Cabo Verde

By Karl Monteiro

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Karl Monteiro, M.A. (University of Porto, Portugal), is actively engaged in youth ministry. He served as an elder in his local church and conducted the first research about the Adventist Church in Cape Verde. The title was “What About Adventists in Cape Verde? - A Study Case.”

Cabo Verde, or Cape Verde, is a volcanic archipelago, located approximately 500 kilometers from the West African mainland. Cabo Verde belongs to Cabo Verde Conference, which is part of Western Sahel Union Mission, West-Central Africa Division of the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Country Overview

Cabo Verde is a small archipelago of volcanic origin with 4,033 square kilometers and is located in the Atlantic Ocean, about 500 kilometers from the West African coast. It is composed of ten islands and 13 islets, in the form of an arc open to the west, traditionally divided into two groups.1 The capital is the city of Praia and is located on the island of Santiago. As of June 30, 2018, the country statistics are: population, 550,000; Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) church membership, 9,3022; SDA churches, 34; companies, 42.3 The churches and companies are located mainly on the islands of Fogo and Santiago, especially in the districts of São Filipe and Praia. The growth of the work has essentially been in the southern part of the country.4

It is an established fact that between the years 1460 and 1462, navigators under the Portuguese flag arrived at these Atlantic islands and called them Cabo Verde. The islands were inhabited. The first inhabitants came from Europe (minority) and Africa (majority). Strong miscegenation is one of the characteristics of Cabo Verdeans. Settlement in Cabo Verde was very difficult.5 Cabo Verde became a slave center from where African slaves were exported to Europe and America. Slaves formed the basis of Cabo Verdean society which, until the end of the 19th century, still remained a slave colony.6

Because of the adversities of nature and the abandonment of the island nation by the colonial authorities, the inhabitants began to migrate to other countries.7

In the 20th century, first with the literary movement Claridade8 and later with the nationalist generation headed by Amílcar Cabral, citizens committed to the welfare of the people fought for the emancipation of the Cabo Verdean people and nation. Cabo Verde became an independent republic on July 5, 1975.9

During the first republic (1975-1991), the country was governed by PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cabo Verde) and PAICV (African Party for the Independence of Cabo Verde). On January 13, 1991, the first democratic and multi-party elections were conducted and won by the Movement for Democracy (MPD). It was the beginning of the second republic.10

Among the major alliances and agreements that Cabo Verde has with other states are the Special Partnership Agreement with the European Union11 and the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)12 with the United States of America.

In spite of many influences, Cabo Verde has its own unique culture. The taste for music is probably the cultural spit that best identifies this islander people. Morna is the musical genre that best characterizes the Cabo Verdean people.

Cabo Verde is a culturally Christian country, probably the most Christian in the geographical region where it is located in Africa. The latest statistical data published by the Cabo Verde National Statistics Institute are from the year 2010. The majority of population is Roman Catholic (77.3%), followed by Protestants (3.7%) and other Christians (4.3%). Less than 2 percent of the population is Muslim. In practice, Catholicism is often accompanied by African elements, including drumming, processionals, masks, and dancing in African styles.13

Origin of Adventism in Cabo Verde

Studies on the early history of Adventism in Cabo Verde are rare. Few investigations or publications on Adventists in Cabo Verde have been written.14 There are some interviews and institutional publications with articles on the church in Cabo Verde that we used and can be consulted in the final bibliography.

According to Pastor Joaquim Morgado, the first Adventist to step on the islands was L. C. Chadwick, who in 1892 made a stopover on the archipelago. Not much is known about who he was or the contacts he might have made, or whether he came to share the gospel with the residents.15

Oral history, supported by sources already mentioned,16 indicates that the first Cabo Verdean Adventists were converted outside the country, specifically in the United States. António J. Gomes, a native of Brava Island who lived in California, received the Adventist message and then went to Cabo Verde in 1933 where he shared the gospel with his fellow citizens. Another Cabo Verdean, António Justo Soares, of the island of São Nicolau, was also resident in the USA, was converted in 1934 while residing in America, and later he went to the islands.17

An extract from a letter written in 1935 by Pastor Olson, president of the Southern European Division, to the General Conference, gives the following information: Then comes another group of islands on the African coast: the Cabo Verde Archipelago. They were also waiting. The colporteurs visited those islands and put our books there successfully. There was interest, but we had no one to send, no money. Then the Lord touched the heart of a California brother who accepted the truth on the islands of Hawaii. Born in Cabo Verde, former captain of the merchant navy and an engineer, he went to his land to visit his people on the islands and while he was there actively engaged in giving Bible studies and visiting relatives.18 Thus, it appears that the work of the colporteurs preceded the coming of António J. Gomes to Brava island in 1933.

Pioneers

António Gomes, a former maritime and mechanical engineer, after a strong conviction that God had called him to share the message, went to his native island to speak of the message of salvation to his people.19 He arrived on the islands in 1933, and since then he has shared the message of the three angels with his people. After some time to reside in the quiet village of Nª Srª do Monte, on Brava Island (seven months) Mr. Gomes was able to bring the gospel to many people. Many mocked the strange message, but some were converted to the gospel.20 Not being able to stay much longer on the islands, because he had left his family and work in the USA, he returned to his country of residence. Before returning, he appealed to the administration of the SDA Church in Portugal to send a pastor. He wrote “There are fifteen souls ready for baptism. Send a minister to baptize them, organize a church and take care of these new souls brought to the truth. I have to go to my family.”21

The first pastor was Alberto Raposo who arrived at the archipelago in 1935. However, the minutes of the meeting that voted the organization of the first church22 in the country are dated July 5, 1934. In a second meeting, on May 15, 1935, they named the first officers of the church.23 The first baptism was held in March 1936.24 Another pioneer was António Justo Soares. He came to São Nicolau after 1934, the year he was baptized in the United States. Some of his family members accepted the message, but his wife abandoned him. He returned to the United States, remaining an Adventist for the rest of his life.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the first churches on the island were organized, there were still some descendants of António Justo Soares who kept the Sabbath.

Spread and Development of the Message

Brava Island. Brava Island was the birthplace of Adventism in Cabo Verde, so it was only natural that the headquarters of the church should be established there. This continued until 1943.25

In addition to the first congregation established in the area of Nª Srª do Monte, with the arrival of new pastors, new fields were opened and many youth benefited from the gospel proclamation as they were able to overcome addictions and find new meaning in life.26

During the colonial period the pastors came from Europe, but after independence young Cabo Verdean pastors, were part of the pastoral workforce. In the first decades after the political autonomy of the state, many pastors were recruited from Brazil.27 One of the social dynamics that affected the church on Brava Island and, consequently, the stability of the local congregations, was emigration. The vast majority of the inhabitants there migrate to the United States. Currently the island has four organized congregations, in the areas of Nossa Senhora do Monte, Lomba Tantum, Vila Nova Sintra, and Furna, and the pastor for all these churches is Natalino Martins.28

Island of Fogo. After Brava, the neighboring island, Fogo, was the next to be entered with the three angels’ messages. The first church was organized in the area of Ribeira Ilhéu, thanks to the work of Pastor Raposo and lay members, who before 1941 had distributed Adventist literature on the island.29 In the later part of 1946, Pastor Rosa predicted that the Adventist message would be well received on the island. His words were: “... the work always advances in remarkable progress and with expectation of success in the future.”30

Fogo is one of the most culturally Adventist islands, and statistical data confirms this. There are 28 organized churches on this island out of a total of 76 churches and companies in the country. The churches are divided into two large districts: St. Filipe and Mosteiros, and the pastors leading these districts are Irlando de Pina and José Maria Lopes, respectively.31

Island of Santiago. The arrival of the Adventist message on Santiago Island began in July 1935. That year the missionary literature evangelist, Américo Rodrigues, officially sent by the Portuguese Union, landed on the islands of the Archipelago.32 By the 1950s there was an Adventist church and school in the city of Praia. The island proved very difficult to work in because the Catholic Church was well entrenched there. It was not until the 1990s, after national independence, that groups and later congregations began to be organized on the island.

Now there has been an extraordinary increase in membership all over the island. It is where most Adventists in the country now reside. It is also the island that has about half of the national population.33 The Church has 36 congregations, distributed in the districts of Praia Sul (under the responsibility of pastors Joaquim Tango, António dos Anjos, Rudy William Fonseca, and Rafael Fernandes), Praia Norte (Pastors Samyles Correia Tavares and Alex Sander Soares), and Santa Cruz district (Pastor Armindo Género).34

Island of São Vicente. After their conversion believers on the islands of Brava and Fogo went to Sao Vicente to spread the message of Adventism. In the 1940s the first baptisms took place. The first member, according to Ferreira, was Marino da Rosa.35 The church grew in the island-city36 which for a long time was the country’s main economic zone.

In 1952, when the mission headquarters was transferred from Praia to Sao Vicente and investment was made in education, more progressive results were seen in the church. As membership increased, the church acquired its own buildings and became better known. In 1968, the headquarters was returned to the city of Praia.37 In the 1980s and 1990s, many Brazilian missionaries worked on the island, leaving their indelible mark on it.38 Between the late 1990s and early 2000s, many members migrated to other islands or to foreign countries for work, study, family reunion, or other reasons. The situation is being repeated now, because the island presents few professional opportunities, even for those who have a higher education. The church suffers, but as always, God raises new workers for His work.

As of December 2018, Sao Vicente had five congregations, with 240 members, and was led by Pastor Olavo Santos.39

Island of Santo Antão. From Pastor Gregorio Rosa on São Vicente, the message arrived on the island of Santo Antão in the late 1940s. From the 1950s and 1960s, little is known about the island and the development of Adventism in the region. In the 1970s, Pastor Rosa was again sent to the island. It was at this time that the first baptism was recorded. In the 1990s there were resident pastors, Irlando Pereira and Armindo Genero, and the missionary Gilsenberg and a more consistent work was done. However, it has not been an easy island to evangelize.40 Some Bible workers, Carlos Lopes, Joaquim Mendes, Quintino, Moniz, and Isaias, contributed to the development of evangelism on this island. Pastor Edson Monteiro is responsible for the island and district. There is one congregation and the current membership is 23.41

Island of São Nicolau. Sao Nicolau had Adventist pioneer, António Justo Soares, as its first missionary, and the few brethren there who were converted through his efforts felt abandoned as there was not much done to continue his work. It was only in the late 1980s to early 1990s, that a small group of volunteers went there from Sao Vicente to preach the Word. Among these was Fernando Duarte, a native of Sao Nicolau, who returned to his native land to preach to his people.42 Beginning in the 1990s, some pastors resided temporarily on the island, but there is no organized church there. The challenges include long distances between groups of believers and lack of material and human resources to advance the work. The island has a total of 28 members, in two congregations, which belong to the district of São Vicente.43

Island of Sal. Sal is an island of transit and its inhabitants come from several islands. Being an essentially touristic island, it is therefore very cosmopolitan. The church is affected by that harsh reality.

A little history:44 The first Adventists to go to Sal were from Brava and were invited by Pastor Venâncio, in the late 1980s. Brothers of Sao Nicolau also went to the island. The church was built in the zone of Espargos and the gospel was preached in other areas. Many of the resources for the construction of the church were obtained from donations collected by Brazilian Pastor Luís Santana.45 Barriers were overcome and prejudices broken down. However, it was only in 2018 that it was possible to organize a second congregation on the island, in the Palmeira area. The total membership in Sal is 158, having one church building erected 31 years ago in the city of Espargos. A group of members are doing prison ministry on this island. Plans are being made to open a church in the city of Santa Maria and another in the town of Chã de Matias.46

Island of Boa Vista. Boa Vista is the easternmost island of the archipelago, being the closest to the African continent. Traditionally, the people of Boa Vista have mixed Catholicism with spiritualism.

It was one of the last islands to be touched by the gospel. The first members on this island were converts from other islands, especially from the Island of Santiago. It was not until the 1990s that the church saw its first converts on the island. However, many of the natives who were converted have left the church. Today the only native on Boa Vista, who is a Seventh-day Adventist and lives on the island, is Mr. Roque, 20 years after his conversion. The congregation is still largely made up of people originally from the island of Santiago. They are fishermen who find the Island of Boa Vista very conducive to their profession.47

The increasingly tourism-oriented island has attracted people from most of the islands in the archipelago, Africans from the western coast, Europeans, and Chinese who are there to work and for tourism. There are 85 members on the island who gather in a small space. Soon the first building for the Adventist church on the island should be commissioned.

Boa Vista and Sal belong to the same district, led by Pastor David Dias. It is believed that education and health can be the key to the evangelistic development on both islands.48

Island of Maio. Maio is one of the smallest and poorest islands in the archipelago. The Seventh-day Adventist Church arrived there via the larger island, Santiago. Evangelistic efforts were first held there in the 1990s. The resulting congregation was small in number and it remains small.49

The Island of Maio is administratively linked to some districts on the Island of Santiago, namely the districts of Praia and Pedra Badejo.50

Institutions

The first pastors believed that the evangelization of the territory would be through education, and therefore the first Adventist schools were created in the 1940s—on the island of Brava between 1944 and 1946,51 in Fogo in 1955, in Praia in 1951, and on the Island of São Vicente in 1954.52 There were no Adventist school complexes and no certified Adventist institutions of higher learning. They were schools for basic education, and during the colonial era they functioned as spaces, usually contiguous to the church facilities, where the children were prepared during the school year and, at the end of the year, they were tested in official schools according to the legal educational system.

After independence, only the school in Sao Vicente continued to function. The others were closed. The reasons are not well known.53 The school in Sao Vicente, named after Pastor Francisco Cordas, one of the main Adventist education pioneers in the archipelago, continued until the school year 2000-2001, having provided basic education, as well as a secondary school. It was reopened in the 2016-2017 school year, with a first-year class. Meanwhile, in the 1984-1985 school year, a kindergarten was created whose main purpose was to help Adventist children be better prepared for primary education.54 Currently the school and kindergarten work in the same building and under one school board. The kindergarten has 150 children, distributed in 6 rooms with ten teachers. The school has three classes for primary education (years 1-3) and has 75 students in total.55

In the beginning of the 1990s, in the city of Praia, kindergarten Flores da Suiça was opened. This was the result of help received from Swiss youth who contributed a lot to the building. The kindergarten currently has about 108 students, eight teachers, two assistants, one cook, and one cleaning assistant. It has five rooms and a kitchen. Since the school year 2014-2015, in addition to the kindergarten, in the same space basic education is taught for grades one through eight, and the school has been named Adventist School of Palmarejo. It started with 40 students. Today there are 481 students, 24 teachers (mostly non-Adventists), and six people in administration. It has eight classrooms, one sports board, one office/library, and one kitchen that the primary school shares with the kindergarten. There is a common school board for the kindergarten and primary school.56

The Adventist kindergarten on the island of Fogo, Jardim Reach Italia, was closed about five years ago because of lack of space.57 In the 2017-2018 school year a new Adventist kindergarten emerged, this time on the island Sal (Jardim Bethel), whose purpose is to lay the foundations for the opening of the future primary school. The building has two rooms, with plans to build two new classrooms. Thus, there will be four rooms available for starting primary education.58 Adventist schools in the country need better integration into the global Adventist education system.

There are no Adventist health institutions in Cabo Verde.

Church Administrative Units

For more than 80 years, the Adventist presence in Cabo Verde has been felt on the southernmost islands of the country. Considering the distance, the dispersion of the islands, and the difficulties of managing the territory from Praia (Santiago), a new administrative region was created in 2017, Barlavento Administrative Region. As of 2018, the region has three ordained pastors (Olavo Santos - administrative director of the region and responsible for the islands of São Vicente and São Nicolau; Edson Monteiro, responsible for the island of Santo Antão; David Dias, responsible for the islands of Sal and Boa Vista) and a secretary/treasurer (Lenísia Pires) and a Bible worker (Lourenço Gomes). There are 530 Adventists, three organized churches, and six groups. Of these nine congregations, three have their own house of worship. Of the six groups, one was created in 2018 (Palmeira group, on the island of Sal).59

The current headquarters of the Barlavento Region is in the Central Church of Mindelo (São Vicente). In this phase of development, the region works under the guidance of the administration of the Cabo Verde Conference.

Effect of Political Developments on SDA Work

The Adventist Church has not faced major problems with national policy decisions. The constitution of the Republic of Cabo Verde in Article 29, sections (2) and (3) guarantees the freedom of religion. Adventist students are guaranteed religious freedom; thus, they do not attend classes or examinations on Sabbath once they have a supporting document of being regular members of the Church.

Adventist members have held important positions in some government ministries but also in the presidency of the republic itself. Among the country’s leaders there is much respect for what the Seventh-day Adventist Church has done in the country.

On May 31, 2011, the president of the Association of Seventh-day Adventist Churches in Cabo Verde, received from the hand of the Deputy Minister of the Prime Minister and Minister of Health, Dr. Cristina Fontes Lima,60 a Diploma of Merit in recognition of the relevant services provided by the church to promote health in Cabo Verde, namely in the fight against tobacco use.61

However, there have been some unfortunate events that negatively affected the church in Cabo Verde. In 1996 there were a number of desecrations of Catholic churches on the islands that involved breaking the statutes of saints, particularly in Santiago. Some Seventh-day Adventists were accused of being responsible and charged in court. This negatively affected the image of the Church, but the court’s final verdict was that the Adventists were innocent.62

Recently another situation called into question the good name of Adventists in the Archipelago. A group calling themselves Adventists, but mostly dissidents of the SDA Church, created a group called Seventh-day Adventists in Tents. Their activities include the practice of adultery and other sexual deviations, the mistreatment of children and women, misuse of assets by the leaders, and belief in the infallibility of their head leader. After being discovered and investigated by the authorities, they were eventually found guilty and the care of their children was withdrawn from them.63 However, a great problem was created for the faithful Seventh-day Adventists because the general population assumed that every Adventist belonged to the dissident group. Influential people in society convinced the general population to doubt the integrity of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Only with the passage of time, official clarifications from the Church, and the efforts of the faithful members, was it possible to restore the good image of the Church.

Adventism’s Place in the Country

In 2012 Monteiro sought through a case study to test the degree of integration of Seventh-day Adventists in Cabo Verde.64 In order to conduct the research, it was necessary to select some traits that were better evidenced among Adventists, allowing us to evaluate whether or not being a member of the church enhances social integration. In conclusion, the idea was expressed that the impasse of being in the world and not of the world must be balanced by applying the maxim recorded in Matthew 5:13, by which the Christian is seen as the salt for the earth.

Some recommendations were made as to how Adventists could integrate more with the society. These include participating in socio-community activities, redoubling programs for health, reopening closed Adventist schools, and establishing an Adventist press in the archipelago.65

Evangelistic campaigns have been carried out on the various islands. These include two large evangelistic programs at the national level that included pastors and other leaders from abroad. We refer particularly to the Djarfogo pa Kristu, held in 2016 and the Santiago pa Kristu in 2017. Hundreds of people have accepted the appeals and lives have been transformed. Secular people were converted. Peace, tranquility, and love reached many homes. Delinquent young people, some even in organized criminal gangs, accepted Christ as their Savior and their lives were radically changed.

Although the Church does not have any health institutions on the islands, it has developed a good health program. Every year the church organizes campaigns on the main streets of the country against the manufacture or use of tobacco. Other groups and institutions, such as the Cabo Verde Red Cross, schools, military, and other social activists, have joined Adventists in these public activities. The campaigns usually start with a five-day program on how to stop smoking.

Young people have participated in some social activities involving the community; for example, the Caleb Mission,66 which has become a regular annual program in Cabo Verde. There are several clubs organized by the church, such as the Adventurers and Pathfinders. These help the youth to be good citizens.

In order to take the Three Angels’ Messages to every part of Cabo Verde, the Cabo Verde Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church has planned a number of evangelistic programs.67

It will take the cooperation of all members, but especially of the power and wisdom of the Most High to be able to carry out all these programs successfully.

Conclusion

The first contacts between Cabo Verdeans living on the islands and the Adventist message brought positive results. If we exclude the reference to the Adventist L. C. Chadwick and to the anonymous colporteurs of the 1930s, the first Adventists in Cabo Verde began to make progress on the small island of Brava. In 1933 António Gomes, native of Brava, returned from the United States with knowledge about the Adventist message and a willingness to share it with his countrymen. The work of these first pioneers bears fruit, a church is organized, and the message is spread throughout the other islands of the Archipelago through new pastors and lay people. Currently all nine inhabited islands of the Archipelago have an Adventist presence, with a total of 9,465 members. Cabo Verde is a culturally Christian and politically stable country, which has contributed to the acceptance and development of the Adventist message in the nation. The various evangelistic and health campaigns that have been carried out by the church and the church schools have contributed positively to spreading the Adventist message in Cabo Verde. Some of the lingering challenges include establishing Adventist hospitals in the country and having the radio and TV signals of Novo Tempo beamed into the country.

Sources

“2019 Annual Statistical Report.” General Conference Archives, Statistics, and Research. Accessed June 17, 2019. http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Statistics/ASR/ASR2019.pdf.

Almeida, Sara. “Expresso das Ilhas.” Quando os membros falam é uma reprodução de Naty. (May 2017). Accessed January 22, 2018. https://expressodasilhas.cv/pais/2017/05/28/crasdt-quando-os-membros-de-tendas-falam-e-uma-reproducao-de-naty/53372.

Assembleia Nacional de Cabo Verde. Constituição da República de Cabo Verde (4rd Ed.). Praia: Autor, 2010.

CaboVerde National Statistics Institute (INE). “Statistics” Statistical data on Census 2010. Praia, 2010.

Carreira, A. O Crioulo de Cabo Verde. Surto e expansão. Lisboa: Mem Martins, 1982.

Carreira, A. Cabo Verde. Aspectos Sociais. Secas e fomes do século XX. Lisboa: Biblioteca Ulmeiro, 1984.

Carreira, A. Cabo Verde. Formação e extinção de uma sociedade escravocrata (1460-1878). Praia: Instituto de Promoção Cultural, 2000.

Carreira, A. Migrações nas Ilhas de Cabo Verde. Praia: Instituto Cabo Verdiano do Livro, 1983.

Correia e Silva, A. História de um Sahel Insular. Praia: Spleen Edições, 1995.

Correia e Silva, A. Nos Tempos do Porto Grande do Mindelo. Praia: Centro Cultural Português, 2000.

Correia, Olavo. “Ministério das Finanças de Cabo Verde,” União Europeia tem sido um parceiro especial para Cabo Verde. Acessed January 29, 2019. https://www.mf.gov.cv/index.php/ultimas-noticias/386-parceria-especial-entre-cabo-verde-e-uniao-europeia.

Da Moura, Bruno. “De tudo um pouco.” Ex-membro da Igreja das Tendas confirma que alguns dos membros chegavam a agredir as crianças (June 2016). Accessed January 22, 2019. https://dtudo1pouco.com/ex-membro-da-igreja-das-tendas-confirma-que-alguns-dos-membros-chegavam-a-agredir-as-criancas/

Delgado, Carlos Alberto. Crioulos de base lexical portuguesa como factores de identidades em África. O caso de Cabo Verde. Subsídios para uma abordagem metodológica. Praia: Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro, 2009.

De Sousa, Sofia Moreira. “União Europeia e República de Cabo Verde.” Parceria Especial União Europeia – Cabo Verde: que benefícios para os cidadãos? (2017), 1-8. Accessed January 29, 2019. https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/caderno_versao_pdf.pdf.

Ernesto Ferreira, “O Movimento Adventista em Cabo Verde,” Revista Adventista, (December 1951), s.p.

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Gregório Rosa, “Notícias do Fogo”, Revista Adventista (1951), s.n.

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Lima, Filomena. “História da Igreja do Nazareno. Uma Igreja Centenária em Cabo Verde (1901-2001) – Uma perspectiva Educacional,” Master’s Thesis, Universidade do Porto, 2010.

Livramento, Dilma.A liberdade religiosa gozada pelos adventistas do sétimo dia em Cabo Verde. O caso da ilha de Santiago.” Grad. Thesis, Universidade do Mindelo, 2014.

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Notes

  1. The windward group includes the islands of Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, São Nicolau, Sal, Boa Vista, and the islets Boi, Pássaros, Branco, Raso, Curral do Dadó, Rabo de Junco, Fragata, Chano, and Baluarte. Sotavento is made up of the islands of Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava, as well as the islets of Santa Maria, Cima, Luís Carneiro, and Grande. The islets, as well as the island of Santa Luzia, are not inhabited.

  2. According to the “2018 Report of the Cabo Verde Conference: total members at the end of 2018 were 9,465 (Cabo Verde Conference Archives).

  3. “Cabo Verde,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press, 2019), 413; “2019 Annual Statistical Report,” General Conference Archives, Statistics, and Research, accessed June 17, 2019, http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Statistics/ASR/ASR2019.pdf.

  4. Ibid.

  5. António Carreira, Cabo Verde. Formação e extinção de uma sociedade escravocrata (1460-1878) (Praia: Instituto de Promoção Cultural, 2000), 281-313.

  6. Carreira, Cabo Verde, 79-91.

  7. António Carreira, Migrações nas Ilhas de Cabo Verde (Praia: Instituto Cabo Verdiano do Livro, 1983), 65-260; César Augusto Monteiro, Comunidade Imigrada. Visão Sociológica.O caso da Itália (Mindelo: Gráfica do Mindelo, 1997), 323-338.

  8. Claridade – considered the most important literary movement in the cultural history of the archipelago. It begins in 1936, in the city of Mindelo (Island of St Vicente), with names like Baltasar Lopes, Manuel Lopes, and Jorge Barbosa. It will profoundly influence CaboVerdean society.

  9. Aristides Pereira, Uma luta, um partido, dois países (Lisbon: Editorial Notícias, 2003), 181-285.

    José V. Lopes, Cabo Verde. Os bastidores da Independência (Praia: Spleen Edições, 2002), 141-473.

  10. José Vicente Lopes, Cabo Verde. As causas da independência (o estado e a transição para a democracia na África Lusófona) (Praia: Tipografia Santos, 2003), 99-112.

    Onésimo Silveira, A Democracia em Cabo Verde (Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 2005), 157-161.

  11. Sofia Moreira de Sousa, “União Europeia e República de Cabo Verde,” Parceria Especial União Europeia – Cabo Verde: que benefícios para os cidadãos? (2017):1-7, accessed January 29, 2019, https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/caderno_versao_pdf.pdf; Olavo Correia, “Ministério das Finanças de Cabo Verde”, União Europeia tem sido um parceiro especial para Cabo Verde, acessed January 29, 2019, https://www.mf.gov.cv/index.php/ultimas-noticias/386-parceria-especial-entre-cabo-verde-e-uniao-europeia.

  12. José Lopes, “Mindel Insite,” Cabo Verde e Estados Unidos: uma parceria SOFA (July 2018 ), acessed January 29, 2019, https://mindelinsite.cv/cabo-verde-estados-unidos-parceria-sofa/; Governo de Cabo Verde. “Acordo SOFA-Governo de Cabo Verde.” Acordo entre o governo da República de Cabo Verde e o Governo dos Estados Unidos da América relativo ao estatuto do pessoal dos Estados Unidos na República de Cabo Verde (Setembre 2017): www.governo.cv/index.php/dossiersprojectos/.../245-acordo-sofa-versao-portuguesa.pdf (acessed January 29, 2019)

  13. Caroline Sarah Shaw, Richard Andrew Lobban, and W. Mary Bannerman, “Cabo Verde: Religion,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, accessed June 17, 2019, https://www.britannica.com/place/Cabo-Verde#ref54905; INE – CaboVerde National Statistics Institute 2010.

  14. See, for example, Joaquim Morgado, “O Movimento Adventista em Cabo Verde (unpublished), (n.d.); Artur Vieira, A Mensagem Adventista em Cabo Verde (Archives of the SDA Conference of CaboVerde, s.l., 2000); Ferreira, Ernesto. Arautos de Boas Novas. Centenário da Igreja Adventista do Sétimo Dia em Portugal (1904-204) (Lisboa: Publicadora Servir, 2008); Karl Monteiro, O que dizer dos adventistas em Cabo Verde? Um estudo de Caso (Praia: Tipografia Santos, 2012); Dilma Livramento, “A liberdade religiosa gozada pelos adventistas do sétimo dia em Cabo Verde. O caso da ilha de Santiago”(Grad. Thesis., Universidade do Mindelo, 2014).

  15. Morgado, 3-4.

  16. On the origin of Adventism in Cabo Verde, see Monteiro, 61-64; Ernesto Ferreira, Arautos de Boas Novas. Centenário da Igreja Adventista do Sétimo Dia em Portugal (1904-204) (Lisbon Publicadora Servir. 2008), 369-370.

  17. Ernesto Ferreira, “O Movimento Adventista em Cabo Verde,” Revista Adventista (December 1951): s.n.

    Jaime Mendonça, “Missão de Cabo Verde. Bombas atómicas em S. Nicolau,” Revista Adventista (January 1956?), s.n.

  18. Morgado, 4.

  19. Ibid., 3.

  20. Vieira.

  21. Morgado, 4.

  22. The building that will house the church will later be built with resources from Antonio Gomes as reported in Ernesto Ferreira, “O Movimento Adventista em Cabo Verde,” Revista Adventista (1951), 13.

  23. Confirm the First Minutes of the Church as attached.

  24. Morgado, 6.

  25. Between 1941 and 1943, the new pastor, João Esteves, will reside on the island of Fogo, having rented a building where the mission headquarters, the worship room, and the worker’s house were located. Cf. Ferreira, 379.

  26. Morgado, 12.

  27. Monteiro, 61-91.

  28. “Strategic Plan 2019-2025 (abridged version),” Office of the SDA Conference in CaboVerde.

  29. Ferreira, 375.

  30. Gregório Rosa, “Notícias do Fogo,” Revista Adventista (1951): s.n.

  31. “Strategic Plan 2019-2025 (abridged version),” Office of the SDA Conference in Cabo Verde.

  32. Monteiro, 73.

  33. 274,044 inhabitants in 2010, according to INE – Cabo Verde National Statistics Institute.

  34. “Strategic Plan 2019-2025 (abridged version),” Office of the SDA Conference in Cabo Verde.

  35. Ferreira, 383.

  36. São Vicente is a small island of 227 square kilometers that grows around its city (Mindelo) and Porto Grande, which for decades was the gateway of many Cabo Verdeans, as well as the entry of many foreigners, namely the English, who would install many coal warehouses on the island following the industrial revolution. See António Correia e Silva, Nos Tempos do Porto Grande do Mindelo (Praia: Centro Cultural Português, 2000), 103-135.

  37. Ferreira, 383-385.

  38. Monteiro, 100.

  39. Office of the Barlavento Administrative Region (2018).

  40. Monteiro, 82-85.

  41. Office of the Barlavento Administrative Region (2018).

  42. Monteiro, 87, 88.

  43. Office of the Barlavento Administrative Region (2018).

  44. Monteiro, 89.

  45. Leitão, 193.

  46. David Dias, interview by author, January 13, 2019.

  47. Monteiro, 90-92.

  48. David Dias, interview by author, January 13, 2019.

  49. Monteiro, 90 .

  50. Office of SDA Conference in CaboVerde (2019).

  51. According to Ferreira, 227, it happened in 1944, while Morgado, 2, says that it was in 1946.

  52. Ferreira, 227.

  53. Monteiro, 81.

  54. Ibid.

  55. Jardim Nosso, Amiguinho/Escola Adventista Pr.Francisco Cordas, 2019.

  56. Ruy Pereira, interview by author, January 14, 2019.

  57. Ibid.

  58. David Dias, interview by author, January 13, 2019.

  59. Office of the Barlavento Administrative Region (2018).

  60. She claims to have quit smoking in one of the Church’s Five-Day Stop Smoking courses.

  61. See attached document (Diploma of Merit).

  62. For more details on this process see, Dilma Livramento, “A liberdade religiosa gozada pelos adventistas do sétimo dia em Cabo Verde. O caso da ilha deSantiago,” (grad. thesis, Universidade do Mindelo, 2014), 48.

  63. Bruno da Moura, “De tudo um pouco,” “Ex-membro da Igreja das Tendas confirma que alguns dos membros chegavam a agredir as crianças, (June 2017 ): https://dtudo1pouco.com/ex-membro-da-igreja-das-tendas-confirma-que-alguns-dos-membros-chegavam-a-agredir-as-criancas/ (acessed January 22, 2019).

    Sara Almeida, “Expresso das Ilhas,” Quando os membros falam é uma reprodução de Naty (May 2017), acessed January 22, 201, https://expressodasilhas.cv/pais/2017/05/28/crasdt-quando-os-membros-de-tendas-falam-e-uma-reproducao-de-naty/53372.

  64. Monteiro, 28.

  65. Ibid., 137.

  66. Caleb Mission - project created in Brasil in 2010. Voluntary program of social service and testimony that challenges Adventist youth to devote part of their vacation to evangelism.

  67. West-Central Africa Division Missionary Book of the Year Distribution Day – (April 20, 2019); Impact “Pentecost” Cabo Verde - Evangelization of great importance in the Barlavento region – 2019; Missionary Bible Project for Cabo Verde - Servers - 2019 Project “Adventist Mission to Muslims” or “Adventist Muslims Relationship” “Ramadan Cabo Verde” Project – 2019; Integrated Evangelism Project or Centers of Influence in Cabo Verde – 2019; Total Members Involvement Project (ETM) IASD-CV – 2019; Extension Project of the ACMS System in Cabo Verde – 2019; Acquisition of headquarters building for SDA Conference in Cabo Verde – 2019; National Congress of Young Adventists - July 24-29 (in Sao Nicolau) – 2019; Opening of Radio and TV Novo Tempo in Cabo Verde – 2019; Opening of an Adventist Reference Clinic – 2019 (Office of SDA Conference in Cabo Verde).

×

Monteiro, Karl. "Cabo Verde." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9H1M.

Monteiro, Karl. "Cabo Verde." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Date of access September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9H1M.

Monteiro, Karl (2021, April 28). Cabo Verde. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=9H1M.