South Peru Mission

By Joel Güimac

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Joel Güimac

First Published: July 5, 2021

The South Peru Mission (Misión Perúana del Sur or MPS) is an administrative unit of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) located in the territory of the South Peru Union Mission (Unión Perúana del Sur or UPS).

The South Peru Mission’s headquarters is located at 110 Alameda Dos de Mayo St. in Tingo in the District of Arequipa in the Province of Arequipa in the Department of Arequipa in the Republic of Peru.1

This administrative unit is responsible for leading the advance of the preaching of the Gospel in the departments of Arequipa, Moquegua, and Tacna. In its ecclesiastical field, the MPS administers 196 organized churches with a membership of 34,787 Adventists in a population of 1,418,454.2 In another words, there is an average of one Adventist per 40 inhabitants of this field today.

The MPS, which is committed to the transmission of values and eternal principles, has seven educational institutions in operation in its field that are part of the Red Educativa Adventista Región Sur (Asociación Educativa Adventista Peruana del Sur - ASEAPS) [Adventist Educational Network of the South Region (Adventist Educational Organization of the South - ASEAPS)]. These institutions are: Eduardo F. Forga Adventist Academy (Institución Educativa Adventista Eduardo Francisco Forga), established on 202 Jerusalem, Jacobo Hunter, Vallecito, Arequipa; Majes Adventist School (Institución Educativa Adventista Majes), located at A-10 Amazonas Manzana St (Mz), Lot 48, Majes, Arequipa; the General Jose de San Martin Adventist Academy (Institución Educativa Adventista General José de San Martín), located at 111 García Calderón St., Vallecito, Arequipa; the Fernando Stahl Adventist Academy (Institución Educativa Adventista Fernando Stahl), located at Ilo 333 St, Cercado, Moquegua, established in 1992;3 the El Faro Adventist Academy (Institución Educativa Adventista El Faro), located at 1454 Tarata Ave., Gregorio Albarracín Association (Asociación Gregorio Albarracín), Tacna; the 28 de Julio Adventist Academy (Institución Educativa Adventista 28 de Julio), located at 184 Miller, Cercado, Tacna; and the Maranatha Adventist School (Institución Educativa Adventista Maranatha), located on Juan José Castillo Crespo N/N, Comité 16 Mz 61, Lot 27, Ciudad Nueva, Tacna.4

In the area of evangelism through communications, in the MPS mission field, the program “La Voz de la Esperanza” [“The Voice of Hope”] is heard through four broadcasters of the New Time Radio Productions on the following frequencies: Arequipa, 91.9 FM; Moquegua, 96.9 FM; and in the cities of Ilo and Tacna on 92.3 FM.5

Regarding the number of staff members, the South Peru Mission has 355 employees. Of these, 57 are pastors (29 with ministerial credentials and 28 with ministerial licenses); 10 workers with missionary credentials and two with missionary licenses; and 286 employees work in the administrative and educational areas.6

The Origin of the SDA Work in the Mission Territory

The history of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) in Peru began on June 26, 1898. The General Conference Foreign Mission Board of the Seventh-day Adventist Church voted to add the territories of Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador to the West Coast Mission in South America. This was decided so the West Coast Mission in South America could extend its activities to the Peruvian territory.7 Due to this, the SDA Church’s work in Peru began with the departure of two self-supporting missionary groups that started a trip from the Valparaíso port, Chile, heading to Peru.8

The first group was led by lay missionaries José and Liborio Osorio. These men arrived with their families9 in the port of Mollendo, the capital of Islay Province that is located in the Department of Arequipa. Immediately, they traveled 85 km from there until they arrived in the city of Arequipa. After settling in the city, the next morning, they saw they were in front of the market so they took advantage of that and started their missionary activities by distributing leaflets.10 However, the Arequipa citizens received them with hostility. After a few minutes, they were surrounded by a gang that was intending to lynch them. Before anything bad could happen to them, the police intervened and took them as prisoners, and they were later deported from the country.11

Due to what happened with the missionaries of the first group, the second group, comprised of carpenter José Luis Escobar and his wife; Víctor Thomann, a young volunteer lady; and brothers Luis and Víctor Osorio were more cautious when evangelizing. They arrived in port of Callao and settled in Lima, the Peruvian capital, and there they worked in diverse occupations to support themselves while fulfilling their mission.12 As a result of the work of these missionaries, three people were baptized by the end of 1898, or early 1899, by Brother Escobar.13

However, before the arrival of the first missionary group to Arequipa, there was already someone who was aware of the word of God in the city. It was Eduardo Francisco Forga who, in the year 1896, returned to his homeland, Arequipa, after studying for 12 years in Germany and Switzerland. Forga arrived in the city ready to promote temperance, religious freedom, and defense of native population rights.14 Forga was not yet executing his purposes until 1898, when he was contacted by Adventists of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Argentine Adventists had begun to publish a missionary review called El Faro [The Lighthouse], and in order to sell it, they needed subscribers. Thus, they turned to a list of names of people who had bought Bibles from Bible Societies publications. One of the names on the list was Forga’s, who was later contacted and invited to subscribe to the El Faro review. From then on, Forga began to reprint many of the review’s articles in his review called La Reforma [The Reform].15

Once subscribed, Forga became a vigorous promoter of health reform and also of the Adventist literature. He enrolled in more subscriptions that he could give to his closest friends.16 He also published brochures promoting religious freedom and separation between Church and State. Millions of his publications were distributed in Peru, and some even reached other countries.17 However, the content of some of his publications generated negative responses from local clergy and some authorities. For this reason, Forga was forced to leave the country, heading to England in March 1906, where he converted and became an SDA Church member.18 Nonetheless, his departure di not end the work done in the region, but instead paved the way for Adventist missions through the distribution of his publications.

Further south of Arequipa, in the department of Tacna, the Adventist message was also spread through the Publications Ministry. In 1902, Brother Thomann, who was in charge of editing the review Las Señales de los Tiempos [Signs of the Times], visited several cities in Chile and eventually went to Tacna. Thomann arrived in Tacna at ten o’clock on a Saturday night. After his arrival, he dedicated himself to getting subscriptions for the annual review delivery. In one week of his work, he had signed up 83 annual subscriptions and had sold individual copies in a Department that, at that time, had around 7,000 inhabitants.19

As for the Moquegua Department, the first Adventism presence was recorded in 1914. In that year, in the Alto de la Villa sector, Luis Gonzales and his family began to carry out worship meetings in their home after receiving teachings from a Chilean Adventist. However, the meetings could not continue in that place due to the hostility of local Catholics. This made them move to another sector, this one called “El Molino.” There, the Gonzales family tried to continue studying the Bible, but the hostility from locals prevented the family’s faith from being rooted there. This is how the Adventism developed in the present MPS.20

The MPS is one of the oldest missions of Peru. From the establishment of the Inca Union Mission (Unión Inca or UI, nowadays the South Peru Union Mission) in 1914,21 the Lake Titicaca Indian Mission (Misión India Lago Titicaca or MLT) emerged in 1916, and it was based in the city of Puno.22 Some time after the MLT establishment in 1932, the Mission sent a missionary to Moquegua. This missionary conducted a series of conferences, and after it, nine people decided to be baptized. Among them was Roberto Ordóñez Sagardía, who was rejected by his father and stepmother when he started to attend the meetings at the Gonzales’ house years before. Thus, the first Adventists in Moquegua were Roberto Ordóñez, Carlota Valdivia, Clara Maura, and Delfín Tala among others. To gather as a congregation, they rented a room on the sixth block of Calle del Medio, now Calle Moquegua [Moquegua St.]. The monthly payment cost them seven soles of gold (approximately US$ 1.23 back then).23

The Adventists of Moquegua did not suffer systematic persecution by members of other religions, but they were still mistreated. The believers of the dominant religion used to throw dried feces from their pack animals at any member of the congregation who dared to encounter them on the streets. Members of an order called “Los Capuchinos” [“The Capuchins”] used to interrupt the meetings of the Adventist congregation by throwing stones at the place.

However, the church continued its mission. In 1945, missionaries José María Linares, Roberto Ordóñez, Rufino Amesquita, and other brothers went to the Torata District to hold a series of conferences. The arrival of this group disturbed the local priest. He warned his believers to watch out for the “lies” of the Adventists, and he sent some young men to throw stones at the calamine part of the conference location. He also instigated his believers to cut off their electricity precisely at the moment that the preaching started so that the congregation would not have electricity.24

Nevertheless, the church continued steadfast in its work. In 1949, a strange incident happened with the Adventist congregation. José María Linares, who by that time was no longer acting as a missionary, persuaded the believers to migrate to the east jungle of Cusco to a place called Monte Carmelo [Mount Carmel] that was located in Cosñipata area in the province of Paucartambo. Linares convinced the brotherhood by saying that the end of the world was approaching, and it was better to wait for the second coming of Jesus in a remote place. However, all his words were actually a lie because, when the believers arrived at the place, his true intentions became clear. He wanted the brothers to occupy and cultivate part of his property, and he was going to pay them 25 percent of the profits. The members, a total of 14 people, wanted to return to Moquegua, but their shame prevented them to do so since they had sold their properties.25

However, nothing kept them from continuing to preach the Gospel. After two years, from an initial group of 14 members, the church increased to 30 members in the Peruvian jungle. Due to some disagreements, Rufino Amesquita, who was from the migrant group, settled in a land that was six hours away and remained there for eight years. Meanwhile, the Adventist work in Moquegua had been paralyzed, and it remained that way until the year 1957. During that year, Rufino returned to Moquegua with a shipment of wood. Roberto Ordóñez also decided to go back and convinced the other Adventists to do the same. Once in Moquegua, they decided to settle in the congregation’s place. Roberto went with vigor and enthusiasm to the reorganization of the congregation before the strangeness of the neighbors who saw their return.26

Thus, the returning of Roberto Ordóñez and other brothers to Moquegua marked the restart and consolidation of the Adventist work there. The congregation continued to meet on Lima Street near the sixth block. Later, they moved to a place owned by Brother Nates, who was a member of the Peruvian Civil Guard. This place was at 600 Manuel Ubalde St., and it remained there until 1959. That year, the congregation obtained a piece of land on Los Sauces Street (presently Ilo Street). Roberto, Rufino, and Hernán Vizcarra were the ones who transposed the walls and did the traces for the construction for the future Adventist Church in the city. The subsidy was commissioned by the MLT, and they also sent missionaries and pastors to expand the Adventist work in the region. Among the pastors that the MLT sent was José Chávez, who worked hard for two years and promoted the status change of Moquegua Adventist congregation to church on May 20, 1961.27

In short, the beginning of the Church in Arequipa, Tacna, and Moquegua was not an easy one. However, from the arrival of missionaries and the work of the Holy Spirit, the Adventist work spread in the South region, at that time administered by the Lake Titicaca Mission. Until 1967, besides managing the work in the districts surrounding Lake Titicaca (Platería, Chucuito, and Umuchi), the MLT also administered the Departments of Apurímac, Arequipa, Cusco, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, and Tacna. Therefore, the Inca Union Mission’s Board of Directors decided to change its name to South Peru Mission.28 However, this name would last only a few years.

Organizational History of the Mission

The plans to organize the present MPS began in 1972. During this period, the commissioned Survey was created to evaluate the possibility of establishing a new mission.29 Added to this was the fact that, in 1973, the Inca Union Mission voted to move the MPS headquarters from Puno to the city of Arequipa (Tingo).30 However, on March 12, 1974, an assembly took place in Puno, and after reevaluating these plans, it was agreed that the headquarters would not be moved.31 Thus, the MPS continued to have its headquarters in the city of Puno, and an another office was created in the city of Arequipa. Thus, the entire region of the mission field could be better served and maintain its growth.32

Then, in May 1975, Roberto Gullón, then the UI president, and Eleodoro Rodríguez, executive secretary, presented the study commission’s report to the UI Board of Directors, proposing the division of the MPS into two fields. In order to carry out this project, the following agreements were made: First, “that the South Peru Mission comprises the departments of Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna, Cuzco, Apurímac, and Madre de Dios, and that the Lake Titicaca Mission comprises the department of Puno. The headquarters of the two missions would be established in Arequipa and Puno, respectively.”33 Second, “that the new organizations start to operate on January 1, 1977” 34 and, finally, “That the location of the new headquarters and the housing for the mission staff be proposed for approval.”35 In this context, once the future of both missions was decided, the MPS took back the MLT name, and the new mission adopted the name of South Peru Mission (MPS).

Thus, on the occasion of the 10th Quinquennial Congress of the Inca Union Mission, five days after the beginning of 1977,36 pastors Raúl Gómez México and Felipe Ruiz were appointed as president and secretary-treasurer of the MPS, respectively. During that same event, Raúl Gómez reported the progress of the work done throughout the Mission’s territory up to that time. The leaders of each department were appointed during another meeting.37 The MPS began its administrative responsibilities by leading 27 churches and 80 organized groups with a membership of 5,311 Adventists who were distributed throughout 16 missionary districts. Nonetheless, there were still places in cities like Cusco and Tacna that lacked Adventist churches. This was one of the challenges that the new institution had to face.

In early 1978, a year after its organization, the MPS administration presented to the Board of Directors a brief report of the activities carried out in the mission, and they named that year as the “Year of Christian Education.”38 Also, the growth of the tithe was emphasized, which had reached S$ 1,000,000.00 (one million Gold Soles)--around US$ 7,669.89 in the average exchange rate of the time.39 In addition, it can be highlighted the missionary work of all districts as they reached its baptismal goal. Among other significant events during the first year of the MPS was the purchase of properties and the construction of temples.40 In 1979, the I Congress of the MPS was held from January 17 to 19 in the church at 100 Parra Ave. in Arequipa.41

As for the growth of the MPS, the progress of the work was both continuous and gradual each year, demonstrating that the decision to reorganize the work in the south region of Peru in two missions was a wise one. In just two years, the number of church members reached 6,303--that is, almost 1,000 new converts became part of the 28 existing churches in the Mission. Later, in 1985, the MPS led 1,525 people to decide for baptism, and thus had 13,765 members and 32 organized churches. A decade later, in 1995, in all the MPS territory, the number of churches had reached 120 and the members had become 44,534. During this period, both churches and membership tripled.42 In fact, these results were a blessing throughout the Mission territory because both pastors and church members were engaged and active in the evangelistic work given by Jesus in Matthew 28:19-20.

The new millennium brought new challenges, and the MPS responded with new missionary advances. Together with the North Pacific Mission, the South Central Peru Conference (today the Central Peru Conference) and the North Central Peru Conference (nowadays the East Central Peru Conference), the MPS participated in 2005 of “La Caravana de la Esperanza” [“The Caravan of Hope”]. The project involved 27,000 people in missionary work, and Pastor Mark Finley was the main speaker. As a result of this evangelistic campaign, 5,037 new members joined the SDA Church.43 Given its fast growth, the MPS requested analyses aiming a possible reorganization of its mission territory that year. In November of that same year, the Peru Union Mission (Unión Peru or UP) Plenary Board agreed to authorize the analyses of the territory division to give rise to a Conference and a Mission.44 In 2006, the Survey commission evaluated the proposal and presented its opinion to the South American Division (SAD) for its examination. That same year, the SAD reviewed the project and made some suggestions to the Union.

Among the suggestions offered, the UP was advised that the division of the territory should still wait because the Peru Union Mission would be divided into two fields: the North Peru Union Mission (Unión Perú del Norte or UPN) and the South Peru Union Mission (Unión Perú del Sur or UPS). By July 2007, the MPS presented the modified project to the newly established UPS. They requested to establish a new Mission and did not maintain the request for change of status in the existing Mission. The UPS board agreed to “accept the MPS request, modifying the 2007-096 vote, remaining only as a request to give rise to a new administrative unit.”45

On December 9, 2007, the project was presented to both the administrators of the SAD and the UPS. On that occasion, the challenges of the creation of a new Mission were outlined. However, the proposal had not yet been voted by the SAD. It was on July 10, 2008, at the Division Plenary Board meeting that the final vote was taken and the “project to create the new mission” was approved. Thus, in 2009, the MPS was created, the “South Peru Mission” (Misión Sur Oriental del Perú or MSOP), whose territory comprised the departments of Apurímac, Cusco, and Madre de Dios.46 Thus, the MPS began to cover the departments Arequipa, Moquegua, and Tacna.47

After its reorganization, the work continued to advance in the MPS territory. In 2012, for example, the MPS baptized 3,113 people, achieving a membership of 32,235 Adventists distributed in 151 churches. This represented a growth rate of almost 9% compared to the previous year.48 In 2016, the MPS had a membership of 30,483 Adventists, of whom 55% were women and 45% were men. More than 40% of the membership ranged within the ages of 16 to 35 years, showing that there was a majority of the membership in fairly young age during those years.49 In that same year, the MPS baptized 2,52350 new converts. Within 2017 and 2018, the MPS reached a total of 5,013 new disciples,51 and its growth rate in tithes and offerings had increased by 17.6%.52

In its concern for evangelization, the MPS also carries out projects such as “Misión Caleb” [“Caleb Mission”]. In February 2020, this program was carried out in its mission field with the participation of thousands of young Adventists who left the comfort of their homes to serve the population by cleaning the streets, parks, squares, and beaches, among others. Besides that, they also donated blood and carried out preaching campaigns in churches for ten days.53

Still with the same purpose of saving from sin and guiding in service, the MPS met the SAD goal of establishing a club (of Pathfinders and Adventurers) in each church. Knowing the importance of winning and preparing new generations for the days to come in the MPS field, there are now active 113 Pathfinder Clubs and 126 Adventurer Clubs. Thus, through the work of these clubs, the MPS positively influences 5,672 children and teenagers.54

In conclusion, the MPS history has shown that this Mission remains committed to fulfilling God’s will proclaiming the everlasting Gospel through the message of the three angels of Revelation 14:6-12. This message invites people to become disciples of Jesus Christ and prepare for His soon return. MPS members carry out this mission through love and service for others. And in their efforts, one of the challenges they face is to make each new believer a disciple who wins others for the kingdom of God. Thus, committed to the mission, MPS Adventists trust that God will continue to direct His work in this territory, making it possible for more and more people to get to know the everlasting Gospel.

Chronology of Administrative Leaders55

Presidents: Raúl Gómez (1977-1978); Oscar Domato (1979-1980); Haroldo Moran (1981-1984); Víctor Brañez (1985-1987); Rolando Patzi (April 1988-1990); Eliezer Sánchez (1991-1992); Eliseo Sánchez (1993-1994); Elías Sandoval (1995-1997); Edgar Horna (1998-2004); Rubén Jaimes (2005-2006); Abimael Obando (2007-2008); Julio Medina (2009-2012); Elard Cabrera Medina (2013-2017); Daniel Villar (2018-present).

Secretaries: Felipe Ruiz (1977-1979); Rafael Ramírez (1980-1985); Moisés Aguilar (1986-1987); Jorge Montalvo (1988-1992); Adbon Jalk (1993-1995); Moisés Aguilar (1996-2000); Crimo Vallejos (2001-2003); Julio Medina (2004); Marco Huaco (2005); Abimael Obando (2006); Javier Cahuana (2007-2008); Rufo Jaimes Zubieta (2009-2011); Daniel De Brun (2012-2014); Joel Güimac (2014-present).

Treasurers: Felipe Ruiz (1977-1979); Rafael Ramírez (1980-1985); Moisés Aguilar (1986-1987); Jorge Montalvo (1988-1992); Adbon Jalk (1993-1995); Moisés Aguilar (1996-2000); Crimo Vallejos (2001-2004); Abilio Orihuela (2005-2012); Juan Carranza (2013-2014); Juan Paucara (2015-2017); Freddy Robles (2018-present).56

Sources

2013 Annual Statistical Report. Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2013.

2019 Annual Statistical Report. Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2019‎.

2019 Annual Statistical Report: New Series, Volume 1. Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2019.

Adventist Church Management System (ACMS) - South Peru Mission, 2016‎.

Alomía, Merling. Breve Historia de la educación adventista en el Perú 1898-1996 [A Brief History of Adventist Education in Peru 1898-1996]. Lima: Editorial Printing Union of the Peruvian Union University, 1996.

Baber, G. H. “Chile.” ARH, December 6, 1898.

Baber, G. H. “Chilian Mission.” ARH, June 6, 1899.

DSA Conquistadores y Aventureros Website [SAD Pathfinders and Adventurers Ministry Website]. https://clubes.adventistas.org/es/.

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Forga, Eduardo F. “The Struggle for Religious Liberty in Peru.” ARH, February ‎21, 1907.

Forga, Eduardo F. “The Struggle for Religious Liberty in Peru.” ARH, February 14, 1907.

Greenleaf, Floyd. Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist church in South America]. Tatuí, São Paulo: Brazil Publishing House, 2011.

Irwin, A. “A Sad Clamity.” ARH, January 24, 1899.

Inca Union Mission Board of Directors, Lake Titicaca Mission - Name change, January 30, 1967, vote no. 67-41.

Inca Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventists. ‎“South Peru Mission.” Report presented at the 10th Quinquennial Congress of the Inca Union Mission, January 5, 1977.

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Minutes of the Inca Union Mission of the Seventh-day Adventists. “Transfer of the MPS headquarters,” August 24, 1972, vote no. 72-470, 96.

Minutes of the South Peru Mission Board of Directors. MPS Modification of vote no. 2007-096 - MPS Territory Division - In a Mission and a Conference - Authorization, July 26, 2007, vote no. 2007-187.

Minutes of the Plenary Board of the South Peru Mission. Beginning of the MPS Territory Division Study in a Mission and a Conference - Authorization, November 22-25, 2005, vote no. 2005-321.

Office of Economic Research and Statistics, “Memoria del Banco Central de Reserva del Perú correspondiente al ejercicio de 1932: Encaje” [“Report of the Central Reserve Bank of Peru corresponding to the exercise of 1932: Lace”]. Boletín del Banco Central de Reserva del Perú 2 [Bulletin of the Central Reserve Bank of Peru 2], no. 18 (February 1933).

Palmer, E. R. “South America.” ARH, October 14, 1902.

Plenc, Oscar Daniel. Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Latin America Adventism pioneers]. Florida, Buenos Aires: South American Spanish Publishing House, 2013‎.

Red Nuevo Tiempo Website [New Time Radio Website]. https://www.nuevotiempo.org/.

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Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association. Various years. https://www.adventistyearbook.org/.

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Staff RA. “Una semilla de Esperanza” [“A seed of Hope”]. Revista Adventista (Online), February 1, 2016.

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Supplement to the 2013 - Annual Statistical Report. Silver Spring, MD.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2013.

Vasquez, Deyler. “Jóvenes Adventistas Impactan el Sur del Perú con Acciones Solidarias” [“Young Adventists Impact South of Peru with Solidarity Actions”]. Noticias Adventistas [Adventist News]. Online, February 12, 2020.

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Wearner, Robert G. “A ‎Woman's Place.” ARH, February 9, 1995.

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Notes

  1. “South Peru Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 258.

  2. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “South Peru Mission,” accessed May 12, 2020, https://bit.ly/35Vo6mY.

  3. Adventist Education Website, “Colegio Adventista Fernando Stahl de Moquegua: Nosotros” [“Fernando Stahl Adventist Academy: About Us”], accessed June 4, 2020, https://bit.ly/3gVLGFl.

  4. Adventist Education Website, “EA en el mundo” [“EA in the World”], accessed May 12, 2020, https://bit.ly/3fI9w71.

  5. New Time Radio Productions Website, “Radio Nuevo Tiempo: Dónde Escuchar” [“New Time Radio Productions: Where to listen”], accessed June 4, 2020, https://bit.ly/2w5emcB.

  6. “South American Division,” 2019 Annual Statistical Report (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2019), 43.

  7. Minutes of the Foreign Missions Board, Fiftieth meeting, June 26, 1898, addition to the field of the West Coast Mission.

  8. G. H. Baber, “Chile,” ARH, December 6, 1898, 11; Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist church in South America], Tatuí, São Paulo: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 89.

  9. Baber, “Chile,” ARH,11.

  10. F. H. Westphal, “The Opening of Our Work in Western South America,” ARH, May 16, 1907, 13.

  11. A. Irwin, “A Sad Clamity,” ARH, January 24, 1899, 16 (64); Robert G. Wearner, “A Woman's Place,” ARH, February 9, 1995, 12; At that time, Peru and Chile were ending a recent end and, therefore, the confrontation between the two countries led citizens not to have good relations between them. Enciclopedia de Historia [History Encyclopedia], “Guerra del Pacífico” [The Pacific War], accessed June 7, 2020, https://bit.ly/2UlCuAz.

  12. Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist church in South America], 89; Staff RA, “Una semilla de Esperanza” [“A Seed of Hope”], Revista Adventista, February 1, 2016, accessed May 19, 2020, https://bit.ly/2WHs142.

  13. G. H. Baber, “Chilian Mission,” ARH, June 6, 1899, 11.

  14. Eduardo F. Forga, “The Struggle for Religious Liberty in Peru,” ARH, February 14, 1907, 10; Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist church in South America], 90.

  15. R. G. Wearner, “A Peruvian in the White Family,” ARH, July 27, 1978, 5, 6; Eduardo F. Forga, “The Struggle for Religious Liberty in Peru,” ARH, February 14, 1907, 11; Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist church in South America], 90.

  16. Sadie R. Young, “Edward Francis Forga: A South American Martin Luther,” The Youth’s Instructor 98, no. 27 (July 4, 1950): 5.

  17. Eduardo F. Forga, “The Struggle for Religious Liberty in Peru,” ARH, February 14, 1907, 10, 11; Eduardo F. Forga, “The Struggle for Religious Liberty in Peru,” ARH, February ‎21, 1907, 9, 10.

  18. Oscar Daniel Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Latin America Adventism pioneers], Florida, Buenos Aires: South American Spanish Publishing House, 2013, 138.

  19. E. R. Palmer, “South America,” ARH, October 14, 1902, 22.

  20. Rogger Herrera Gómez (First Elder of the SDA Central of Moquegua), interviewed by the author, Moquegua, Peru, May 2016.

  21. Merling Alomía, Breve historia de la educación adventista en el Perú 1898-1996 [A Brief history of the Adventist education in Peru 1898-1996], Lima: Editorial Printing of the Peruvian Union University, 1996, 28.

  22. Inca Union Mission Board of Directors, Lake Titicaca Mission - Name change, January 30, 1967, vote no. 67-41.

  23. Rogger Herrera Gómez (First Elder of the SDA Central of Moquegua), interviewed by the author, Moquegua, Peru, May 2016; Office of Economic Research and Statistics, “Memoria del Banco Central de Reserva del Perú correspondiente al ejercicio de 1932: Encaje” [“Report of the Central Reserve Bank of Peru corresponding to the exercise of 1932: Lace”], Boletín del Banco Central de Reserva del Perú 2 [Bulletin of the Central Reserve Bank of Peru 2], no. 18 (February 1933): 41.

  24. Rogger Herrera Gómez (First Elder of the SDA Central of Moquegua), interviewed by the author, Moquegua, Peru, May 2016.

  25. Ibid.

  26. Ibid.

  27. Ibid.

  28. Inca Union Mission Board of Directors, Lake Titicaca Mission - Name change, January 30, 1967, vote no. 67-41.

  29. “South Peru Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1973-1974), 233.

  30. Minutes of the Inca Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventists, “Transfer of the MPS headquarters,” December 27, 1973, vote no. 73-160, 21.

  31. Ibid., 22.

  32. In that year, the missionary work was distributed as follows: In the Puno area, there were 10 districts; in Cusco, eight districts; and in Arequipa, six districts. Minutes of the Inca Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventists, “Transfer of the MPS headquarters,” August 24, 1972, vote no. 72-470, 96.

  33. Ibid.

  34. Ibid.

  35. Ibid.

  36. In the report of the 10th Quinquennial Congress of the Inca Union Mission carried out in January 1977, it is described: “It is a historic five-year period because the division of the field has been done, forming two missions: the Lake Titicaca Mission and the South Peru Mission, an old desire that has come true.” Inca Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventists, ‎“South Peru Mission” (report presented in the 10th Quinquennial Congress of the Inca Union Mission, January 5, 1977).

  37. As rotating lay members, Miss Regina Chávez, Mr. Roberto Apaza, and Pr. Pedro Castillo were appointed (January 21, 1977).

  38. South Peru Mission Board of Directors, “01-78 Reports,” January 8, 1978.

  39. In 1976, the entered tithes were S$ 4,274,809.19 (around US$ 32,787.31) and in November 1977, S$ 5,276,676.87 entered (around US$ 40,471.52); “Inter-American Development Bank”, Memoria del Banco Central de Reserva del Perú [Report of the Central Reserve Bank of Peru], Lima, Peru: Central Reserve Bank of Peru, 1978, 87.

  40. South Peru Mission Board of Directors, “01-78 Reports,” January 8, 1978. Pr. Raúl Gómez reported that, in that year, new properties had been purchased and some chapels were built such as that of Hunter, Lari, Girata, and Mulline as well as the construction of the Mollendo and La Victoria temple in Tacna, which would be dedicated in 1978. Still in that same year, the land in Zamácola was bought.

  41. South Peru Mission of Seventh-day Adventists, “I Congress of the South Peru Mission” (report, January 17-20, 1979).

  42. Seventh-day Adventist Online Statistics, “South Peru Mission (1967-1995),” accessed May 25, 2020, https://bit.ly/3c3P2m0.

  43. “Suplemento ‘Impacto’” [“Supplement ‘Impact’”], Revista Adventista 105, no. 6 (June 2005): 2.

  44. Minutes of the South Peru Mission Plenary Board, Beginning of the MPS Territory Division Study-in a Mission and a Conference-Authorization, November 22-25, 2005, vote no. 2005-321.

  45. Minutes of the South Peru Mission Board of Directors, MPS Modification of vote no. 2007-096 - MPS Territory Division - In a Mission and a Conference - Authorization, July 26, 2007, vote no. 2007-187.

  46. “Southeast Peru Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2010‎), 297.

  47. “South Peru Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2010‎), 296.

  48. “South American Division,” 2013 Annual Statistical Report (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2013), 28; “South American Division,” Supplement to the 2013 Annual Statistical Report (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2013), 10.

  49. Adventist Church Management System (ACMS) - South Peru Mission, 2016.

  50. “South American Division,” 2017 Annual Statistical Report (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2017), 21.

  51. “South American Division,” 2018 Annual Statistical Report (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2018), 22; ‎“South American Division,” ‎2019 Annual Statistical Report: New Series, Volume 1 (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2019), 22.

  52. “South American Division,” 2019 Annual Statistical Report (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2019), 20.

  53. Deyler Vásquez, “Jóvenes Adventistas Impactan el Sur del Perú con Acciones Solidarias” [“Young Adventists Impact South of Peru with Solidarity Actions”], Noticias Adventistas [Adventist News], February 12, 2020, accessed on May 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2yERcLs.

  54. Pathfinders and Adventurers Ministry, “Estadísticas - Misión Peruana del Sur” [“Statistics - South Peru Mission”], accessed June 7, 2020, https://bit.ly/2XGdgij.

  55. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “South Peru Mission,” accessed May 12, 2020, https://bit.ly/35Vo6mY; “South Peru Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1978), 266; ‎“South Peru Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 258.‎ For more details about MPS leaders, see the SDA Yearbooks from 1978 to 2019. ‎

  56. More information about the MPS can be found on their website at https://mps.adventistas.org/ or on their social media at Facebook: @AdventistasMPS and Twitter: @AdventistasMPS.

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Güimac, Joel. "South Peru Mission." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. July 05, 2021. Accessed May 21, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9GLJ.

Güimac, Joel. "South Peru Mission." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. July 05, 2021. Date of access May 21, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9GLJ.

Güimac, Joel (2021, July 05). South Peru Mission. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 21, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9GLJ.