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Septimus and Edith Carr with their son Arthur.

Photo courtesy of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives.

Carr, Septimus Walfred (1878–1972) and Edith Mary (Guilliard) (1881–1969)

By Shirley Tarburton

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Shirley Tarburton, M.Litt. (Distinction) (University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia) retired in 2008 after 40 years teaching church-school (mainly high school but including eight years at university). An Australian, she has taught in four mission fields, Australia, and New Zealand. She has authored five books and co-authored one on church history, biography and family history, as well as several magazine articles. She is married to Dr. Michael Tarburton with two adult children and four grandchildren.

 

First Published: January 29, 2020

Septimus and Edith Carr commenced the first Seventh-day Adventist training school in Fiji and were the first Seventh-day Adventist missionaries in New Guinea. Both spent 37 years in mission service in the Pacific Islands.1

Early Years

Septimus Walfred Carr was the ninth of the eleven children born to Thomas William and Esther Mary (Pattison) Carr of Low Lights, Tynemouth, in Northumberland, England. The Carr family had had extensive interests in pottery for several generations, but Thomas worked for his father who had established a brewery in the early 1800s.2 His father died the year after Thomas and Esther married, and Thomas became a part-owner of the business with other family members. It was while Thomas and Esther were on a business trip to Sweden that Septimus (Sep) was born on January 3, 1878, in Nyvik, a port on the Indalsalven (in central Sweden).3 He was named Septimus because he was the seventh son.

Thomas and Esther became devout Methodists and decided that being part-owner of a brewery was not consistent with a Christian life so they sold out and immigrated to New Zealand to start afresh. With them they took their nine children.4

Later in 1883, Thomas left New Zealand and took his family to Australia.5 They settled in what became Carr Street in Chatswood, Sydney, and he took a job as a representative of the Australian Mutual Provident (AMP) society. Not long afterwards, Sep started school and eventually completed his secondary studies at the prestigious Sydney Boys’ High School. Two of his older brothers studied Agriculture at the Sydney Technical College and established an orange orchard at Arcadia (now called Carrs Road). After finishing school, Septimus joined them.6

Conversion and Education

Living nearby was a Seventh-day Adventist, John Pocock. In his conversations with Septimus, he awoke in him an interest in the doctrine of the Seventh-day Sabbath.7 Sep read the pamphlet “Rome’s Challenge” on the topic and was convinced that Sunday was not the day set aside for worship by the Lord.8 His interest was nurtured by Morgan Andrew Connell, a literature evangelist,9 and in October 1899 he was baptised.10 Sep then shared his faith with his brothers and had the joy of seeing John and Thomas both baptised in 1900.11

In1901, Sep enrolled in the Missionary Course at Australasian Missionary College at Avondale, New South Wales.12 While there, he often shared dish-washing duties with a young woman named Edith Guilliard, and he decided that she would be the perfect partner for life.

Edith Guilliard

Edith Mary Guilliard was from New Zealand. She was born on April 20, 1881, in Napier to Henry and Eliza Rachel [Luce] Guilliard,13 six years after they had emigrated from Jersey in the English Channel.14 When Edith was eight years old, her mother and older brother became Seventh-day Adventists as a result of Arthur G. Daniells’ 1888-1889 tent mission run in Napier and were charter members of the Napier SDA church which was established on April 22, 1889.15 There were five surviving children in the family, Egbert Henry (June 6, 1874 – August 13, 1964) who became a SDA pastor, Edith, Maude Ethel (Dowding, April 18, 1884 – August 16, 1916), Harry Jack (April 10, 1886 – August 8, 1976) and Arthur (May 7, 1888 – May 24, 1957). Coincidentally, Morgan A. Connell, who was to be instrumental in Sep’s conversion, was also baptised in Napier early in 1889.16

All of Edith’s siblings were raised in the Adventist faith, but although he initially was interested, her father never joined the church and later left his wife to support herself. She regularly took her children to the annual church camp-meeting where Edith developed a desire to become a missionary. At the 1895 camp-meeting she often helped look after the young children of Americans, John and Susie Fulton who were under appointment as pioneer missionaries to Fiji.17

Volunteer Missionary Work

When the Fultons sailed for Fiji a few months later, fourteen-year-old Edith went with them as the children’s nanny and teacher.18 She quickly learned the Fijian language and when printing of Fijian tracts commenced, she assisted by becoming proficient in setting the type.19 In 1898, when Pastor Fulton ran a three-week series of meetings in the village of Suva Vou, she ran meetings for the children telling them Bible stories.20 The baptism held at the culmination of these meetings was the first to be held in Fiji.21 Some of the children Edith taught later became pioneer missionaries themselves. When she was about eighteen, Edith made the first translations of Adventist Hymns into Fijian. About the same time, she discontinued her daily lessons for the missionary children, working nearly full-time at the press.22 When Pastor Calvin Parker left Fiji, she took over the printing of the Fijian SDA paper, the Rarama.23 For five years she worked for the SDA mission in Fiji receiving no payment other than her living expenses.24

At Avondale

In 1901 she attended college at Avondale to complete her education.25 Towards the end of 1902, the Fultons also came to Avondale. Their project during the next year was to publish the Great Controversy in Fijian. Because of Edith’s superior knowledge of the Fijian language and her skill in setting it in type, she was recruited to supervise the type-setting of this book.26 Septimus Carr was interested in the project and joined John Fulton as his assistant. Looking forward to future service in the mission field, Sep began learning Fijian.27

Fiji and Marriage

Edith completed her studies at the end of 1903 and returned to Suva, Fiji, to continue her voluntary service there.28 Sep graduated from the Missionary Course at the end of 1903 but stayed on at Avondale to do the Normal (teaching) Course, graduating at the end of 1904.29 It had been decided that it was imperative to have a training school in Fiji and Pastor Fulton was searching for a suitable location. He placed a call for Sep to come to run the school and he was in Fiji by the end of October 1904.30

On February 1, 1905, Sep and Edith were married31 at Suva Vou Mission by John Fulton, and later that year they moved to the school site at Buresala on Ovalau Island. Here they supervised the building and commenced classes in September. The printing house was moved from Suva Vou to the school and Edith became responsible for doing all the printing for the Mission.32

After the school building dedication in mid-1907, Sep and Edith Carr were asked to go to Port Moresby in Papua to pioneer SDA mission work there. Edith had given ten years of service to Fiji, and Sep, three.33

Pioneering in Papua, and Ordination

They took up residence in Port Moresby in June 1908, taking with them Peni Tavodi, a graduate from Buresala.34 Government regulations forbade them from engaging in public religious activity. It took until late 1909 to acquire the Bisiatabu mission site and in 1910 this was established as a rubber plantation and farm. Scriptural instruction was shared with the plantation and farm workers. The Carrs divided their time between that property and the Port Moresby mission house.35

On Sabbath afternoon, October 29, 1910, Septimus was ordained to the gospel ministry by Pastors J. E. Fulton, G. B. Thompson, and E. H. Gates at meetings held at Warburton, Victoria, while the Carrs were in Australia for a brief furlough.36

On July 9, 1912, their son, Arthur Pattison Carr, was born in Port Moresby.37 Sep and Edith continued their work of establishing the Papuan Mission on a firm footing and finally in 1914 the government granted the Australasian Conference Association permission to operate the mission in its own right.38 This done, it was considered that the Carr’s task there was complete and they were transferred to pastoral work in Queensland in 1915 for a furlough.39

Niue and Fiji

May 1916 to November 1919 was spent in evangelistic work on the island of Niue.40 The Carrs were then appointed to a further term of service in Fiji.41 They returned to their old home at Buresala for three and a half years.42 After a few months furlough and speaking at camp-meetings in Australia,43 they moved to Naqia in the Wainibuka valley on Viti Levu, Fiji for four years.44

A new member of the family went back with them to Fiji. While in Australia they had adopted Ivy Muriel Dowding (surname upon marrying became James, then Peters upon marrying again) who lived from August 13, 1914 to June 26, 1996. Ivy was the orphaned daughter of Edith’s sister, Maud, who, prior to her marriage, had also been a missionary teacher in the Pacific islands mission field.45

Later Service and Retirement

The Carr family spent 1928 at Avondale where Pastor Carr managed the farm of the Australasian Missionary College, did some teaching, and was dean of men.46 Then, at the beginning of 1929 they returned once more to join the teaching staff at Buresala Training School, Fiji,47 where they remained until the end of 1937.48 The years 1938 to 1946 were spent in pastoral work in Wynnum, in the Queensland conference.49

In 1947, at the age of 69, Pastor Carr was recalled to Fiji to translate books, tracts, and Voice of Prophecy lessons into Fijian. For four years he and Edith were engaged in this work, returning permanently to Queensland in December 1950.50 They settled in Wynnum where Sep had been pastoring in the 1940s, and, even though now retired, he continued pastoring the Wynnum church for another 13 years.51 Even after that time, he diligently continued pastoral visitation, distributed Signs magazines, collected for the annual Appeal for Missions, and took on various church offices. He was church treasurer until he was ninety.52

Death and Burial

On May 3, 1969, Edith Mary Carr died in Wynnum aged eighty-eight, and Sep moved to Adelaide to live with his son, Arthur, and his wife, Joyce (nee Swinden).53 Here he passed away June 17, 1972, after 68 years of service for the Lord. He was buried in Brisbane with Edith at the Hemmant Cemetery on June 21, 1972.54

Sources

“A most interesting letter . . .” Union Conference Record, July 20, 1908.

“A short time ago. . .” Australasian Record, February 13, 1911.

Bennison, Brian Robert. “The Brewing Trade in North East England 1869 - 1939.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, 1992.

Branster, Gordon. “Eliza Rachel Guilliard obituary.” Australasian Record, September 21, 1942.

“Brethren Stewart and Carr . . .” Australasian Record, November 21, 1910.

“Brother and Sister Carr . . .” Union Conference Record, April 5, 1909.

“Brother and Sister S. W. Carr . . .” Union Conference Record, May 14, 1906.

“Brother and Sister S. W. Carr . . .” Union Conference Record, June 15, 1908.

“Brother Carr of New Guinea . . .” Union Conference Record, December 13, 1909.

“Brother Parker writes . . .” Union Conference Record, October 15, 1905.

“Brother S. W. Carr . . .” Union Conference Record, December 1, 1905.

“Brother S. W. Carr. . .” Union Conference Record, January 15, 1903.

“Brother S. W. Carr who . . .” Union Conference Record, October 15, 1904.

Brown, T. Aylesbury, and Bessie Brown. “Mount Gambier.” Australasian Record, April 17, 1911.

“By a post card. . .” Australasian Record, August 13, 1923.

Carr, Edith M. “Our Missions: New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, January 18, 1909.

Carr, Kelvyn, to Shirley Tarburton. June 15, 2016.  Private letter. Personal collection of Shirley Tarburton.

Carr, Kelvyn, to W. Glynn Litster.   November 27, 1996.  Private letter. Personal collection of W. Glynn Litster.

Carr, Kelvyn to W. Glynn Litster.  January 16, 1997.  Private letter. Personal collection of W. Glynn Litster. 

Carr, S. W. “A Trip Inland in New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, December 7, 1908.

Carr, S. W. “Biennial Report of New Guinea Mission.” Australasian Record, October 24, 1910.

Carr, S. W. “Bisiatabu.” Australasian Record, September 28, 1914.

Carr, S. W. “Farewell to Fiji.” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908.

Carr, S. W. “First Fruits in New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, July 26, 1909.

Carr, S. W. “New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, September 6, 1909.

Carr, S. W. “News from Niue.” Australasian Record, June 18, 1917.

Carr, S. W. “Niue Island.” Australasian Record, July 2, 1917.

Carr, S. W. “Niue Island.” Australasian Record, November 5, 1917.

Carr, S. W. “While traveling. . .” Australasian Record, June 14, 1920.

Carr, S. W. and E. M. Carr. “Many of our people. . .” Union Conference Record, October 21, 1907.

Carr, S. W. and E. M. Carr. “New Guinea.” Union Conference Record, January 4, 1909.

Carr, S. W. and E. M. Carr. “First-Fruits on Niue.” Australasian Record, August 14, 1916.

“Central Polynesian Conference.” Australasian Record, September 9, 1918.

Chaney, Bertha S. “Because of the circumstances. . .” Australasian Record, August 21, 1911.

Chaney, Bertha S. “There is even now a strong. . .” Australasian Record, October 23, 1911.

Chaney, F. L. “Experiences in New Guinea No. 1.” Australasian Record, April 17, 1911.

Chaney, F. L. “Experiences in New Guinea No 2.” Australasian Record, April 24, 1911.

Clapham, Noel, editor. Seventh-day Adventists in the South Pacific 1885-1985. Warburton, Victoria: Signs Publishing Company, 1985.

“Closing Days of the Avondale School.” Union Conference Record, October 15, 1903.

“From Tongatabu to Sydney.” Union Conference Record, November 1, 1899, 13.

“Fulton Choir Presents ‘David the Shepherd Boy'.” Australasian Record, February 21, 1949.

Fulton, J. E., “The South Australian Camp-Meeting.” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908.

“Gleanings from. . .” Australasian Record, July 4, 1966.

Goldstone, S. Ross. The Angel Said Australia. Warburton, Victoria: Signs Publishing Company, 1980.

“Good News from Fiji.” Union Conference Record, March 15, 1905.

Hare, Eric B. Fulton’s Footprints in Fiji. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1969.

Hill, Emma. “A Rest by the Way.” Union Conference Record, July 6, 1908.

Hill, Emma. “Bennie's Farewell to the Young People of Queensland.” Union Conference Record, July 6, 1908.

“In a recent letter. . .” Australasian Record, August 4, 1913.

“In a recent mail . . .” Union Conference Record, March 25, 1907.

Knight, O. W. “Mrs. Edith Mary Carr obituary.” Australasian Record, June 9, 1969.

Lane, R. W. “Buresala, Fiji.” Australasian Record, April 19, 1920.

“New Guinea.” Australasian Record, July 29, 1912.

“Now for the new. . .” Union Conference Record, May 1, 1905.

“On returning home to Buresala . . .” Union Conference Record, December 16, 1907.

“On September 27. . .” Australasian Record, September 1, 1913.

“Ordination Service.” Union Conference Record, November 7, 1910.

“Our Council convened at Suva Vou . . .” Union Conference Record, January 15, 1905.

“Our New Conference Office.” Union Conference Record, December 19, 1910.

Parker, C. H. “On my way to . . .” Union Conference Record, June 15, 1905.

Parker, C. H. “Report of the Fiji Mission Field.” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906.

Palmer, C. S. “Carr. Thomas William obituary.” Australasian Record, February 17, 1958.

“Pastor Carr and wife. . .” Australasian Record, July 12, 1920.

“Pastor S. W. Carr. . .” Australasian Record, November 24, 1919.

“Pastor S. W. Carr. . .” Australasian Record, February 25, 1929.

“Pastor S. W. Carr. . .” Australasian Record, September 13, 1937.

“Pastor S. W. Carr. . .” Australasian Record, February 28, 1938.

“Pastor S. W. Carr and family. . .” Australasian Record, August 9, 1915.

“Pastor S. W. Carr has. . .” Australasian Record, December 6, 1927.

“Pastor S. W. Carr writes. . .” Australasian Record, September 20, 1920.

“Pastor S. W. Carr wrote. . .” Australasian Record, March 25, 1935.

Pretyman, Cecil H. “Travels in New Guinea.” Australasian Record, December 1, 1913.

“S. W. Carr to connect. . .” Australasian Record, July 5, 1915.

“Sanitarium Notes.” Union Conference Record, December 16, 1907.

“Septimus Carr. . .” Australasian Record, November 20, 1972.

“Septimus Walfred Carr Biographical Information Record. South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives. Folder: “Carr, Septimus Walfred.” Document: “Biographical Information.”

“Septimus Walfred Carr Personal Service Record. South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives. Folder: “Carr, Septimus Walfred.” Document: “Personal Service Record.”

“Sister Carr writes. . .” Union Conference Record, March 5, 1906.

“Sister Carr writes . . .” Union Conference Record, August 17, 1908.

“Sister J. E. Fulton. . .” Union Conference Record, May 1, 1904.

“Sister S. W. Carr of New Guinea. . .” Australasian Record, December 4, 1911.

Stewart, A. G. “A Visit to Papua.” Australasian Record, October 24, 1927.

Stewart, A. G. “A Link with the Early Years of Avondale Is Broken.” Australasian Record, August 19, 1946.

Stewart, A. G. “In Memory of John Edwin Fulton.” Australasian Record, October 6, 1969.

Stewart, M. M. “Diamond Wedding Anniversary.” Australasian Record, March 22, 1965.

Tavodi, Benny. “Go Ye.” Australasian Record, December 22, 1913.

“That S. W. Carr labor in Fiji. . .” Union Conference Record, August 15, 1904.

“The following telegram . . .” Union Conference Record. November 2, 1908.

“The Second Coming.” The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate. March 13, 1915.

“The treasurer of the Wynnum church. . .” Australasian Record, February 5, 1968.

Thomson, Eunice B. “’Moce’ to Fiji's Oldest Workers.” Australasian Record, February 5, 1951.

“We are very pleased to have Brother Carr . . .” Union Conference Record, August 15, 1905.

“We quote the following . . .” Union Conference Record, July 8, 1907.

Weslake, Florence M. “A Tribute to Pastor S. W. Carr.” Australasian Record, August 14, 1972.

“West Australian Camp-meeting.” Australasian Record, June 25, 1923.

“When reinforcements arrive. . .” Australasian Record, September 15, 1919.

White, A. H. “Carr.” Australasian Record, August 7, 1922.

Wood, S. H. “Carr, Pastor Septimus Walfred obituary.” Australasian Record, August 14, 1972.

Wood, S. H. “Life Sketch of the Late Pastor S. W. Carr.” Australasian Record, August 14, 1972.

Notes

  1. S. H. Wood, “Life Sketch of the Late Pastor S. W. Carr,” Australasian Record, August 14, 1972, 14.

  2. Brian Robert Bennison, “The Brewing Trade in North East England 1869 - 1939” (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, 1992), 23.

  3. Septimus Walfred Carr, Biographical Information Record. South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives. Folder: “Carr, Septimus Walfred.” Document: “Biographical Information.”

  4. John Ormston (1865 – July 7, 1922), Frank Pattison (1867 – September 2, 1941), Frederick (1868 – May 9, 1961), Thomas William (1869 – January 16, 1958), Arthur Bertram (1871 – July 13, 1946), Stanley (1873 – August 15, 1958), Ethel Margaret (1874 – February 5, 1932), Isabel Marion (1876 – March 16, 1965), and Septimus (1878-1972). Just nine days after setting sail from London on the Jocelyn, an eighth son was born – Octavius Jocelyn (October 6, 1880 - December 20, 1967). Seventeen months later, Herbert Vincent (March 24, 1883 – January 19, 1928), their little New Zealander, completed the family.

  5. “Mr Thomas Carr.” Glen Innes Examiner, April 23, 1917, 5.

  6. Kelvyn Carr to W. G. Litster, November 27, 1996, private letter, copy in personal collection of Shirley Tarburton.

  7. A. G. Stewart, “A Link with the Early Years of Avondale Is Broken,” Australasian Record, August 19, 1946, 3

  8. Septimus Walfred Carr Biographical Information Record. South Pacific Division of the General Conference Archives. Folder: “Carr, Septimus Walfred.” Document: “Biographical Information.”

  9. Ibid.

  10. Ibid.

  11. A. H. White, “John Ormston Carr obituary,” Australasian Record, August 7, 1922, 7; see also C. S. Palmer, “Thomas William Carr obituary,” Australasian Record, February 17, 1958, 7.

  12. Septimus Walfred Carr Biographical Information Record.

  13. Guilliard, Edith Mary, 1881 Births, No 3423, Births Deaths Marriages Historical Records, Department of Internal Affairs, Government of New Zealand.

  14. "New Zealand, Archives New Zealand, Passenger Lists, 1839-1973," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:FSTY-9JZ : 12 December 2014), Henry Guilliard, 23 Nov 1875; citing ship Ocean Mail, Archives New Zealand, Wellington; FHL microfilm .

  15. G. Branster, “Eliza Rachel Guilliard obituary,” Australasian Record, September 21, 1942, 7; see also S. Ross Goldstone, The Angel Said Australia, (Warburton, Victoria: Signs Publishing Company, 1980), 74-76.

  16. Goldstone, 80.

  17. Eric B. Hare, Fulton’s Footprints in Fiji, (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1969), 1-62.

  18. A. G. Stewart, “In Memory of John Edwin Fulton,” Australasian Record, October 6, 1969, 8.

  19. Ibid.

  20. Hare, 96.

  21. Ibid.,100.

  22. Ibid.,111-112.

  23. Ibid.,130.

  24. Ibid.,64.

  25. Ibid.,147.

  26. Ibid.,154.

  27. Ibid.,156.

  28. “Sister J. E. Fulton and . . .” Union Conference Record, May 1, 1904, 11.

  29. Septimus Walfred Carr Biographical Information Record.

  30. “Brother S W Carr. . . ” Union Conference Record, October 15, 1904, 7.

  31. S. H. Wood, “Life Sketch of the Late Pastor S. W. Carr,” Australasian Record, August 14, 1972, 14.

  32. C. H. Parker, “Report of the Fiji Mission Field,” Union Conference Record, October 1, 1906, 33.

  33. S. W. Carr, “Farewell to Fiji,” Union Conference Record, March 30, 1908, 4.

  34. “Brother and Sister S W Carr. . .” Union Conference Record, June 15, 1908, 7.

  35. S. W. Carr, “Biennial Report of New Guinea Mission,” Union Conference Record, October 24, 1910, 25; see also Bertha S. Chaney, “Signing Off,” Union Conference Record, August 21, 1911, 4-5.

  36. “Sabbath Afternoon, October 29, Ordination Service,” Union Conference Record, November 7, 1910, 77.

  37. S. W. Carr, “New Guinea,” Australasian Record, July 29, 1912, 2; see also Septimus Walfred Carr Biographical Information Record.

  38. S. W. Carr, “Bisiatabu,” Australasian Record, September 28, 1914, 49.

  39. “S. W. Carr to connect . . .” Australasian Record, July 5, 1915, 4.

  40. S. W. and E. M. Carr, “First-Fruits on Niue,” Australasian Record, August 14, 1916, 3.

  41. “When reinforcements . . .” Australasian Record, September 15, 1919, 8.

  42. “Pastor Carr and wife . . .” Australasian Record, July 12, 1920, 3.

  43. H. E. Piper, “West Australian Camp-meeting,” Australasian Record, June 25, 1923, 4.

  44. “By a post . . .” Australasian Record, 8.

  45. “Septimus Walfred Carr Biographical Information Record.”

  46. “Pastor S. W. Carr . . .” Australasian Record, December 6, 1927, 8.

  47. “Pastor S. W. Carr . . .” Australasian Record, February 25, 1929, 8.

  48. “Pastor S. W. Carr . . .” Australasian Record, February 28, 1938, 8.

  49. M. M. Stewart, “Diamond Wedding Anniversary,” Australasian Record, March 22, 1965, 4.

  50. Eunice B. Thomson, “‘Moce’ to Fiji’s Oldest Workers,” Australasian Record, February 5, 1951, 6.

  51. Stewart, 4.

  52. “The treasurer of the Wynnum church. . .” Australasian Record, February 5, 1968, 8.

  53. O. W. Knight, “Mrs. Edith Mary Carr obituary,” Australasian Record, June 9, 1969, 15.

  54. S. H. Wood, “Carr, Pastor Septimus Walfred obituary,” Australasian Record, August 14, 1972, 15; see also Kelvyn Carr to Shirley Tarburton, June 15, 2016, private personal collection of Shirley Tarburton. 

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Tarburton, Shirley. "Carr, Septimus Walfred (1878–1972) and Edith Mary (Guilliard) (1881–1969)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Accessed May 20, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=97U8.

Tarburton, Shirley. "Carr, Septimus Walfred (1878–1972) and Edith Mary (Guilliard) (1881–1969)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. January 29, 2020. Date of access May 20, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=97U8.

Tarburton, Shirley (2020, January 29). Carr, Septimus Walfred (1878–1972) and Edith Mary (Guilliard) (1881–1969). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 20, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=97U8.