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Aerial view of Academic Building, Rusangu University, Zambia

Photo courtesy of Isaac Chiyokoma.

Rusangu University, Zambia

By Isaac Chiyokoma


Isaac Chiyokoma, MABTS (Adventist University of Africa, Kenya), has served as chaplain for Rusangu University since 2016. He has also been an adjunct lecturer for the School of Theology and Religious Studies. Previously, Chiyokoma served as district pastor in three territories in Zambia. He is married to Chipo Chimoga, and they have three sons.

First Published: February 6, 2021

Rusangu University is a co-educational institution of higher learning jointly owned and operated by the Northern Zambia Union Conference and the Southern Zambia Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.


Rusangu University is situated on the Rusangu Mission land, and it is about 16 kilometers from Monze town off the Lusaka – Livingstone highway. Rusangu Mission is about 200 kilometers south of Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, in the Southern Province. Other institutions existing on the same land are the South Zambia Conference, the Rusangu Rural Health Centre, the Rusangu Basic School and the Rusangu Secondary School. Rusangu University was established in May 2003 and is currently the largest Seventh-day Adventist institution of higher learning in the Southern Africa Indian Ocean Division (SID) with a total enrolment of 4,474 students as of September 2020.1

The University is registered by the Higher Education Authority (HEA) of Zambia and is accredited by the worldwide Accrediting Association of Seventh-day Adventist Schools, Colleges, and Universities (AAA) and other professional accrediting institutions such as the Health Professions Council of Zambia (HPCZ), the General Nursing Council of Zambia (GNC), and the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), among others. Rusangu University was among the first Christian universities to be registered as a private university under the University Act No. 11 of 1999 by the Ministry of Education, Government of the Republic of Zambia. Currently, the University is registered under the Higher Education Act No. 4 of 2013. As of the 2021 academic year, the University has seven schools, each administered by a dean, offering a number of undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

Historical Background

Rusangu University was born out of the Rusangu Mission, which was the first Seventh-day Adventist mission station in Zambia. Its founding can be traced to the missionary endeavors of an American named William Harry Anderson (June 25, 1870 – June 26, 1950). Initially, the station was called the Barotse Mission, probably named after Barotseland in honor of King Lewanika. Later, the name changed to Pemba Mission.2 Sometime between 1912 to 1913, the final name change was made from Pemba Mission to Rusangu Mission.3 Anderson desired to name it after the local village head Muchelemba. However, the name proved problematic for the missionaries due to its length. In searching for another name, Anderson noticed a tree that was commonly growing around the area. Upon inquiry, he was told by the locals that it was the Musangu tree (Acacia albida).4 So the mission station’s name was derived from the name of the tree, and they called it Lusangu Mission.5 Lusangu are the small shrubs while the fully matured tree is called Musangu. Therefore, Rusangu is a linguistic alteration of the name made by the missionaries because the Tongas do not have the letter “R” in their vocabulary.6

Due to his novel work ethics, which proved unpopular among the natives, Anderson was nicknamed “Haminya,” which means “the one who drives workers so hard so they get tired.” Anderson used to work mornings and afternoons with the workers on the Station, something that was uncommon with the indigenous Tonga people.7 The nickname is also believed to have been given to him due to “his wrinkled forehead and his punishing of lazy people by kicking their buttocks…”8 It should be noted that “minya” in Tonga means “wrinkles.”

Anderson was a prolific traveler who traversed most of the territory previously covered by David Livingstone, a Scottish world-renowned pioneering missionary of the London Missionary Society. Anderson was an unparalleled promoter of Adventist missions in Africa where he spent 50 years of missionary service.9 He was born in the town named Mexico in the state of Indiana, in the United States of America. He graduated in absentia from Battle Creek College, Michigan, due to his response to an urgent call for missionaries in Africa.10 Anderson was one of the first members in the Battle Creek College Student Foreign Mission Band.11 The call was extended to him due to the pressing need for missionaries to go to Africa as encouraged in a letter from F. M. Wilcox. He was married to Nora Haysmer.12

Anderson left Indiana on March 29, 1895, for the New York harbor. On April 10, 1895, Anderson and his wife, along with Elder Byron George Tripp with his wife and son George Jr., and Dr. A. Carmichael, all set sail out of New York for South Africa and arrived at Cape Town harbor on the evening of May 22, 1895. This company of six people left Cape Town by train up to Mafikeng where the railhead ended at the time and dislodged early Sunday morning. On June 2, 1895, the team set out from Mafikeng with two ox wagons and a cart for the rest of the 1000kms to Bulawayo, travelling via Bechuanaland (Botswana). The team arrived at Matabeleland Mission on July 26, 1895, after six weeks.13 The 12,000 acres Matabeleland Mission, located about 50kms outside Bulawayo, was given to the Seventh-day Adventist Church as a grant by Cecil John Rhodes of the British South Africa Company (BSA).14 Matabeleland Mission was later renamed Solusi Mission in respect to the name of a local chief.15 Solusi Mission Station is important in the history of Rusangu because it became the launchpad for Anderson to establish Rusangu Mission and others that later followed.

The BSA Company took over the territory of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) in 1898. Previously, much of the territory beyond the Zambezi River was under the control of King Lewanika of Barotseland. Most of the weaker tribes were his subjects, and the Tongas lived in fear of his raiders who often took their crops and livestock. The British took charge of the entire territory and stopped the raids that had characterized Lewanika’s reign. Relative peace and stability prevailed and gave rise to the economic fortunes of the conquered tribes. However, this displeased Lewanika.16 In order to avoid a repeat of the Matabele uprising of 1896,17 the British decided to invite Lewanika to England so that he could attend the coronation of King Edward VII and also witness the prowess and might of the British people. King Edward VII paid Lewanika’s fare to England.

While in England, King Lewanika was taken on a grand tour of several manufacturing and military centers, events he would later narrate for over a month to his village head men upon his return.18 Anderson met Lewanika on his return from England in 1902 in Bulawayo.19 When asked what had impressed him on his trip, Lewanika said to Anderson, “The intelligence of the English people and what the Gospel has done for them.” Lewanika had requested for missionaries to be sent to his people so that they might have the blessings received by the English people. In April 1903, Anderson asked the South African Union Conference Committee for permission to cross the Zambezi to search for a Mission site, and this permission was subsequently granted.20

The meeting with Lewanika strategically opened doors for mission work beyond the Zambezi River. In the middle of July 1903, Anderson prepared to trek up north amidst news of his father who had fallen ill back home in America. The exploratory journey by rail from Bulawayo started in the evening and ended at Mbanji (Mabanje) in the morning, the point where the railhead had reached. From there, the native boys in his company carried the load of supplies until they reached the Victoria Falls. Anderson had previously been to the Victoria Falls in 1899 but did not cross over the Zambezi. The seat of government was in Kalomo, about 136kms from Victoria Falls up north in the country. Upon reaching Kalomo, Anderson met the government administrator and explained the nature of his errand. The administrator suggested to Anderson that Monze District, which was about 160 kms from Kalomo, might be a good place for a mission since Chief Monze, a “Rain Doctor” of the Tonga people, had started an insurrection there the previous year. Cecil John Rhodes, the head of the BSA, favored the presence of missionaries in hot spots since they were better placed to help calming things down than were soldiers. Anderson set off for Monze from Kalomo. At one point during this trip in Choma area, Anderson fell ill with dysentery after consuming contaminated water and thought he would die. He was nursed back to health by a white farmer, Mr. Walker, who lived eight miles from where Anderson had fallen ill.21

In his quest to find a suitable mission station, Anderson had set four criteria. First, the station needed to be close to where the local people lived. After all, the mission was about people. Secondly, he wanted a good natural supply of water for irrigation. The land eventually identified had a natural spring of water, locally called “tinti,” which is translated “fountain.” Thirdly, Anderson wanted quick access to rail transportation, and his permutations were rewarded a few years later when the railway line was constructed next to the Station, thereby marking the western boundary. Finally, he wanted land that had fertile soils so that the Station could be industrious in food production and develop into a self-supporting enterprise.22

Rusangu Mission, which was identified and granted to Anderson by Chief Monze in 1903, sat on about 5,346 acres of land. Having marked it, he returned to Kalomo and filed his papers with the government administrator. The government consented to sell the farm for 16 cents per acre over an interest-free period of 10 years. Anderson and his native crew returned to Solusi. The railhead had gone beyond Mbanji, and it was only about 50kms to the coal mines in Wankie (Hwange). Eventually, Anderson reached Solusi after being away for about four months, having covered well over 1,600kms on foot. It was then that Anderson learned about his father’s death, in October 1903, and that he had died two days after his own departure in July 1903.23

After taking his furlough in his native America, Anderson set sail for Rusangu Mission on April 1, 1905, from New York Harbor.24 On July 1, 1905, Anderson and his family, including some native boys--namely Jacob Detcha (who served as translator), Philip Malomo, Jack Mahlatini Mpofu, and Andrew Nyakana--started off for Rusangu Mission.25 They eventually arrived at Rusangu Mission on September 5, 1905, to commence the mission work. This was after a treacherous journey in which they had to overcome many hurdles including the mighty Zambezi River, a hippo, breaking new oxen, a hyena, and lions. Three days after they arrived on the property, two Jesuit priests came to the Station. Anderson discovered that they had actually chosen the same place earlier than he had.26 The Jesuit missionaries were Father Joseph Moreau and Father Peter Prestage. They had sited the place in 1902 and returned to Bulawayo in Rhodesia at their base.27 The two expeditions, the Jesuits and the Adventists, were only about three days apart. The two Jesuit priests who came in 1905 to commence the work were Joseph Moreau and Jules Torrend. They were in the company of four Tonga natives who they had identified and taken with them on the first trip in 1902 to Bulawayo for skills training.28 However, the Jesuits did not file their claims for the land with the administration at Kalomo as Anderson had done in 1903. Otherwise, the administrator would have noticed the similarity in the claims. Father Moreau also acknowledged the beacon which Anderson had constructed in 1903, which had been witnessed by the locals.29 Anderson was courteous to his colleagues and offered them a hot drink during their hour-long visit. The priests found another station at Chikuni in Chief Ufwenuka’s area with the help of Chief Monze, and it was about 15kms from where Rusangu Mission is located. They requested to hire a wagon from Anderson, to which he agreed. He offered them one of his boys to help settle them for a week at no charge.30

The Rusangu Mission School was established a day after Anderson arrived on the Station when a native from a nearby village said to Anderson, “Teacher, I have come to school.” Despite hesitation by Anderson, the lack of infrastructure, and inadequate school supplies, the native was enrolled as their first pupil. Attendance at the School grew so quickly that by the end of September 1905, the enrolment had risen to 40 young men. The first building constructed was a grass-thatched mud house, 16x30 feet in dimension.31 The Rusangu Mission School educated students up to the primary certificate level (Standard VI) for approximately 50 years. These trained students served in a variety of capacities within the Church, including as pastors, teachers, and evangelists.32 Currently, the Rusangu Primary School is part of the Rusangu Basic School near the old site. Rusangu Primary School was the first learning institution of the Church in Northern Rhodesia.

The Rusangu Secondary School was established in August 1959, offering a Junior School Certificate.33 The first principal was W. R. Zork. He was followed by K. E. Thomas in 1961 who administrated for both the Primary and the Secondary school. Through his resourcefulness, he managed to negotiate with the government to fund the construction of the Secondary School on a shared cost basis; the government funded 75 percent of the project while the Church contributed 25 percent towards the school. Construction work started in 1965, and in 1966, the Rusangu Secondary School relocated to the new site where it remains today. Building works continued until the School was officially opened in 1970 at an event attended by General Conference President Robert H. Pierson.34 The Rusangu Secondary School was the first secondary school operated by the Church in Zambia. 

Developments Leading to the Establishment of the Ministerial School

Rusangu University traces its origins to the Rusangu Ministerial Training School, which later became known as Zambia Adventist Seminary (ZAS). Needless to say, the work of training teachers and evangelists at Rusangu started with Anderson in 1905. The steady growth of the mission work in Zambia demanded trained pastors. Before 1975, those who wished to attain ministerial training had to go to Solusi College in Zimbabwe. This was a costly venture, and very few pastors managed to acquire the needed theological education.

From 1916 to 1962, the work in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) took place under the administration of the Zambezi Union Conference based in Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). The work continued to expand, and on October 24, 1964, Northern Rhodesia obtained its independence from British colonial rule and became known as Zambia. The Zambia Mission Field continued to be administered from Zimbabwe. As the work continued to grow, it became necessary to reorganize the administrative location and bring it closer to the people. Finally, in June 1972, the Zambia Mission Field was organized into the Zambia Union Mission with its three constituencies, namely: South Zambia Field (Southern, Lusaka, Central and Eastern provinces), West Zambia Field (Western and North Western provinces), and North Zambia Field (Copperbelt, Luapula, and Northern provinces).35

Political developments that happened during this period had an impact on Church developments. The dissolution of the tripartite Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland on December 31, 1963, in which Rhodesia (Southern) was a British Colony while Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi) were British protectorates, created political instability. After Zambia and Malawi gained their independence in 1964, freedom fighters in Southern Rhodesia caused disruption to make the same thing happen in their location. However, the UDI (Rhodesian) government under the leadership of Prime Minister Ian Smith was unwilling for that change to take place. Some of the liberation fighters relocated to neighboring countries, such as Zambia, in order to organize their resistance activities. Due to an escalation in such actions, the border between Zambia and Rhodesia became susceptible to closures. Towards the end of March 1973, the UDI government closed the Rhodesian border with Zambia due to the escalating political tension. This made it impossible for Zambians to continue going to Solusi College for theological training. The Zambians who were studying at Solusi were asked to immediately return to Zambia.36

After these developments, the Adventist Church in Zambia began to explore the possibilities of setting up a ministerial school since the Rhodesian situation continued to be unstable. Since people were no longer going to Solusi Secondary School for their high school certificate with the establishment of Rusangu Secondary School, the Church could set up a school in another location to train pastors. In the search for a suitable place, Rusangu Mission was earmarked for a ministerial school to commence in 1975 because of the railway line that formed the western boundary of the Mission and some existing buildings that were not in use at the time, such as a former Rusangu Primary School girl’s dormitory, a building that was used for teaching girls sewing and cooking skills, and a few other unoccupied houses. Subsequently, in September 1975, 12 students, in-service and non-serving, pioneered the Rusangu Ministerial Training School. These twelve students were: Simon Chileya II, Simon Himoonga, David J. Nyambose (Deceased), Harman Dube, Morrison Halwiindi, Hepson Kapalamoto (South Zambia Field), Geoffrey Kayama Mwinda (Deceased), Alexander Silangwa Mwinga (Deceased), Harry Muchape Sililo (West Zambia Field), Paul Lupupa, Demus Chende (Deceased), and Ephraim Bwalya (North Zambia Field).37

Founding of the Ministerial School

Pastor Nelson William Palmer (1920-2012), an Australian native, accepted a service call of the Trans-African Division to go to Zambia and pioneer the Rusangu Ministerial Training School in 1975. The training program was to run for two years and, upon completion, candidates were either awarded a diploma or a certificate depending on their academic performance. During the 18 years of its existence (1975-1993), the Rusangu Ministerial Training School had an administrative turnover of eight principals. After Pastor Palmer returned to Australia, Dr. L. D. Raelly took over as principal of the school in 1981/1982.

At the onset, the school did well. However, in the 1980s, financial resources became a challenge. Organizational concerns were also raised by some who advocated for the School to be upgraded to a junior or full-fledged college. Nevertheless, the inadequate financial situation and the dilapidated infrastructure obtaining at the time could not allow for such developments. Leaders from the Trans-African Division who visited the institution within this period of uncertainty felt that Rusangu Ministerial Training School needed to be closed since Solusi College was already partially drawing its students from Zambia. Apparently, this recommendation was adopted by Zambia Union Mission.

Various meetings were held between 1985-1990 during the administrations of Pastor F. V. Chimoga, Pastor J. M. Sitwala and Pastor B. M. Katele to chart the way forward. While the discussions were ongoing, other voices spoke in favor of moving to a more central place away from Rusangu Mission.38 Consequently, Zambia Union Mission voted to close Zambia Adventist Seminary (ZAS, as it was then known) during the year end Executive Committee on December 6, 1993. Some of the recommendations adopted at that meeting included re-establishing it at Musofu Mission in rural Mkushi, upgrading it and adding other disciplines. The intention was to commence operations by September 1994.39 The land earmarked for this development had been donated to the Zambia Union Mission by the Copperbelt Zambia Field.40

History and Development of the Ministerial School

The plans to reestablish ZAS at Musofu Mission in Chief Chitina’s area in rural Mkushi in the Central Province did not materialize as expected. The ZAS Sub-Committee of the Union, which had been established to implement the task of reopening by September 1994, reported during the mid-year Zambia Union Executive Committee on June 15, 1994, that due to insufficient funds and lack of other needed logistics, the institution would not reopen as planned in September 1994. The two ZAS workers, Pastor Godwin Kaluwe and Pastor George Mwansa, were assigned other duties. The ZAS Sub-Committee was tasked to continue with feasibility studies and to render a comprehensive report during the year-end meetings of December 1994.41

In the meantime, a gap developed in the training of pastors for the mission field. Some constituents began to be reasonably troubled by this turn of events. There were very few who could afford to go to Solusi College in Zimbabwe or Andrews University in America. Eventually, the idea of reinstituting the seminary at Rusangu was voted on by a specially convened Zambia Union Committee meeting in 1996 after being mandated by the 1995 Union session.42 During this period, 1994-1997, discussions concerning re-organization brought about a change in the institution’s name to Zambia Adventist College (ZACO) so the institution could offer a wide spectrum of academic and professional disciplines apart from Theology. The action to rename it to ZACO was taken in 1997.43

From 1998 to 2000, the Education Department at the Zambia Union Mission was tasked with exploring the possibilities of collaborating with Solusi University to start an in-service training program within Zambia that could prepare pastors to take undergraduate theological studies at one of the Adventist institutions in the region. The intention of the program was to cut down the time it would take pastors to pursue their theology degree after having taken some of the credits towards the same in the home country.44 The Zambia Union Mission year-end Executive Committee held on November 24, 1999, voted to start the training program.45 In 2000, the Union Education Department began to operate this In-Service Theology program at the Riverside Farm Institute near Kafue town in collaboration with Solusi University. This program was financially supported by Dr. Lindsey Thomas, a lay member from the United States of America.

Plans were still in place to establish ZACO, an institution that would take the place of the ministerial school that had been closed at the end of 1993.46 Professor Keith Mattingly, under the auspices of Riverside Farm Institute, was the first lecturer to teach this group of pastors. At the time, he served as head of theology for undergraduate studies at Andrews University in Berrien Springs, Michigan, in the USA. For three consecutive years, Riverside Farm Institute sponsored theology lecturers who taught the group while the Union paid for their accommodation. Other lecturers were made available from Solusi University in Zimbabwe and one, Dr. Sampson K. Tumasi, came from Bugema University in Uganda while other local instructors assisted.47

Establishment of Rusangu University

While the In-Service theological education program was running at Riverside Farm Institute in Kafue, the Eastern Africa Division (EAD) took an action to encourage Unions to establish colleges of higher education. Zambia Union Mission formed a Commission through the Education Department to study the possibility of establishing their own college or university.48 Following the successful work of the Commission, the Curriculum Development Committee was formed to spearhead the drafting of the first Academic Bulletin for the planned College.49 This led to a historical landmark in May 2003 when the In-Service program for pastors moved from Riverside Farm Institute to Rusangu Mission.50 Another milestone was attained when, at this very time, on August 7, 2003, Zambia Union recorded the Ministry of Education’s recommendation to register Zambia Adventist College (ZACO) as a university, namely as Zambia Adventist University (ZAU).51 The University was subsequently registered under the University Act No. 11 of 1999 of the Republic of Zambia.52 In 2011, the name “Zambia Adventist University” was changed to its current localized name--Rusangu University.

Essentially, Rusangu University officially started on May 18, 2003. The first vice chancellor of Zambia Adventist University (as it was known then) was Mwenda Mulundano, whose wife, Eugenia Likezo Mulundano, served as registrar. The University began with an initial enrolment of 31 In-Service theology students who had moved from the Riverside Farm Institute in Kafue to Rusangu Mission.53 This was followed by 47 In-Service education majors who inaugurated the Block Release program on August 17, 2003.54 The full-time regular program opened in February 2004 with 20 students.55 The University started with four schools, namely Business, Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, as well as Theology and Religious Studies, with 15 active undergraduate programs.56 The first graduation ceremony with 80 graduates was held on September 2, 2007, and was administered by the Minister of Education, Professor Geoffrey Lungwangwa, and the first Republican president, Dr. Kenneth David Kaunda.57 The General Conference Vice President Dr. Mark Finley spoke during the inaugural baccalaureate service on September 1, 2007.58 As of September 2020, the enrollment stands at 4,474 students, comprising both full-time and Block Release students.59 The University now offers 50 undergraduate programs and seven graduate programs in seven schools that now include Health Sciences, Science and Technology, and Postgraduate Studies. Each of these schools is administered by a dean.60 Postgraduate programs, mainly in Education, commenced in 2011 under the administration of Professor Denford B. Musvosvi, who was acting vice chancellor since 2010.61 A major milestone was attained when the Ph.D. in Education program was officially launched on April 26, 2021 with an initial enrollment of 19 students.

With over 400,000 Seventh-day Adventist baptized Church members at the time of the University’s inception in 2003, comprised of 70-80 percent young people, the need for a Seventh-day Adventist Institution of Higher Learning in Zambia was long overdue and indeed unquestionable. Also, there were many Adventist youths and others in both public and private institutions who had no place to turn to for a balanced educational preparation for life. Therefore, Rusangu University, with its Christian philosophy of a holistic and balanced education, came in to fill this gap.62 

Facilities and Development Plans

Rusangu University, as with most Adventist institutions, started in a humble way. At its inception, two existing old buildings were renovated. The first one was an office building for the Voice of Prophecy department under Zambia Union Mission. It was designated to house offices for the vice chancellor, registrar, and the Accounts department. It also had a semi-detached hall that was to be used for lectures, assemblies, and convocations. Today this building is used as the University cafeteria. There have been some extensions made to the original structure. The second building, opposite the former Voice of Prophecy office building, was the former Rusangu Primary School girl’s dormitory. At the time (in 2003), this building housed some workers of the South Zambia Conference whose offices are adjacent to the University campus, including the VOP director. On one end, it was also used as a storage facility. This old hostel was remodeled to house the initial cafeteria and hostel facilities for both male and female students in separate wings, demarcated by a common room with separate bathrooms. Currently, this hostel building is named Victoria Falls and houses female students only.

At another point in time, the vice chancellor’s and Accounts offices relocated to this hostel building. It also later housed the dean of student affairs and the University Tuck-shop. A 1x4 classroom block and a male hostel building were constructed on the western side of the Pre-phase 1 campus area. The hostel is currently named Chief Monze. It also hosted some offices for lecturers. Thereafter, another 1x4 classroom block was completed parallel to the first one to expand on the learning facilities. An administration block followed at the head of the two classroom blocks, thereby forming a U-shaped structure. After 2009, due to the increase in enrolment, additional classrooms and ablution facilities were added to elongate and close the U-shaped structure to form a rectangular structure. Currently, the entire resultant complex is called Primrose Hostel, and it houses the ladies. These were the main structures that formed part of Pre-phase 1 of the University establishment.63

In 2009, construction works on the Phase 1 of the University campus commenced with the building of a University Chapel to accommodate worship services. This Chapel building was later converted into the University Library and remains thus to this day. Around the same time, the Bluebell Hostel was also constructed to accommodate the increased number of students. The next building to come up was the flagship bearer in the Phase 1 area and is currently named the Academic Building. It was constructed by African Brothers, a Chinese firm. The building was commissioned on March 13, 2012, during the administration of Professor Mutuku J. Mutinga, by the president of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Dr. Ted Wilson, and the Hon. Dr. John T. N. Phiri, minister of Education, Science and Technology, who represented the Republican president, His Excellency Michael C. Sata. The SDA world Church provided $280,000 towards the construction of this building through its Thirteenth Sabbath World Mission offerings. The initial seed project fund, amounting to $150,000, came from a foundation in the U.S.A. The major portion of the funding that actually completed the construction of the building was a One Million U.S. dollar loan obtained from the SID. This three-story structure currently hosts administrative offices and four academic schools.

The next building to rise was the Multi-Purpose Hall (MPH), which was built with the support of Maranatha International Volunteers. The MPH building has 12 side rooms, 10 of which are used as classrooms and two as offices. Sometime in 2015, the MPH became the main worship center since the Chapel building could no longer accommodate the increasing student population. The Maranatha and Garwin McNeilus hostels were also constructed together with the Community Chapel at the Prayer Garden around the same time when the MPH was being built. Works on the two-story Science Building commenced in May 2013, with Mxoli Properties of South Africa as the contractor. The building was partially sponsored by Rusangu University, Zambia Sugar PLC, Finance Bank, Adventist churches, and other well-wishers. The Science Building currently houses three schools--namely, Science and Technology, Health Sciences, and Postgraduate Studies.64

Due to further growth in enrollment from 2016, under the administration of Dr. Pardon K. Mwansa, there was an urgent need for additional accommodations on campus. Four new hostels with a combined capacity of 768 beds have been constructed within the Phase 1 campus site between 2016 and 2019, of which two are for males and the other two are for females. These hostels are currently named: Mwenda Mulundano, Jacob Detcha (for males), William Anderson and Venus Clausen (for females). These hostels have helped to alleviate accommodation challenges on campus. These projects were made possible by loans obtained from the two Union Conferences in Zambia.

The increase in the student population created sewer management challenges. To address these challenges the University administration obtained another loan from the two Union Conferences and engaged a Chinese firm, Wah Chen, to construct a centralized sewer system. The project was commissioned in March 2020. Soon after this, a Clinic to serve the increased student populace became operational on campus with a full-time nurse and an ambulance as of September 2020. Earlier in September 2019, a Music building was commissioned and named after the first music lecturer at Rusangu University, Mr. John A. Mwesa. Meanwhile, the Columbia Union Conference in the United States of America partnered with Rusangu University over the years and has supported the acquisition of a tractor for the University farm and the construction of three faculty houses on campus. This is separate from other monetary contributions made towards other capital projects.65

Rusangu University aims to continue its infrastructure development in line with its strategic plan. The 4.5 kilometers road from the University campus to the Lusaka - Livingstone highway is paved with gravel and needs to be upgraded to an all-weather bituminous standard road. Another project that is earmarked for development is a centralized water reticulation system to provide clean water for the increased population. Plans are also in place to build a better cafeteria in the same location where the current structure is located. Construction is expected to commence on this soon. As the University continues to expand its postgraduate programs and host other graduate programs from the Adventist University of Africa, there is need to build new hostels that meet the standards of graduate students, such as single occupancy and married quarters. In addition to this, all University schools need to be accommodated in their own buildings since none of them occupy their own buildings at present.

The University administrative offices are currently located in the Academic Building. There is a need to construct an administration block to synergize and enhance operations. There is also need for a campus guesthouse to accommodate guest lecturers and other visitors. The media center has also been earmarked for development so that various television and radio programs can be produced. Radio equipment has already been acquired, and an application for the operating license has been made to the regulator, the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA). Journalism students will greatly benefit from this initiative once a license is granted. On the other hand, a Church building that can accommodate at least 3,000 people has also become a necessity. The MPH. which is currently being used for worship services, is not adequate as some students have to sit in the side rooms to accommodate the increased numbers.66

University Life

Rusangu University conducts weekly convocations that form one of the essential aspects of the spiritual life on campus. Many alumni fondly reminisce about their convocation experience, and the same is also true for current students. The regular convocations provide an opportunity for students to worship and remain connected with God. Every session culminates into one of the spiritual highlights of the term, the Week of Spiritual Emphasis (WOSE). The week is usually filled with spirit-driven messages that are rendered by speakers both from within and outside the country. The speakers minister to hundreds of students and faculty. WOSE normally culminates in baptisms during which hundreds of students over the years have been baptized into the Adventist faith.

The Rusangu University Church is an international church that strives to minister to the needs of its constituents. The worship atmosphere is one that reveals the young peoples’ dedication to ministry. Campus Ministries offers numerous opportunities for students to affiliate and associate with societies of interest, such as singing groups, the prayer band, the missionary movement, prison ministries, and other ministries. This is apart from those groups that are academic and professionally inclined, such as the renowned debate club, psychology association, mathematics club, ministerial association, etc.67

Another spiritual landmark on the University campus is the Prayer Garden located on the western side, an initiative that was birthed by the Vice Chancellor’s Spiritual Affairs Committee appointed in 2016. Although the Garden is still being developed, it has become a popular site among faculty and students and it experiences an overwhelming number of daily visits. At inception, the daily visits were averaging 20 persons, and a target of 100 daily visits was set for 2020. But by 2019, the daily visits were already reaching over 200 on average. Many people visit the Prayer Garden for spiritual meditation and prayer. As students exit the University upon completion of their studies, they go with Rusangu University values.68

Students also have numerous opportunities to enjoy recreation through various sports and leisure activities. Among the places that students visit is the picnic area, which is still under development within the campus at the Rusangu dam, the natural springs at Tinti, and the historic site where the beacon that Anderson mounted still stands. There is also a Mission cemetery on the northern side of the campus where some of the missionaries are buried that anyone can tour. The University campus environment is natural and free from the disturbances of the city, and it offers a conducive atmosphere for studies. There is also an Academic Garden being developed within the campus with seating facilities and other amenities that are yet to be completed. The Academic Garden is intended to add to the catalogue of areas around campus where students can relax and perhaps hold discussions in small groups. The international composition of the student and faculty body creates a diverse community with opportunities for fellowshipping with people from different cultures and backgrounds.69 Currently, the University has students from Liberia, Zimbabwe, Angola, South Africa, Malawi, São Tomé and Príncipe, Namibia, India, Botswana, Mozambique, and Swaziland. Other countries such as Lesotho, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo have been represented.

From its inception, the University has been running a Student Work Program that has assisted hundreds of needy students to undertake their academic studies. In the recent past, the number of beneficiaries has been significantly reduced due to financial constraints. However, the program has helped many students to learn various skills that are useful in different areas of life, such as maintenance, janitorial work, office work, cattle and chicken rearing, building, landscaping, vegetable gardening, and others in keeping with the Adventist philosophy of education.70

Through the years, Rusangu alumni have served with distinction in the Church, schools, hospitals, government departments, CSOs, corporate world in Zambia, and elsewhere. Some of the students have been prominent members of the community such as the late deputy minister for Energy and Water Development, Hon. Lameck Chibombamilimo MP, who had enrolled so he could study English. Recently, the district commissioner for Pemba, Mr. Reginald Mugoba, studied Human Resource Management there. Some graduates have risen to eminent positions in government, the corporate world, and other sectors. From the inaugural graduation ceremony in 2007, the University has held 14 graduation ceremonies as of 2020 and has graduated about 4,758 students.71 Rusangu University has contributed immensely to the Vision 2030 of the Republic of Zambia by training qualified human resource personnel for various sectors such as Education, Health, Business, Arts, Sciences, and Religion. Countries within the sub-region have also benefitted from the personnel who have been trained by qualified faculty over the years. The University has also created jobs for the local community.

Rusangu University has been visited by hundreds of local and international dignitaries representing government, corporates, CSOs, Adventist institutions (from the GC to local conferences/fields), Adventist universities and other private and public universities, colleges, etc. Among the dignitaries who have visited Rusangu University are the following:

  • His Excellency Dr. Kenneth D. Kaunda (First Republican President), May 7 2005 and September 2, 2007.

  • His Excellency Levy Patrick Mwanawasa SC (Third Republican President - Deceased), May 6, 2005.

  • His Excellency Rupiah B. Banda (Fourth Republican President), July 31, 2011.

  • His Excellency Prof. Ruthie Rono, Kenya High Commission, July 28, 2013 and July 27, 2014.

  • His Excellency Sikose Mji, South Africa High Commission, July 27, 2015.

  • His Excellency Leonard Nambahu, Namibia High Commission, July 26, 2015.

  • His Excellency Azevedo Xavier Francisco, Embassy of Angola, April 28, 2020.

Another list of esteemed guests who visited the University is given in the Appendix (note 78).

Opportunities and Challenges

The phenomenal growth in the membership of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Zambia culminated in the one-millionth member celebration on April 25, 2015, at the National Heroes Stadium in Lusaka. The event was graced by His Excellence, The President of the Republic of Zambia, Dr. Edgar C. Lungu and the First Lady. Others present included former General Conference Vice President, Dr. Pardon K. Mwansa (the current University vice chancellor), SID officers (Dr. Paul Ratsara – president, Dr. Solomon Maphosa – executive secretary (current SID president), and Elder Goodwell Nthani – CFO), General Conference Associate Publishing Director Wilmar Hirle, Zambia Union Conference officers (Dr. Harrington S. Akombwa – president, Pastor Bednical Ndatoya – executive secretary, and Elder Robert Himaambo – CFO), and many other dignitaries and church leaders from various conferences, fields and districts.

This remarkable membership growth, which led to the subdivision of the Zambia Union Conference territory into two entities in September 2015, 110 years after the establishment of the mission work in Zambia by Anderson at Rusangu, presents an enormous opportunity for the University to serve these constituencies with quality holistic Christian education. The University has also drawn students from several other countries within the sub-region and beyond. Admissions into the university are open to people from all walks of life without regard to gender, race, nationality, or religious affiliation.72

One of the challenges the University is facing is the competition posed by the increased number of public and private universities in the country driven by government’s favorable policies in recent years. According to the Higher Education Authority, there are 53 private institutions of higher learning that have a total of 64 campuses, including Rusangu University and its two satellite campuses.73 This number does not include the government-operated universities and their campuses. This scenario has created competition among the institutions for students who are mainly drawn from the same national population pool, consequently resulting in low enrolment. Secondly, the University faces another challenge of insufficient infrastructure needed for its operations and academic programs.74

Physical Campus Locations

In order to be more accessible to the growing constituency, Rusangu University has expanded its presence by currently operating three campuses as follows: 

1. Main Campus – Rusangu, Monze 

The Main Campus for Rusangu University is located at Plot No. 269a in the Southern Province of Zambia at the historic Rusangu Mission site, and it is about 16 kilometers off the Livingstone – Lusaka road south of Monze town. This campus is located in a serene environment away from the usual raucous atmosphere often associated with cities. It provides a natural, fresh atmosphere conducive for academic study. The campus has an enrollment establishment of 3,354 as of September 2020.75

2. Lusaka Campus 

Rusangu University’s first satellite campus opened in 2011 with seven students at the Libala SDA Church School. The first campus director, who is still currently serving, is Dr Atangambuyu Silungwe. The Campus has since grown its enrollment to 694 students as of September 2020.76 It is now located in the Chudleigh area at Plot No. 9704 Central Street on a rented property. Plot 9690 Central Street, which is adjacent to the rented property, has been purchased by Rusangu University. Plans are underway to develop that site.

3. Copperbelt Campus 

The Copperbelt Campus is Rusangu University’s newest satellite campus. And it commenced its operations in April 2016 and is located at David Mwila House on Independence Avenue, Kitwe in the Copperbelt Province. Dr. Silungwe of the Lusaka Campus administered the Copperbelt Campus at inception on an interim basis. The current campus director is Dr. Avinat Chitebeta. The Kitwe City Council has since awarded land to the Copperbelt Campus. The Campus started with an initial enrolment of 13 students. The current enrolment as of September 2020 stands at 426.77

List of Principals/Vice Chancellors

Rusangu Ministerial Training School/Zambia Adventist Seminary Principals:

N. W. Palmer (1975-1981); L. D. Raelly (1981-1983); L. H. Makeleta (1983-1985); F. V. Chimoga (1985-1987); J. M. Sitwala (1987-1988); B. M. Katele (1988-1992); G. M. Kaluwe (1992-1993).

Zambia Adventist University/Rusangu University Vice Chancellors:

Mwenda Mulundano (2003-2010); Denford B. Musvosvi (2010-2011, Acting); Mutuku J. Mutinga (2011-2015); Pardon K. Mwansa (2016-).78


Anderson, W. H. On The Trail of Livingstone. California: Pacific Press, 1919.

Kanondo, Vivian Munachande. "Rusangu Secondary School." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Accessed April 26, 2021.|secondary|school.

Kanondo, Vivian Munachande. The Story of Rusangu Mission (1903-2005): A Brief Review. Rusangu, Monze: Zambia Adventist Press, 2005.

Matandiko, Cornelius M. Seventh-day Adventism in Zambia. Lusaka: Zambia Adventist Press, 2003.

Mhoswa, Absalom M. “A Study of the Educational Contribution of the Jesuit Mission at Chikuni and the Adventist Mission at Rusangu, 1905-1964.” M.A. Thesis, University of Zambia, 1980.

Neufeld, Don S. Ed. The Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (SDAE), 2nd rev. ed. Logos Bible Software. Washington D.C.: Review and Herald, 1996. “Zambia.”

Scharwz, R. W. Light Bearers to the Remnant: Denominational History Textbook for Seventh-day Adventist College Classes. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, 1979.

Spalding, Arthur Whitefield. Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists, 4. Washington D.C.: Review and Herald, 1962.


  1. University Registrar’s Report, 2020 year-end University Council held on January 8, 2021.

  2. Vivian Munachande Kanondo, The Story of Rusangu Mission (1903-2005): A Brief Review (Rusangu, Monze: Zambia Adventist Press, 2005), 51-52.

  3. Don S. Neufeld, ed., The Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (SDAE), 2nd rev. ed. Logos Bible Software (Washington D.C.: Review and Herald, 1996), “Zambia.”

  4. Acacia albida is an important multipurpose tree species with agricultural significance. The species is a leguminous tree from the Mimosoideae family. It is noteworthy that the tree sheds its leaves in the rainy season and remains green during the dry season. Due to the inverse phase compared to the normal phenologic rhythm observed for most other species, its presence and shade do not compete with rainy season crops. In contrast, in the dry season, this plant provides useful shade for animals as well as a nutritious food source for livestock. Its foliage consists of rich feedstuff, and it provides its animals with the proteins lacking in grasses during the dry season,, accessed February 26, 2021.

  5. Cornelius M. Matandiko, Seventh-day Adventism in Zambia (Lusaka: Zambia Adventist Press, 2003), 48.

  6. Kanondo, 51-52.

  7. Ibid., 14.

  8. Matandiko, 48.

  9. R. W. Schwarz, Light Bearers to the Remnant: Denominational History Textbook for Seventh-day Adventist College Classes (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, 1979), 361.

  10. Adapted from African Seventh-day Adventist History (ASAH),, accessed February 26, 2021. The Battle Creek College graduation took place on June 18, 1895, while Anderson was in Bechuanaland (Botswana) on his way to Solusi Mission, Bulawayo. See W. H. Anderson, On The Trail of Livingstone (California: Pacific Press, 1919), 43.

  11. Schwarz, 361.

  12. ASAH.

  13. Anderson, 7, 20, 22, 31, 34, 62.

  14. Arthur Whitefield Spalding, Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists (Washington D.C.: Review and Herald, 1962), 4:13. William Anderson also records the story of how the land was given gifted to the Adventists. He quotes Elder A. T. Robinson, who had a meeting with Cecil John Rhodes in Cape Town upon the request of the General Conference Foreign Mission Board. Robinson was one of the earliest Adventist missionaries sent to South Africa. Rhodes wrote a letter to Dr. Jameson, who was an administrator in Rhodesia, to give the men all the land they could utilize without a fee. See also Anderson, 63-67.

  15. Ibid., 13.

  16. Ibid., 164-168.

  17. Kanondo, 8.

  18. Anderson, 164-168.

  19. Absalom M. Mhoswa, “A Study of the Educational Contribution of the Jesuit Mission at Chikuni and the Adventist Mission at Rusangu, 1905-1964,” (M.A. Thesis, University of Zambia, 1980), 34.

  20. Anderson, 164-168.

  21. Ibid., 169-177.

  22. Ibid.

  23. Ibid., 178-183.

  24. Ibid., 200.

  25. SDAE, Logos Bible Software. Mhoswa, from his personal communication with Sibanda, a grandchild of Detcha, adds other three names to the list of natives who came with Anderson from Solusi, namely: Alvin Mulema Chabango, Elma Madima Nkomo, and Albert Madambi Ndhlovu. See Mhoswa, 39.

  26. Anderson, 200-201.

  27. Mhoswa, 18.

  28. Ibid., 38.

  29. Ibid., 37, 39.

  30. Anderson, 201.

  31. Ibid., 203-206.

  32. Vivian M. Kanondo, "Rusangu Secondary School," Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists, accessed April 26, 2021,|secondary|school.

  33. Mhoswa, 120. This is the place where South Zambia Conference offices are still currently located.

  34. Kanondo, 35-37. There is an article for Rusangu Secondary School authored by Vivian Munachande Kanondo in this Encyclopedia that elaborates further on the school. Additional information on the missionary endeavors of Anderson and other Adventist missionaries may also be found in the articles for South Zambia Conference and Solusi University.

  35. Matandiko, 152-153. For the provinces covered by the South Zambia Field, Matandiko omitted Lusaka Province, which was part of the territory.

  36. Simon Chileya II, interview by the author via phone, March 23, 2021. Pastor Chileya joined as a pastor in 1970 after starting out as a literature evangelist. He was among the six Zambians who had gone to Solusi College for a leadership training program for six months on December 3, 1972, and had to return to Zambia when the border was closed in March 1973. He officially retired from active ministry on December 31, 2000, and lives near Choma town, Southern Province.

  37. Ibid.

  38. Matandiko, 148-149.

  39. ZAS Recommendations Approved 1108, Southern Zambia Union Conference Archives.

  40. Land for ZAS 1589 (recording CBF action 0145), Southern Zambia Union Conference Archives.

  41. ZAS Sub-Committee Report Given 1354, Southern Zambia Union Conference Archives.

  42. Ibid.

  43. Ibid.

  44. David M. Kasaji, interview by the author, Rusangu University, Monze, March 3, 2021. Kasaji served as Zambia Union Education director between 1998-2003 and spearheaded the assignment to establish Rusangu University.

  45. In-Service Training for Pastors, (Action 1950), Southern Zambia Union Conference Archives.

  46. Matandiko, 149.

  47. Kasaji.

  48. The Commission performed its work between 2000-2001. The members were: David Kasaji (Zambia Union director of Education – chairperson), Mwenda Mulundano (secretary - Deceased), Life Mutaka (Zambia Union Associate Education director - Retired), Passmore Mulambo (Zambia Union Publishing director), Michael Muchula (Zambia Union associate treasurer), Steve Grabner (Riverside Farm Institute director). This information was provided by David M. Kasaji.

  49. The Committee worked in 2002, and the members were: Pastor David M. Kasaji (Zambia Union Education director – chairperson), Mr. Mwenda Mulundano (secretary), Dr. Alvert Ng’andu (dean – School of Engineering, University of Zambia [UNZA]), Mr. Bwendo Mulengela (UNZA - Deceased), Mr. Musheke Kakuwa (UNZA - Deceased), Mr. Life Mutaka (Zambia Union associate Education director), Mrs. Yvette Munakaampe (teacher), Mr. Nyambe Sumbwa (UNZA), Mr. Muhau Tabakamulamu (UNZA - Deceased), Mrs. A. Kanondo (Rusangu Secondary School headmistress). This information was provided by David Kasaji.

  50. Ibid.

  51. Zambia Adventist University (Action 1478), Southern Zambia Union Conference Archives.

  52. Zambia Adventist University registration certificate.

  53. The first University Council membership was as follows: Passmore Hachalinga (chairperson), Harrington Akombwa (vice chair), Mwenda Mulundano (secretary - Deceased), Albert Bbwantu (president – South Zambia Conference), Duwell Malipilo (president – Copperbelt Zambia Field), Maxwell Muvwimi (president – East Zambia Field), Warren Simatele (president – West Zambia Field), Mufayabo Mtshiya (president – Central Zambia Conference), Bednical Ndatoya (president – North Zambia Field), R. P. Musonda (Union treasurer), Gillian Namele (DFA- ZAU), David M. Kasaji (Union Education director), Doreen Kabunda (lay member), Shirley Ng’andu (lay member), Peter Chisonga (lay member - Deceased), Blaston Kaoma Sampa (lay member), Ophen Muhuma (Zambia Union). This information was provided by David M. Kasaji.

  54. Eugenia Likezo Mulundano, phone interview with the author, March 4, 2021. Mrs. Mulundano, together with her late husband, were some of the first employees of the University. She joined on January 1, 2003, and served as University registrar from inception to 2010. See also Kanondo, 71.

  55. Namatama Mulundano, phone interview with the author, March 4, 2021. Namatama Mulundano was one of the 20 pioneering full-time students with a student ID F004/14.

  56. W. B. Musale, interview by the author, March 3, 2021 and other interviews. Dr. Musale was the first faculty member to be employed by the University. He taught Business Studies. See also the Zambia Adventist University Prospectus for 2003. The prospectus shows 26 programs, but the ones that were active were only about 15, mostly in Education. Other programs did not function since they did not have applicants.

  57. Elizabeth Lechleitner and Victor Hangala, Adventist News Network (ANN),, accessed March 20, 2021.

  58. Isaac Chiyokoma, personal knowledge acquired through working at Rusangu University as chaplain (2016 to date), studying at Rusangu University (2006-2009), and attending the 2007 inaugural graduation.

  59. University Registrar’s Report.

  60. Rusangu University Bulletin (2017-2021).

  61. Rusangu University Bulletin (2011-2016).

  62. Zambia Adventist University Bulletin (2006-2010), 6.

  63. Kasaji.

  64. Ibid.

  65. Ibid.

  66. Ibid.

  67. Chiyokoma.

  68. Ibid.

  69. Ibid.

  70. Ibid.

  71. Registrar’s Graduation List, 2007-2020.

  72. Chiyokoma.

  73. Higher Education Authority of Zambia (HEA),, accessed March 3, 2021.

  74. Chiyokoma.

  75. University Registrar’s Report.

  76. Ibid.

  77. Ibid.

  78. Appendix: List of Dignitaries Who Have Visited Rusangu University

    Hon. Dr. Guy L. Scott MP (former vice president), October 13, 2013.

    Deputy High Commissioner Marshall Mututu, Zimbabwe High Commission, July 26, 2015.

    Hon. Prof. Geoffrey Lungwangwa MP (former minister of Education), September 2, 2007.

    Hon. Dr. Eustarckio Kazonga MP (former minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives), January 24, 2011.

    Hon. Brian Sikazwe MP (former deputy minister of Sports, Youth and Child Development), April 14, 2011.

    Hon. Dr. John T. N. Phiri MP (former minister of Education, Science, and Technology), March 13, 2012.

    Hon. Yamfwa Mukanga MP (former minister of Transport, Communication, Works and Supply), July 19, 2015.

    Hon. Panji Kaunda MP (deputy minister of Defense), March 8, 2012, and April 28, 2014 (deputy minister of Transport, Communication, Works, and Supply).

    Hon. David Mabumba MP (former minister of Education, Science, Vocational Training, and Early Education), July 22, 2012.

    Hon. Prof. Nkandu Luo MP (former minister of Higher Education), May 30, 2019.

    Hon. Dr. Edify Hamukale MP (minister of Southern Province), May 24, 2019.

    Hon. Mwimba H. Malama MP (deputy minister of Transport, Communication, Works, and Supply), March 11, 2013.

    Hon. Richard S. Mwapela MP, February 1, 2013.

    Hon. Vitalis M. Mooya MP, September 4, 2013.

    Hon. Highvie Hamududu MP, June 13, 2010, September 2, 2013, November 18, 2013.

    Hon. Harry Kamboni MP, June 24, 2019.

    Hon. Edgar Singombe MP, March 13, 2020.

    Dr. Patrick K. Nkanza (permanent secretary, Ministry of Education, Science, Vocational Training, and Early Education), July 22, 2012.

    Prof. Naison Ngoma, Copperbelt University vice chancellor, July 22, 2012.

    Dr. Bwalya Ng’andu (former deputy governor, Bank of Zambia), June 16, 2015.

    Dr. Maureen Mwanawasa (former first lady), July 27, 2014.

    The parliamentary committee on Education Science and Technology also visited the University on May 31, 2019.

    His Royal Highness Chief Hamusonde, August 29, 2012.

    His Royal Highness Chief Monze, June 16, 2015.

    His Royal Highness Chief Chona, August 25, 2013, and June 16, 2015.

    His Royal Highness Chief Mwanza, August 25, 2013.

    Her Royal Highness Chieftainess Choongo (Deceased), June 16, 2015.


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Chiyokoma, Isaac. "Rusangu University, Zambia." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. February 06, 2021. Date of access May 24, 2024,

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