2016.

Smith, Charles A., C. T. Redfield and Ida Iles. “Tidings from the Field.” Welcome Visitor, October 10, 1901.

“Spanish Church Holds Graduation Services.” Columbia Union Visitor, March 28, 1974.

St. John, A. J. and R. A. Underwood. “Akron.” ARH, October 17, 1882.

St. John, H. A. “Cleveland.” ARH, January 25, 1877.

Talmage, Ella M. “Akron.” Welcome Visitor, July 8, 1903.

Van Horn, I. D. “Appeal to the Friends of Truth in Ohio.” ARH, August 3, 1869.

Van Horn, I. D. “Report from Ohio.” ARH, March 31, 1868, 252.

“Young People’s Society and Sabbath School Convention.” Welcome Visitor, July 17, 1907.

Webster, C. C. “Middlefield and Youngstown.” Welcome Visitor, January 27, 1904.

White, James. “Meetings in Ohio.” ARH, March 25, 1858.

White, William C. “Sketches and Memories of James and Ellen G. White: XXXI. A View of the Age-Long Conflict.” ARH, February 20, 1936.

Wilson, Neal C. “Kettering Hospital Dedication Weekend, February 14-16.” Columbia Union Visitor, February 13, 1964.

Wood, J. G. “Our Pioneers.” Welcome Visitor supplement, December 28, 1904.

“Worthington Foods Product Display.” Worthington Memory. Accessed August 23, 2019, www.worthingtonmemory.org/scrapbook/pictures/worthington-foods-product-display-0.

“Worthington: the home of Choplets and much more.” Worthington Memory. Accessed August 23, 2019, www.worthingtonmemory.org/exhibits/2016-10-3/worthington-home-choplets-and-much-more.

Notes

  1. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Ohio Conference,” accessed April 23, 2020, https://www.adventistyearbook.org/entity?EntityID=15724.

  2. “Bro. H.S. Case writes from Milan, Ohio April 3,” ARH, April 21, 1851, 72; J.N. Andrews, “Dear Bro. White,” ARH, November 25, 1851, 54.

  3. Joseph Bates, “From Bro. Bates,” ARH, September 13, 1853, 79; October 4, 1853, 102; November 1, 1853, 136.

  4. J.N. Loughborough, “From Bro. Loughborough,” ARH, December 27, 1853, 199.

  5. D.A. Delafield, “Ohio Church Celebrates Centennial,” ARH, April 26, 1962, 3; James White, “Meetings in Ohio,” ARH, March 25, 1858, 149; Ellen G. White, Spiritual Gifts, Vol. 2 (Battle Creek, MI: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, 1858) 265-271; William C. White, “Sketches and Memories of James and Ellen G. White: XXXI. A View of the Age-Long Conflict,” ARH, February 20, 1936, 36.

  6. M.E. Cornell, “Meetings in Ohio,” ARH, November 25, 1858, 1.

  7. Charles R. Beeler, “Historical Marker Set at Lovett’s Grove,” Columbia Union Visitor, September 26, 1974, p 1.

  8. D.E. Lindsey, “Organization of the Ohio Conference, Retrospective,” Welcome Visitor, December 28, 1904, 1.

  9. M.E. Cornell, “Report of Meetings in Ohio,” ARH, February 25, 1862, 101; M.E. Cornell, “Meetings in Ohio,” March 11, 1862, 117.

  10. T.J. Butler, “Ohio Conference,” ARH, November 3, 1859, 192.

  11. H.F. Baker, “Report of the Ohio Conference,” ARH, June 16, 1863, 24.

  12. Joseph Clarke, “New Interest in Ohio,” ARH, November 6, 1866, 182.

  13. William Cottrell, “Forbidden to Teach God’s Law,” ARH, February 27, 1866, 102.

  14. I.D. Van Horn, “Report from Ohio,” ARH, March 31, 1868, 252.

  15. Camp Meeting Committee, “Ohio Camp-meeting” and I.D. Van Horn, “Appeal to the Friends of Truth in Ohio,” ARH, August 3,1869, 48.

  16. H.A. St. John, “Cleveland,” ARH, January 25, 1877, 32; E.H. Gates, “Ohio Conference,” ARH, September 19, 1878, 98; “Blooming Grove Celebrates Centennial Anniversary,” Columbia Union Visitor, May 31, 1979, 12I.

  17. A.J. St. John and R.A. Underwood, “Akron,” ARH, October 17, 1882, 651.

  18. Ron Graybill, “Mount Vernon Celebrates a Century of Service,” Columbia Union Visitor, September 1, 1985, 3, 5.

  19. “District Summaries,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook 1893 (Battle Creek, Michigan: Review and Herald), 72.

  20. Myrtle Davidson, “Dedication of Millersburg Church,” Columbia Union Visitor, July 31, 1947, 4-5; J.G. Wood, “Our Pioneers,” Welcome Visitor supplement, December 28, 1904, 2; E.A. Merriam, “Ohio Conference Proceedings,” ARH, September 25, 1894, 621.

  21. Charles A. Smith, C.T. Redfield, Ida Iles, “Tidings from the Field,” Welcome Visitor, October 10, 1901, 4; C.C. Webster, “Middlefield and Youngstown,” Welcome Visitor, January 27, 1904, 1; Ella M. Talmage, “Akron,” Welcome Visitor, July 8, 1903, 2; R.R. Kennedy, “Tidings from the Field,” Welcome Visitor, November 14, 1901, 2; Ida M. Walters, “Columbus,” Welcome Visitor, January 16, 1902, 3.

  22. H.H. Burkholder, “The Conference,” Welcome Visitor, November 27, 1907, 1.

  23. Alan Hecht and Monte Sahlin, “A Look at the Columbia Union Conference’s Beginnings,” Columbia Union Conference, accessed August 23, 2019, www.columbiaunion.org/about-us/our-history.

  24. “Young People’s Society and Sabbath School Convention,” Welcome Visitor, July 17, 1907, 1-3. “One Hundred and Seventieth Meeting General Conference Committee, Gland, Switzerland,” General Conference Committee Minutes for 1907, May 15, 1907, 286.

  25. Annual Statistical Report, 1920, 4, http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Statistics/ASR/ASR1920.pdf.

  26. Annual Statistical Report, 1944, 6, http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Statistics/ASR/ASR1944.pdf.

  27. Ohio Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, “Report of Membership Changes,” Q2 2019.

  28. “Brooklyn Church Holds Reconsecration Service,” Columbia Union Visitor, August 15, 1974, 5.

  29. L.E. Lenheim, “Ohio Holds Biennial Session; All Members of Staff Re-Elected,” Columbia Union Visitor, April 5, 1962, 1; “Spanish Church Holds Graduation Services,” Columbia Union Visitor, March 28, 1974, 8.

  30. “New Cleveland Hungarian Church Organized,” Columbia Union Visitor, September 4, 1958, 3; “Our History,” Westlake Seventh-day Adventist Church, accessed August 23, 2019, www.westlakeadventistchurch.org/about/history.

  31. “Cleveland Yugoslavian Church Dedicated,” Columbia Union Visitor, October 3, 1968, 14; “All Nations SDA Church – Inactive,” eAdventist.net, www.eadventist.net/en/search?class=2&org=ANBFEQ, accessed August 23, 2019.

  32. Heidi A. Shoemaker, “Hispanic Ministries Launches Online Radio Station,” Columbia Union Visitor, July/August 2018, 25.

  33. D.A. Roth, “New Headquarters Building Opened in Ohio,” Columbia Union Visitor, June 11, 1959, 1.

  34. Heidi A. Shoemaker, “Conference Gifted Building Worth $3.2 Million,” Columbia Union Visitor, November 2017, 26.

  35. Heidi A. Shoemaker, “Delegates Elect Conference Leadership Team,” Columbia Union Visitor, June 2018, 25; Heidi A. Shoemaker, “Conference Transitions Headquarters to Dayton,” Columbia Union Visitor, June 2018, 26; Heidi A. Shoemaker, “Ohio Conference Sells Mount Vernon Property,” Columbia Union Visitor, October 24, 2019, accessed March 24, 2020, http://www.columbiaunionvisitor.com/2019/ohio-conference-sells-mount-vernon-property.

  36. “Mohaven’s Beginnings,” Camp Mohaven, www.mohaven.org/page/mohavens-history, accessed August 23, 2019.

  37. Heidi A. Shoemaker, “Camp Mohaven Is Not Just a Summer Camp,” Columbia Union Visitor, April 2019, 25.

  38. Neal C. Wilson, “Kettering Hospital Dedication Weekend, February 14-16,” Columbia Union Visitor, February 13, 1964, 5; “Kettering Memorial Hospital,” Columbia Union Visitor, June 2, 1966, 5.

  39. “New College to Open Soon at Kettering,” Columbia Union Visitor, March 9, 1967, 3-4.

  40. “Kettering College Increases Fall Enrollment for Third Consecutive Year,” accessed August 23, 2019 kc.edu/kettering-college-increases-fall-enrollment-third-consecutive-year,

  41. “Kettering Medical Center South to Open This Fall,” Columbia Union Visitor, May 18, 1978, 12I.

  42. “Kettering Health,” accessed August 23, 2019, www.ketteringhealth.org/aboutus.

  43. “Dayton Area Churches and Membership,” Ohio Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, accessed August 23, 2019, www.eadventist.net,.

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Shoemaker, Heidi A. "Ohio Conference." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. September 30, 2020. Accessed June 14, 2024. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=89WK.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. "Ohio Conference." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. September 30, 2020. Date of access June 14, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=89WK.

Shoemaker, Heidi A. (2020, September 30). Ohio Conference. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved June 14, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=89WK.