Joseph Clarke  

Photo courtesy of Center for Adventist Research.

Clarke, Joseph (1818–1908)

By Kevin M. Burton

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Kevin M. Burton, Ph.D. candidate (Florida State University). Burton did mission work in the Czech Republic and South Korea and served as chaplain at Ozark Adventist Academy. He currently teaches American history at Southern Adventist University and has published several articles on Adventist history. His M.A. thesis is titled, “Centralized for Protection: George I. Butler and His Philosophy of One-Person Leadership.” Burton’s doctoral dissertation explores Adventist political involvement in the abolition movement and Civil War.

First Published: August 29, 2020

Joseph Clarke was one of the most influential Adventist laypersons in the nineteenth century. A gifted writer who published hundreds of articles in denominational periodicals,1 he was a radical reformer who advocated for the abolition of slavery, equal rights and righteous voting, among many other reforms.

Early Life (1818–1845)

The second of seven children, Joseph Clarke was born on February 18, 1818, to Samuel Clarke VI and Ann Stebbins in Northampton, Hampshire County, Massachusetts.2 Sometime later, the Clarkes moved to Gorham, Maine,3 and when Joseph was about 15 his family moved west and settled in Wood County, Ohio, near Jackson. After a year or two in that location the family moved north about ten miles to Milton and in 1836 they moved another ten miles northeast to the township of Plain.4 Ann Clarke passed away in Plain on October 26, 1853,5 and Samuel married Aurelia Woodbury on October 4, 1854. Samuel and Aurelia moved about six miles east to Bowling Green about this time and in May 1855 Samuel sold his 80-acre “Prairie Farm” in Plain.6

Samuel Clarke was a farmer of modest means, but also valued education and religion highly. In the mid-1840s, Clarke erected a log cabin on his farm in Plain as a school for the community.7 Clarke was a minister as well and wanted his son, Joseph, to follow suit.8 As soon as Joseph was able, his father “induce[d] him to read the Bible by giving him premiums”9 and had him memorize The Shorter Catechism of the Westminster Assembly of Divines.

In about 1827, when Joseph was nine years old, he was reciting the catechism to his father when he came to question 59, which asked, “Which day of the seven hath God appointed to be the weekly Sabbath?” The stated answer asserted, “God appointed the seventh day of the week to be the weekly Sabbath; and the first day of the week ever since . . . which is the Christian Sabbath.”10 Dissatisfied, Joseph pressed his father with questions, but was not convinced by his reasoning. This continued for some time until “inquiries and scruples gave pain to [his] parents” and began to strain their relationship.11

Joseph Clarke later told a story of a young “boy of ten or twelve years” who became “dissatisfied with the plans of his parents as to his education and future life,” which was likely a recounting of his own past. If so, then Clarke rebelled against his parents and “professed himself an infidel in his principles.” Not willing to tolerate disrespect, his parents induced their son’s tutor to “apply the rod” until he “recanted his principles, and professed clearly his confidence in the word of God.”12 Joseph Clarke “joined the Congregational church of Gorham, Maine, Sept. 4, 1831, at the age of thirteen.”13

Joseph grew to manhood learning to balance hard work on a farm with critical study and spiritual growth. In the fall of 1843, he continued his formal education at Western Reserve College in Hudson, Ohio (now Case Western Reserve University). The college was affiliated with the Presbyterian Church and was widely recognized as “the Yale of the west.”14 Joseph attended classes for two years with his brother John. During their first year they were in the preparatory department in the classical program and in the freshman class during their second year. According to the college Catalogue, students were only admitted into the freshman class after passing examinations “in English Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, Andrews and Stoddard’s Latin Grammar, Andrews’ Latin Exercises, Cicero’s Select Orations, Sallust, Virgil, Sophocles’ Greek Grammar, the Four Gospels, and Jacob’s, Colton’s or Felton’s Greek Reader.” Students accepted into the program spent their freshman year studying Xenophon’s Cyropædia, Livy’s The History of Rome, Homer’s Iliad, the works of Horace, and Charles Davies’ Elementary Algebra, Practical Geometry, and Elements of Analytical Geometry. Though John Clarke continued for a third year in the sophomore class, Joseph ended his formal education after two years to begin his career as a farmer and teacher.15

A Farmer-Teacher (1845–1851)

Joseph Clarke worked as a farmer and served as schoolmaster during the winters his entire working life. His teaching career began in the winter of 1845–1846, probably in the log schoolhouse that his father built on his land about the same time.16 Clarke was a member of the Teachers’ Institute in Wood County, Ohio, and served as an officer in 1868.17 In 1868, Wood County, Ohio, had 67 certified teachers and Joseph and John Clarke were two of the four first-class teachers in the county. This meant that they received a two-year certification—the highest at the time—as opposed to teachers who received a six-month (33 teachers), 12-month (26 teachers), or 18-month certification (four teachers).18 Evidently, Joseph and John Clarke were two of the most educated men in the Wood County, Ohio.

In about 1849, Clarke started his own farm between Portage and Liberty (near New Westfield) in Wood County, Ohio,19 and became a successful and respected farmer in his community. “By 1849, Ohio produced more corn than any other state, and ranked second in wheat production.”20 Corn and wheat were Clarke’s primary cash crops, but he was also an innovative farmer who cultivated a variety of new crops in his region. In the 1840s, for example, he conducted a lucrative four-year experiment in which he planted 112 kinds of peaches, 83 of plums, 115 of pears, 112 of apples, 60 of cherries, 15 of nectarines, 12 of apricots, 4 of figs, 30 of grapes, 4 of strawberries, and 8 of raspberries on only five acres of land.21 His farm continued to grow and in 1860, it was valued at $1,500 and he employed three workers.22 In addition to managing his own farm, Clarke was a founding member of the Wood County Agricultural Society that was organized in Bowling Green on June 9, 1851, and participated in the society’s agricultural fairs.23

On February 28, 1850, Joseph Clarke married Sarah Haskins in Portageville, Ohio. Rev. Thomas Holmes, a Christian Connection minister, performed the ceremony.24 The Clarkes never had any children.

Conversion to Seventh-day Adventism (1852–1857)

The Sabbath question continued to agitate Joseph Clarke’s mind until about 1852, when he finally “laid aside [his] infant baptism, and Papal Sunday, and was baptized by immersion, and adopted the true Sabbath.” Clarke was not baptized into a Sabbath-keeping church, however, and in his isolation he became discouraged and backslidden “for a year or more.” In the early spring of 1855, he met a Seventh-day Adventist lecturer, who gave him a copy of the Review and Herald.25 In April, he wrote to the Review and inquired about Adventist views regarding the immortality of the soul and asked the editors if they knew of any other Sabbath-keeping Christians. The editors informed him of the Seventh Day Baptist Sabbath Recorder,26 which he immediately subscribed to as well. Clarke compared the two periodicals over the next few months, but found the Recorder to be “rather lukewarm in its support of the Sabbath” and let his subscription lapse.27 By late summer, Clarke was distributing Adventist literature and doing his part to keep the “little band of First-day breakers” in the Portage-Liberty community united.28

Clarke became a Seventh-day Adventist in 1855, but he did not embrace all of the church’s teachings immediately. He took his time and commenced “a systematic study of the Bible” through the aid of Adventist literature. As late as 1857 he still believed in universal salvation and “could not see the sense of the Sanctuary and Third Angel’s Message at all.”29 Nevertheless, he gradually “laid by many errors, and joyfully embraced the present truth on all points.”30 Clarke remained an active Adventist for the rest of his life, seeking every opportunity to share his faith.31

A Radical Reformer and Influential Layman in the Church (1857–1877)

Joseph Clarke began his writing career for the Adventist Church in 1857 with an article titled, “‘You Will Vote at Our Spring Election, Won’t You’,” which was published in the Review on April 23. Clarke introduced himself as a progressive thinker with “no party to build up, nor sectarian views to uphold.” He spoke out as a radical abolitionist and perfectionist. He railed against the law that stated that African Americans in the South were only three-fifths of a person and castigated the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law as “a damning feature of this our vaunted free government.”32 The United States had “from the first sanctioned” slavery and “from the first been destructive of the true interests of the unfortunate Red Man.” For these (and other) reasons, Clarke condemned the national “government as antichristian” and advocated political comeouterism and righteous voting, stating, “If I enter the lists as a voter, I do in fact endorse this government as worthy of fellowship. . . . Let me ‘come out and be separate,’ and ‘have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness.’”33

During the Civil War, Clarke assisted the Union cause by growing sugar on his farm. Prior to this time, the North had imported much of its sugar from slave plantations in the South. When the war broke out, however, Clarke began to experiment with Chinese sugar cane to reduce the need for domestic or foreign imports. Once he had successfully harvested his first crop, he published instructions so that other Ohio farmers could follow suit.34 Clarke also encouraged men to enlist in the military, and asked God’s blessing upon the Union Army. He wrote in the Republican Weekly Perrysburg (OH) Journal, “Let union against southern perfidy pervade all hearts. May the God of battles speed the arrow to the heart of treason, and give aid and comfort to the Chief Executive and his true hearted supporters, in the present great struggle.”35 At first, he also wanted to see “a regiment of Sabbath-keepers” enlist in the army, but by the fall of 1862 he had given up this dream, though he continued to maintain that the Civil War was a just war.36

During Reconstruction, Clarke expressed his radical political views through another article in the Review on righteous voting. Though slavery was abolished, the Radical Republicans were losing power in Washington and the polls indicated that it was a close race between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. Clarke recognized that Hayes needed a clear victory if Reconstruction were to continue and he reminded his fellow Adventists that “God’s people are free to stand up in defense of freedom and of right” and that God “likes to see them outspoken as possible, with prudence, in behalf of the truth, and in defense of the oppressed.” Since the cause was just, Adventists “may deposit a ballot quietly in the box in behalf of freedom.”37 Unfortunately, though Hayes narrowly won the 1876 presidential election, his victory was determined by the Compromise of 1877 which effectively brought an end to Radical Reconstruction.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church organized during the Civil War and Clarke played an important role in that process in the state of Ohio. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, Sabbatarian Adventists in Ohio were particularly divided regarding denominational organization and the name “Seventh-day Adventist.” Clarke was an ardent supporter of both and spoke out against the anti-organization Adventists in his state38 and helped organize the Ohio Conference in 1861. He was elected conference secretary at this time,39 but due to disunion among Adventists in Ohio, the conference had to be reorganized in May 1863. Clarke was an elected member of the executive committee,40 but in 1864 he became conference secretary again and held that position until the eighth annual session of the Ohio Conference met in September 1870. At this time, Clarke continued to serve Ohio as an elected member of the auditing committee for another conference year.41

Joseph Clarke was a layman and never received ministerial ordination. In February 1862, however, he was elected (and likely ordained) elder of the Portage, Ohio, church.42 In 1864, he attended the General Conference in Battle Creek as an official delegate for the Ohio Conference.43

Clarke remained a radical reformer his entire life.44 He was one of the first, among Sabbatarian Adventists, to advocate women’s rights through dress reform45 and promote education. Speaking to those who defied the need for schooling, Clarke wrote, “Learning is not a god, to be worshipped, but rather a pickaxe for the reformer, as he cuts a passage through the mountains of error, and clears away the rubbish in his search for truth.”46 Throughout his life, he urged Adventists to economize their time and use moments of leisure for thinking, research, prayer, and Bible study.47 He recommended that Adventists study a wide variety of subjects, including nature, history, philosophy, astronomy, the sciences, legal matters, and of course, the Bible.48

In 1864, Clarke read some of Dr. James C. Jackson’s writings and adopted health reform. Joseph and Sarah promptly gave up tea, coffee, meat (aside from “a very small quantity of fish”), “hog’s lard,” and “highly seasoned food,” in exchange for “grains, fruits, and vegetables,” and the “two meal per day system.” Joseph Clarke, now in his mid-40s, enjoyed his lifestyle change so much that he stated, “I feel as if I were entering upon a new life, with new strength of hope and faith.”49

He also stopped relying on the traditional medicinal drugs, such as opium, morphine, and quinine. In about 1847, Clarke suffered from “terrible shakes” and his doctors prescribed so much “quinine, and calomel, and morphine” that the drugs eventually lost their effectiveness. He eventually recovered in spite of his doctors’ advice, but, as Clarke stated, he had to pay “the doctors enough to buy a small farm.”50 On another occasion, his doctor prescribed “small powders of opium and large powders of quinine” when he was sick. Clarke accidently mixed up his powders, however, and took a large dose of opium and a small amount of quinine. This concoction made him drowsy and came near putting him in “his final sleep.” A friend noticed his predicament in the nick of time, but had to violently shake Clarke’s body for about an hour to keep him from slipping into a coma. The shaking caused “a sound bruising,” but spared Clarke’s life.51 In August 1866, when Clarke received the first issue of The Health Reformer, he took “all the old papers of powders, drugs, pills, &c.” in his home and threw them into the stove. According to Clarke, “This resulted in an explosion, knocking the loose furniture from the stove, and filling the room with smoke, soot, and ashes.” Though some things were damaged, Clarke quipped, “this was much better than if the explosion had taken place internally [after ingestion].”52

Mission to the Freedpeople in Texas (1877–1878)

On March 19, 1875, Elbridge Rust arrived in Rice, Navarro County, Texas, and declared the state to be “one of the very best fields in the country for missionary labor.” He then described the land and people and encouraged those “thoroughly imbued with the spirit of truth” to move there and form the “southern wing of the great army of the Lord.”53 In the fall, the Alfred and John Rust families joined their brother and in the spring of 1876 established a permanent residence in Deckman (now Grand Prairie).54 A few other Adventists had joined the Rusts in Texas, including the sixteen-year-old Edward Capman. In the spring of 1876 Capman started the first known Adventist ministry for blacks in the south, teaching them to read in a small 12x14 log cabin that was erected near the Rust homes in Deckman, Texas. In May D. M. Canright observed Capman’s work and was so impressed that he declared, “[T]he time has come for labor among the freedmen” and asked, “Can a man and his wife come among them with a tent in which to hold school for the younger ones and meetings for the others, I am sure many would embrace the truth readily.”55

Joseph and Sarah Clarke had expressed interest in evangelizing the slaves before emancipation. In 1859 Joseph Clarke encouraged Adventists to move to Ohio and make “a general systematic effort” to spread Adventism west and south and he was particularly interested in using the river system all the way to the Gulf of Mexico so that “the message may find its way to the slave.”56 The Clarkes’ continued to follow the plight of the freedmen after the close of the Civil War and Joseph publicly criticized President Ulysses S. Grant and northern Christians for not establishing “schools for the Freedmen in every town and village in the South” as well as for tolerating “every kind of lawlessness” against African Americans.57

Presumably, the Clarkes were also aware that Congress passed legislation that ended the Freedmen’s Bureau’s educational work in 1870 and that the work was now left with philanthropic and church societies.58 The Clarkes were therefore primed when they read Canright’s call in the Review and further convicted when they read Alfred Rust’s report on the freedmen that was published in August.59 On November 5, 1876, the church in Bowling Green voted to send the Clarkes on a “mission to the freedmen of Texas.” Though the General Conference Committee endorsed this decision, the Clarkes had to pay “their own expenses” and donate “their time and labor.”60 Ready to make the necessary sacrifices, the Clarkes purchased a 12x16 foot tent and traveled by train fifty-six hours from Toledo, Ohio, to Dallas, Texas, arriving in Deckman on February 17, 1877.61

The Clarkes were both trained teachers and about the time they arrived Edward Capman resigned and returned to his home in Wisconsin.62 While Joseph worked to establish their home, Sarah began to teach the freedpeople under their tent. Upon their arrival, two former slaves, Parsons Green Medlin and Fayette Jordan, began to build a schoolhouse for blacks.63 The “humble” structure was soon completed and by May the Clarkes, who now both taught part-time, “averaged about 12 or 15 pupils” with a total of 24 names on the books.64

The Rusts and Clarkes were all laypeople and in early April 1877 they requested that “an experienced preacher” come “set things in order, organize churches, and fill the calls for aid.”65 Elder R. M. Kilgore, former Civil War captain of the 71st U.S. Colored Infantry and son of an Underground Railroad operator, arrived about a month later to take charge of the Texas mission.66

The Texas mission to the freedpeople was appropriately regarded as a “labor of self-denial and Christian philanthropy.”67 During Reconstruction it was dangerous for a white person to work among blacks in the south. Canright called it “a distinct mission” because a white person could “not labor for [blacks] and for the whites too, as the white[s] would not associate with” anyone if they did so.68 This prejudice was rooted in class rivalry as well as racism as there was no adequate public school system in Texas and many whites were also poor and illiterate. For this reason, many Texans feared that if blacks learned to read, they would gain power over the whites. The Clarkes had no desire to cater to the Texans’ prejudices, but reluctantly did so primarily because the freedpeople they were serving insisted upon it for everyone’s safety. They were unable to remain perfectly silent, however, and Clarke admitted that he and his wife had occasionally publicly condemned these discriminatory practices. The Clarkes were worried about the fate of Adventism, believing that prolonged labor in the south would entice Adventists from the north to bow down to “the Great Goddess ‘caste.’” He explained to Uriah Smith, “[W]e have found that northern people become tinctured with a fondness for the aforesaid Goddess of Caste, and as we are situated, it becomes our duty to speak out sometimes so plainly that the dignity of caste is compromised.”69

The Clarkes’ radicalness upset the local residents, who threatened to banish or murder R. M. Kilgore (the leader of the mission) and the Clarkes if they did not serve this “Great Goddess.”70 These threats were serious: Ku Klux Klan violence had escalated in Texas since 1868 so that one citizen lamented, “The murder of negroes is so common as to render it impossible to keep accurate account of them.” Whites who endeavored to assist the freedpeople were also targets of hate crimes. According to historian Alton Hornsby, Jr., “The abuses suffered by the northern teachers who manned many of the Negro schools remained a grievous matter. These teachers, who came south with their aims of compassion and mission, strove to educate the blacks under almost impossible circumstances.”71 The Clarkes stated that they “would gladly die for [the freedpeople],” but became convicted that it would be best to end their mission prematurely for the safety of everyone involved.72

Though somewhat discouraged, the Clarkes believed that “the progress of the pupils in their studies was good” and affirmed that they “shall never regret the year we spent in Texas.”73 On June 12, 1878, they left for Missouri after serving the freedpeople about sixteen months.74

Serving the Church in Missouri (1878–1898)

The Clarkes moved to Lowry City, St. Clair County, Missouri, in June 1878 and Joseph resumed his farming/teaching career. Shortly after their arrival, the Clarkes planted a new church in their neighborhood, which was officially organized with ten members in 1883.75 During their sojourn in Missouri, Sarah Clarke became heavily involved in tract and missionary society work while her husband served in various conference positions as well.

In 1880, Sarah was elected secretary of the Missouri Tract and Missionary Society.76 She was reelected to that position in 1881 and 1882 and in the latter year also became an agent for the International Tract and Missionary Society, working out of the branch office in Lowry City.77 The Clarkes’ farm sustained the family financially and as a result, Sarah refused to be compensated for her work.78 Though she worked for free, Sarah was diligent in her duties and the society distributed tens of thousands of pages of tracts as well as thousands of periodicals during her tenure. In 1881, for example, the Missouri Tract and Missionary Society distributed 86,913 pages of tracts and 4,717 periodicals.79 Some of the targeted recipients of Adventist literature were local college and public school libraries.80

Joseph Clarke remained active in church work as well. In 1882, he was elected secretary of the Missouri Sabbath School Association, secretary of the Missouri Health and Temperance Society, and secretary of the Missouri Conference.81 Clarke was reelected to these positions in 1883 and after relinquishing these responsibilities, he served as the acting secretary of the Missouri Conference beginning in July 1885 because the elected secretary was suffering from poor health.82

In April 1885, the Clarkes took charge of the St. Louis Mission in its second year of operation and each received a colporteur’s license at the Missouri Conference in November.83 The mission was located at 2339 Chestnut Street in “a very pleasant, healthful, and central part of the city” and served the St. Louis community in a variety of capacities. One of the most significant goals of the mission was literature distribution. According to Joseph Clarke, “Much good has been done in placing the Signs of the Times, and other good reading matter, on board the passenger boats, and in the hotels of the city; and some good souls have embraced the truth.”84 Another significant goal was to build up the St. Louis Reading-Room in the public school library. Within a few months, the Clarkes had deposited several bound volumes of Adventist periodicals in a variety of languages, including Good Health, Herold der Wahrheit, Present Truth, Review and Herald, Sanhedens Tidende, Sanningen Harold, Signs des Tempes, Signs of the Times, and Stimme der Wahrheit. Once deposited, the Clarkes ensured that the reading room received new issues of these periodicals weekly and monthly.85

Superintendence of the mission also placed the Clarkes in charge of the Sabbath School and church services.86 Within eight months of their arrival, Joseph Clarke stated, “Our little congregation on the Sabbath day numbers about twenty,” seven of whom were new converts.87 Though city missions like this one in St. Louis were sustained by the Adventist Church, Clarke encouraged Adventists around the world to get involved in mission work. He stated, “I see nothing to hinder any family of Seventh-day Adventists from beginning this noble work. Teach your neighbors by using the forms provided; thus each family becomes a mission.”88

The Clarkes were accustomed to farm life in rural settings and remained at the St. Louis Mission less than one year. On January 25, 1886,89 they resigned their post and probably returned to Lowry City at this time, remaining there until at least the late 1890s.90 The Clarkes resumed their lives as farmer-teachers and struggled through the droughts and depression in the 1890s in this place. As always, the Clarkes drew strength from God during times of trial and Joseph gained literary inspiration from such experiences. The Clarkes organized numerous seasons of prayer for local farmers, fervently pleading with God for rain. Clarke reminded Adventists that when Americans faced a similar crisis in the 1870s, people from all denominations gathered for fasting and prayer. “We had help in the seventies, in answer to prayer,” he stated, “and shall we not need rain in the year 1891? Shall we not make it a special subject of prayer?”91

Joseph Clarke’s Last Years (1898–1908)

Depression finally ended in 1897 but Joseph Clarke soon faced a greater challenge: his beloved wife Sarah died in early 1898 and he was now alone without any immediate family. After her death, Joseph moved to Hamilton, Missouri,92 and within a few years or less was residing in Battle Creek, Michigan.93 He wrote his final article for the Review and Herald from Battle Creek. In this article, Clarke, a lifelong reformer, railed against advocates of Sunday blue laws. According to Clarke, those American Christians legislating for these laws did not realize that there was “death in the pot.” Adventists, like Elisha of old, needed to introduce them to present truth, otherwise the “terrible effects of the poison will be realized by and by.”94

Sometime after residing in Battle Creek, which may have just been a temporary stay at the sanitarium, Clarke moved to Ypsilanti, Michigan, to live with his nephew. In April 1908, illness brought Clarke to the West Side Hospital in Detroit. He passed to rest there on April 12 at the age of 90 years, 2 months, and 5 days.95

Joseph Clarke, the Writer (1857–1901)

Joseph Clarke is best remembered for being a prolific writer. He began writing for Adventist publications in 1857. His first article appeared in the Review on April 23 of that year and his last published piece appeared on July 9, 1901. He was a regular contributor to the Review throughout his lifetime and also frequently contributed to the Youth’s Instructor (including the series of Sabbath School lessons he wrote in 1868–186996), Health Reformer, and Signs of the Times. Other articles (sometimes reprinted from the Review) also appeared in the American Sentinel, Present Truth, and The Gospel Sickle. Clarke also wrote for non-Adventist periodicals, though less frequently than he did for Adventist publications.97

Clarke considered it his “weekly responsibility” to write for the Review and encouraged other Adventist writers to do the same.98 Though he did not always meet his goal, he often did, publishing several hundred articles during his lifetime.99 Many of Clarke’s submitted articles were not published, however, and the precise scale of his corpus will never be known.100 Nevertheless, Arthur W. Spalding remarked that Clarke’s frequent publications “made him in effect a corresponding editor” of the Review.101 Spalding’s characterization was not unfounded. At one juncture, when James White was trying to urge Adventist ministers to write more for the Review, he linked Clarke with this paper, stating, “J. Clarke of the Review, is not a minister, and he seems always full of something good to write for the Review and Instructor.”102 At times, Clarke’s articles appeared with just his initials, “J. C.,” which was standard practice for employed editors. Typically, however, his articles were written under the name “Joseph Clarke,” “Jos. Clarke,” or “J. Clarke.” Though some of the articles written under the latter name might be attributed to another J. Clarke (such as Joseph’s brother, John), Joseph Clarke authored the overwhelming majority of them.

Most of Clarke’s articles were short, but they covered a wide variety of topics including, matters of doctrine and theology, practical spirituality (e.g., worship, prayer, or devotion) health and reform, education, world religions, and history. He also wrote poetry on occasion103 and oftentimes concealed his own experience, or the experiences of those he knew personally, within his articles under an anonymous identity or through the use of allegory.104

Aside from the Bible and numerous Seventh-day Adventist writers, some of Clarke’s literary influences included the Apocrypha,105 John Bunyan,106 Cotton Mather,107 Jonathan Edwards,108 Charles Buck,109 Jean-Henri Merle d’Aubigné,110 Thomas Babington Macaulay,111 Charles Rollin,112 and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.113 Clarke regularly read local newspapers114 and other popular periodicals, including the New York Tribune115 and Puck.116 He also read popular books, such as Fanny Kelly’s Narrative of My Captivity among the Sioux Indians.117 Clarke’s diverse reading tastes and commitment to publishing reflected his belief that if Adventists were to effectively spread the truth, they needed to continually study history, stay up-to-date with current events, and share their knowledge with others.

Contribution

Even if most Adventists never met Clarke personally, his contemporary, J. H. Rogers, affirmed late in Clarke’s life that his “standing in the message is well known to many of our old brethren.”118 Many of Clarke’s contemporaries had a high regard for his articles, often thanking him publicly or directly quoting one of his eloquently crafted phrases.119 Indeed, Clarke wrote so frequently that some Adventists mistakenly assumed that he was an ordained minister and at least one article appeared under the name “Eld. Joseph Clarke.”120

Like many of his Adventist contemporaries, Clarke was an active radical reformer. Before the Civil War, he was a radical abolitionist who advocated righteous voting and equal rights. He criticized the nation’s leaders when Radical Reconstruction ended in 1877 and was one of the first Seventh-day Adventists to educate the freedpeople in the South. He fought for women’s rights through his advocacy of dress reform and temperance and championed the cause of health reform. Clarke also lashed out against religious intolerance, especially when Americans were imprisoned for working on Sundays in the late nineteenth century. For these reasons, Michael Edward Dunn was correct in his characterization of Clarke as “one of the most important moralists and ethicists during his time in our denomination’s history.”121

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Clarke, Jos. “Days of Fasting.” ARH, March 28, 1865.

Clarke, Jos. “Eating and Drinking.” The Health Reformer, February 1867, 109-110

Clarke, Jos. “Education and Crime.” The Youth’s Instructor, July 15, 1871.

Clarke, Jos. “Extract from a Letter to a Friend.” The Health Reformer, June 1867, 173-174.

Clarke, Jos. “The Freedmen.” ARH, September 14, 1876.

Clarke, Jos. “Genuine Liberality.” ARH, August 15, 1871.

Clarke, Jos. “Influence of Diet.” ARH, March 27, 1866.

Clarke, Jos. “It Is the Work of God.” ARH, July 3, 1879.

Clarke, Jos. “Light.” The Health Reformer, October 1874, 308.

Clarke, Jos. “Ohio Conference.” ARH, June 14, 1864.

Clarke, Jos. “The Old Earth.” ARH, May 26, 1859.

Clarke, Jos. “Our Field.” ARH, March 1, 1877.

Clarke, Jos. “Prejudice.” ARH, May 11, 1869.

Clarke, Jos. “A Response.” ARH, November 3, 1868.

Clarke, Jos. “The Review.” ARH, November 5, 1867.

Clarke, Jos. “Sabbath Meditations, No. 5.” ARH, August 16, 1864.

Clarke, Jos. “Sliding Down Hill.” ARH, January 12, 1860.

Clarke, Jos. “Texas.” ARH, March 8, 1877.

Clarke, Jos. “Texas: Deckman, Dallas Co.” ARH, vol. 49, no. 21, May 24, 1877.

Clarke, Jos. “Why I Wrote as I Did.” ARH, vol. 21, no. 16, March 17, 1863.

Clarke, Joseph to Uriah Smith. February 24, 1878. The author has a copy of this letter in his possession.

Clarke, Joseph to Uriah Smith. September 22, 1878. The author has a copy of this letter in his possession.

Clarke, Joseph. “Apostasy, or Death in the Pot.” ARH, vol. 78, no. 28, July 9, 1901.

Clarke, Joseph. “‘At It Again’.” The American Sentinel 2, no. 7 (July 1887): 53.

Clarke, Joseph. “Bible Readings.” ARH, vol. 63, no. 32, August 10, 1886.

Clarke, Joseph. “Brevities.” ARH, vol. 72, no. 28, July 9, 1895.

Clarke, Joseph. “Camp-Meeting at Kingsville, MO.” ARH, September 17, 1889.

Clarke, Joseph. “Change of the Sabbath.” ARH, March 15, 1887.

Clark, Joseph. “Chinese Sugar Cane.” The Weekly Perrysburg (OH) Journal, November 28, 1861.

Clarke, Joseph. “Crossing at a Ford.” ARH, February 5, 1884.

Clarke, Joseph. “Crumbs.” ARH, April 3, 1879.

Clarke, Joseph. “A Cure for Infidelity.” The Gospel Sickle, December 15, 1886.

Clarke, Joseph. “Dress.” ARH, October 29, 1857.

Clarke, Joseph. “Faith and Works.” ARH, September 2, 1880.

Clarke, Joseph. “The Fall of Adam.” ARH, July 1, 1890.

Clarke, Joseph. “Forsaking Home.” ARH, January 15, 1895.

Clarke, Joseph. “Freedom of the Press.” ARH, September 16, 1890.

Clarke, Joseph. “Genesis 5:24.” ARH, August 9, 1898.

Clarke, Joseph. “Genuine and Counterfeit.” ARH, July 1, 1875.

Clarke, Joseph. “Health.” ARH, February 11, 1858.

Clarke, Joseph. “Hours.” ARH, December 10, 1895.

Clarke, Joseph. “Items.” ARH, May 14, 1895.

Clarke, Joseph. “Items from History.” ARH, June 5, 1894.

Clarke, Joseph. “The Judgment.” ARH, May 20, 1875.

Clarke, Joseph. “Labor and Capital.” ARH, December 18, 1894.

Clarke, Joseph. “Learning.” ARH, March 15, 1864.

Clarke, Joseph. “Mental Improvement.” ARH, March 16, 1869.

Clarke, Joseph. “Missouri Camp-Meeting.” ARH, November 3, 1885.

Clarke, Joseph. “More Opium.” The Health Reformer April 1876, 104.

Clarke, Joseph. “Notice.” The Weekly Perrysburg (OH), April 17, 1862.

Clarke, Joseph. “Notes By the Way.” ARH, September 26, 1878.

Clarke, Joseph. “Our Need of the Spirit of God.” ARH, October 21, 1890.

Clarke, Joseph. “Overcoming.” ARH, November 28, 1878.

Clark[e], Joseph. “The Present Crisis.” The Weekly Perrysville (OH) Journal, October 3, 1861.

Clarke, Joseph. “Politics.” ARH, December 14, 1876.

Clarke, Joseph. “Reforms.” ARH, March 2, 1897.

Clarke, Joseph. “Report of the Ohio Conference: Seventh Annual Session.” ARH, September 7, 1869.

Clarke, Joseph. “Results of the Leipsic Disputation.” The Present Truth, February 12, 1891.

Clarke, Joseph. “A Reverie.” ARH, February 14, 1882.

Clarke, Joseph. “The Review.” ARH, May 19, 1863.

Clarke, Joseph. “Rewards for Children and Youth.” ARH, September 17, 1867.

Clarke, Joseph. “Sabbath or Sunday.” ARH, October 22, 1889.

Clarke, Joseph. “Spiritual Gifts.” ARH, November 26, 1867.

Clarke, Joseph. “Spiritual Gifts.” ARH, July 28, 1868.

Clarke, Joseph. “The St. Louis Mission.” ARH, May 26, 1885.

Clarke, Joseph. “St. Louis Mission.” ARH, January 19, 1886.

Clarke, Joseph. “St. Louis Reading-Room.” Signs of the Times, September 3, 1885.

Clarke, Joseph. “The Sword vs. Fanaticism.” ARH, September 23, 1862, 135.

Clarke, Joseph. “Take Heed.” ARH, February 1, 1877.

Clarke, Joseph. “Taxes.” The Weekly Perrysburg (OH) Journal, August 15, 1861.

Clarke, Joseph. “The Two Glories.” ARH, May 27, 1880.

Clarke, Joseph. “United We Stand.” ARH, February 17, 1891.

Clarke, Joseph. “The War! The War!!” ARH, September 23, 1862.

Clarke, Joseph. “Work.” The Youth’s Instructor, March 17, 1880.

Clarke, Joseph. “‘You Will Vote at Our Spring Election, Won’t You?’.” ARH, April 23, 1857.

Clarke, Joseph, et al. “Letter from Portage, Ohio.” ARH, vol. 17, no. 23, April 23, 1861.

Clarke, Samuel. “A Fine Chance for a Prairie Farm.” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal—Extra, April 21, 1855.

Clarke, Samuel. “A Fine Chance for a Prairie Farm,” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal—Extra, May 12, 1855.

Clarke, S. “Missouri Tract Society.” ARH, May 24, 1881.

Clarke, Sarah. “Encouraging Words.” ARH, October 30, 1883.

Clarke, Sarah. “Missouri Tract and Missionary Society.” ARH, March 14, 1882.

Clarke, Sarah. “Missouri Tract and Missionary Society.” ARH, May 30, 1882.

Clarke, Sarah. “Missouri Tract and Missionary Society.” ARH, August 29, 1882.

Clarke, Sarah. “Missouri Tract Society.” ARH, March 29, 1881.

Clarke, Sarah. “Missouri Tract Society.” ARH, September 6, 1881.

Clarke, Sarah. “Reports of T. and M. Societies: Missouri.” ARH, March 20, 1883.

Clarke, Sarah. “Report of T. and M. Societies: Missouri.” ARH, June 5, 1883.

Clarke, Sarah. “Report of Missouri T. and M. Society.” ARH, September 11, 1883.

Clarke, Sarah. “Tract Work.” ARH, November 6, 1883.

Commemorative Historical and Biographical Record of Wood County, Ohio . . . Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co., 1897.

The Constitution and Business Proceedings of the Ohio State Conference for the Years 1863, ’64, ’65, & ’66. Battle Creek, MI: Steam Press, 1866.

Cornell, M. E. “Report of Meetings in Ohio.” ARH, February 25, 1862.

Dudley, J., L. E. Jones, and J. P. Fleming. “Secession.” ARH, April 9, 1861.

Dunn, Michael Edward. “Joseph Clarke, a Biography.” 1975, White Estate Document File 005514, CAR.

Hale, Anna H. “Conference Department: From Sister Hale.” ARH, August 25, 1868.

“Election.” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal, June 17, 1854.

“Extracts of Letters: [Jos. Clarke].” ARH, August 7, 1855.

Greenlee, Ralph Stebbins and Robert Lemuel Greenlee. The Stebbins Genealogy, vol. 1. Chicago: Printed Privately, 1904.

Hale, Anna H. “Conference Department: From Sister Hale.” ARH, August 25, 1868.

Haskell, S. N. “International Tract and Missionary Society Directory.” Signs of the Times, August 27, 1885.

“Hoops.” ARH, August 4, 1859.

Hornsby, Alton Jr. “The Freedmen’s Bureau Schools in Texas, 1865–1870.” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly 76, no. 4 (April 1973): 397-417.

“Items for the Mouth: Appreciative.” The Health Reformer, August 1868, 40.

J. C. “Experience and Observation.” ARH, December 19, 1865.

Jones, D. T. and Clara E. Low. “Report of the Missouri T. and M. Society.” ARH, November 6, 1883.

Jones, D. T. and J. Clarke. “Missouri Conference Proceedings.” ARH, November 10, 1885.

A Key to the Shorter Catechism . . ., 9th ed. Edinburgh: James Gall, 1829.

Kilgore, R. M. “Texas.” ARH, May 17, 1877.

Kittle, H. J. and H. F. Baker. “Conference in Ohio.” ARH, March 10, 1863.

Kittle, H. J. and H. F. Baker. “Report of Ohio Conference.” ARH, June 16, 1863.

Kittle, H. J. and Jos. Clarke. “The Ohio Conference.” ARH, June 10, 1862.

Kittle, H. J. and Jos. Clarke. “The Ohio General Conference.” ARH, November 12, 1861.

Lawton, C. “A Few Words for the Review.” ARH, January 5, 1860.

Lawton, Wm. “The Right Kind of Response.” ARH, April 2, 1867.

Lest We Forget: The Heritage of Southwestern Adventist College, Where Students Live. Keene, TX: Southwestern Adventist College Alumni Association, 1985.

Lewis, A. H. “Letters: From Bro. Lewis.” ARH, February 3, 1859.

Michigan. Death Certificates. Department of State Division of Vital Statistics, Lansing, Michigan.

Morgan, Kevin. “The Long, Lost Obituary of Joseph Clarke.” Adventist History Blog (Online), July 24, 2014.

Ohio. Wood County. 1860 United States Census. Digital images. Ancestry.com, accessed June 19, 2017, http://ancestry.com.

Ohio. County Marriages, 1789-2013. Family Search, https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:2QCJ-ZQL.

Ohio Committee, Delegate Credentials of the 1864 General Conference, 1864 GC Delegates (13721d), General Conference Archives.

“A Rich Fruit Farm.” Columbus Ohio State Journal, August 28, 1848.

“A Rich Fruit Farm.” Brattleboro Vermont Phoenix, September 22, 1848.

Robbins, B. F. “From Bro. Robbins.” ARH, July 28, 1859.

Rogers, J. H. “Missouri.” ARH, June 16, 1891.

Rust, A. B. “The Freedmen.” ARH, August 3, 1876.

Rust, A. B., E. G. Rust, and Jos. Clarke. “Texas.” ARH, April 5, 1877.

Rust, E. G. “Letter from Texas.” ARH, April 29, 1875.

“Sixth Annual Fair of the Wood County Agricultural Society . . . [Garden Vegetables].” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal, vol. 4, no. 15, August 21, 1856.

The Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, 1883. Battle Creek, MI: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, 1883.

The Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, 1886. Battle Creek, MI: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, 1886.

The Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, 1887. Battle Creek, MI: Review and Herald, 1887.

Spalding, Arthur Whitefield. Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1961.

Strong, Douglas M. Perfectionist Politics: Abolitionism and the Religious Tensions of American Democracy. Religion and Politics, Michael Barkun, ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999.

“Turkey.” ARH, December 1, 1859.

Walton, Emma Lee. The Clark Genealogy: Some Descendants of Daniel Clark, of Windsor, Connecticut, 1639-1913. New York: Frank Allaben Genealogical Company, 1913.

“Wanted.” ARH, April 12, 1877.

W[hite], J. “The Review and Herald.” ARH, June 20, 1865.

W[hite], J. “Seventh-day Adventists.” ARH, April 30, 1861.

[White, James], “[Editorial].” ARH, May 3, 1864.

White, James and Jos. Clarke. “Report of the Ohio Conference: Sixth Annual Session.” ARH, January 12, 1869.

Whitford, Charles P. “Are You Going to Camp-Meeting?” ARH, August 16, 1877.

Wood, J. G. “Missouri.” ARH, September 11, 1883.

Wood, J. G. and R. S. Donnell. “Missouri H. and T. Society.” ARH, November 14, 1882.

Notes

  1. Cf. H. D. Clark, “Missouri Conference, Take Notice!,” ARH, February 2, 1886, 77-78.

  2. Emma Lee Walton, The Clark Genealogy: Some Descendants of Daniel Clark, of Windsor, Connecticut, 1639-1913 (New York: Frank Allaben Genealogical Company, 1913), 131.

  3. Joseph Clarke, “The Judgment,” ARH, May 20, 1875, 166.

  4. Commemorative Historical and Biographical Record of Wood County, Ohio . . . (Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co., 1897), 320, 387, 427.

  5. “Ann ‘Annie’ Stebbins Clarke,” Find A Grave, March 26, 2011, accessed January 30, 2020, https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=67468385&ref=acom.

  6. Samuel Clarke, “A Fine Chance for a Prairie Farm,” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal—Extra, April 21, 1855, 2,; Samuel Clarke, “A Fine Chance for a Prairie Farm,” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal—Extra, May 12, 1855, 1.

  7. Commemorative Historical and Biographical Record of Wood County, Ohio . . . (Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co., 1897), 323.

  8. Ralph Stebbins Greenlee and Robert Lemuel Greenlee, The Stebbins Genealogy, vol. 1 (Chicago: Printed Privately, 1904), 286.

  9. J. Clarke, “Deacon Cognatus,” ARH, January 7, 1858, 70; cf. J. Clarke, “The Third Angel’s Message,” ARH, January 7, 1858, 72; J. C., “Experience and Observation,” ARH, December 19, 1865, 21; Jos. Clarke, “It Is the Work of God,” ARH, July 3, 1879, 13; Joseph Clarke, “A Cure for Infidelity,” The Gospel Sickle, December 15, 1886, 182.

  10. A Key to the Shorter Catechism . . ., 9th ed. (Edinburgh: James Gall, 1829), 105.

  11. J. C., “Experience and Observation,” ARH, December 19, 1865, 21.

  12. Joseph Clarke, “A Cure for Infidelity,” The Gospel Sickle, December 15, 1886, 182.

  13. Joseph Clarke, “The Judgment,” ARH, May 20, 1875, 166.

  14. Though this institution was reputable, Samuel Clarke had apparently hoped that his sons would attend Oberlin College, which was closer to home and cheaper to attend. Cf. J. Clarke, “Deacon Cognatus,” ARH, January 7, 1858, 70; Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Western Reserve College, 1843-4 (Hudson, OH: Charles Aikin, 1843), 21; Catalogue of the Oberlin Collegiate Institute, 1843-4 (Oberlin, OH: Evangelist Office, 1843), 29.

  15. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Western Reserve College, 1843-4 (Hudson, OH: Charles Aikin, 1843), 10; Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Western Reserve College, 1844-5 (Hudson, OH: Printed at the Office of the Ohio Observer, 1844), 13, 17-18; Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Western Reserve College, 1845-6 (Hudson, OH: Printed at the Office of the Ohio Observer, 1845), 13.

  16. Jos. Clarke, “Prejudice,” ARH, May 11, 1869, 157; cf. Joseph Clarke, “Rewards for Children and Youth,” ARH, September 17, 1867, 211; Jos. Clarke, “Light,” The Health Reformer October 1874, 308; Michigan, Certificate of Death no. 2053 (1908), Joseph Clarke, Department of State Division of Vital Statistics, Lansing, Michigan.

  17. Commemorative Historical and Biographical Record of Wood County, Ohio . . . (Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co., 1897), 174-175.

  18. D. A. Avery, “Teachers’ Certificates,” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal, November 27, 1868, 2.

  19. Cf. Commemorative Historical and Biographical Record of Wood County, Ohio . . . (Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co., 1897), 394.

  20. “Agriculture and Farming in Ohio,” Ohio History Central, accessed June 19, 2017, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Agriculture_and_Farming_in_Ohio.

  21. “A Rich Fruit Farm,” Columbus Ohio State Journal, August 28, 1848, 2; “A Rich Fruit Farm,” Brattleboro Vermont Phoenix, September 22, 1848, 1; cf.J. Clarke, “The Farmer,” ARH, May 8, 1866, 181; Joseph Clarke, “Our Need of the Spirit of God,” ARH, October 21, 1890, 644; J. Clarke, “Present Truth,” ARH, July 10, 1866, 45.

  22. 1860 United States census, Wood County, Ohio, town of Liberty, roll M653_1053, FHL microfilm 805053, page 36, digital image, “Clarke, Joseph,” Ancestry.com, accessed June 19, 2017, http://ancestry.com; cf. Joseph Clarke, “Notice,” The Weekly Perrysburg (OH), April 17, 1862, 2.

  23. Commemorative Historical and Biographical Record of Wood County, Ohio . . . (Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co., 1897), 178; “Election,” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal, vol. 2, no. 15, June 17, 1854, 117; “[Appointed Committee for the Wood County Agricultural Society],” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal, August 25, 1855, 114; “Sixth Annual Fair of the Wood County Agricultural Society . . . [Garden Vegetables],” The Perrysburg (OH) Journal, August 21, 1856, 2.

  24. Ohio, County Marriages, 1789-2013, Joseph Clark and Sarah Haskins, February 28, 1850, Family Search, accessed January 30, 2020, https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:2QCJ-ZQL.

  25. J. Clarke, “The Third Angel’s Message,” ARH, January 7, 1858, 72.

  26. “Business,” ARH, April 17, 1855, 216.

  27. J. C., “Experience and Observation,” ARH, December 19, 1865, 21; cf. Joseph Clarke, “The Review,” ARH, May 19, 1863, 200.

  28. “Extracts of Letters: [Jos. Clarke],” ARH, August 7, 1855, 24.

  29. J. Clarke, “The Third Angel’s Message,” ARH, January 7, 1858, 72.

  30. J. C., “Experience and Observation,” ARH, December 19, 1865, 21; Joseph Clarke, “Spiritual Gifts,” ARH, November 26, 1867, 381.

  31. Cf. J. Clarke, “Calling Things by Their Right Names,” ARH, September 26, 1865, 136.

  32. Joseph Clarke, “‘You Will Vote at Our Spring Election, Won’t You?’,” ARH, April 23, 1857, 198-199; cf. Joseph Clarke, “The War! The War!!,” ARH, September 23, 1862, 134; Jos. Clarke, “Days of Fasting,” ARH, March 28, 1865, 133-134; J. Clarke, “The Punishment of the South,” ARH, January 23, 1866, 61-62.

  33. Joseph Clarke, “‘You Will Vote at Our Spring Election, Won’t You?’,” ARH, April 23, 1857, 198-199. See Douglas M. Strong, Perfectionist Politics: Abolitionism and the Religious Tensions of American Democracy, Religion and Politics, Michael Barkun, ed. (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999).

  34. Joseph Clark, “Chinese Sugar Cane,” The Weekly Perrysburg (OH) Journal, November 28, 1861, 3.

  35. Joseph Clark, “The Present Crisis,” The Weekly Perrysville (OH) Journal, October 3, 1861, 4.

  36. Joseph Clarke, “The War! The War!!,” ARH, September 23, 1862, 134; Joseph Clarke, “The Sword vs. Fanaticism,” ARH, September 23, 1862, 135.

  37. Joseph Clarke, “Politics,” ARH, December 14, 1876, 186.

  38. J. Dudley, L. E. Jones, and J. P. Fleming, “Secession,” ARH, April 9, 1861, 164-165; Joseph Clarke, et al., “Letter from Portage, Ohio,” ARH, April 23, 1861, 181; J. W[hite], “Seventh-day Adventists,” ARH, April 30, 1861, 192.

  39. H. J. Kittle and Jos. Clarke, “The Ohio Conference,” ARH, June 10, 1862, 13; H. J. Kittle and Jos. Clarke, “The Ohio General Conference,” ARH, November 12, 1861, 191.

  40. H. J. Kittle and H. F. Baker, “Conference in Ohio,” ARH, March 10, 1863, 118; H. J. Kittle and H. F. Baker, “Report of Ohio Conference,” ARH, June 16, 1863, 24.

  41. Jos. Clarke, “Ohio Conference,” ARH, June 14, 1864, 22-23 The Constitution and Business Proceedings of the Ohio State Conference for the Years 1863, ’64, ’65, & ’66 (Battle Creek, MI: Steam Press, 1866), 8; Eld. James White and Jos. Clarke, “Report of the Ohio Conference: Sixth Annual Session,” ARH, January 12, 1869, 23; Joseph Clarke, “Report of the Ohio Conference: Seventh Annual Session,” ARH, September 7, 1869, 86; Wm. Chinnock, H. Hodgson, and John Mears, “Report of the Ohio Conference,” ARH, October 18, 1870, 142.

  42. M. E. Cornell, “Report of Meetings in Ohio,” ARH, vol. 19, no. 13, February 25, 1862, 101.

  43. Ohio Committee, Delegate Credentials of the 1864 General Conference, 1864 GC Delegates (13721d), General Conference Archives; cf. J. Clarke, “The Meeting at Battle Creek,” ARH, June 7, 1864, 14.

  44. Cf. Jos. Clarke, “It Is the Work of God,” ARH, July 3, 1879, 13.

  45. Joseph Clarke, “Dress,” ARH, October 29, 1857, 205; J. Clarke, “Hoops,” ARH, July 14, 1859, 62; “Hoops,” ARH, August 4, 1859, 88.

  46. Joseph Clarke, “Learning,” ARH, March 15, 1864, 126; Joseph Clarke, “Mental Improvement,” ARH, March 16, 1869, 91.

  47. Joseph Clarke, “Labor and Capital,” ARH, December 18, 1894, 787; Joseph Clarke, “Work,” The Youth’s Instructor, March 17, 1880, 50.

  48. J. Clarke, “The Farmer,” ARH, May 8, 1866, 181.

  49. Jos. Clarke, “Influence of Diet,” ARH, March 27, 1866, 133; Jos. Clarke, “Eating and Drinking,” The Health Reformer, February 1867, 109-110; Jos. Clarke, “Extract from a Letter to a Friend,” The Health Reformer, June 1867, 173-174; cf. Joseph Clarke, “Health,” ARH, February 11, 1858, 106; “Items for the Mouth: Appreciative,” The Health Reformer, August 1868, 40.

  50. Jos. Clarke, “Light,” The Health Reformer, October 1874, 308.

  51. Joseph Clarke, “More Opium,” The Health Reformer, April 1876, 104.

  52. Jos. Clarke, “Better than Pills,” The Health Reformer, June 1872, 165.

  53. E. G. Rust, “Letter from Texas,” ARH, April 29, 1875, 142.

  54. G. Tom Carter, The 19th Century Odyssey of John and Judith: From the Battlefields of the Civil War to the Spiritual Battlefields on the Texas Frontier (Silver Spring, MD: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Ministerial Association, 2007), 61-63.

  55. D. M. Canright, “Texas,” ARH, May 25, 1876, 166.

  56. J. Clarke, “Ohio,” ARH, July 21, 1859, 72.

  57. Jos. Clarke, “The Freedmen,” ARH, September 14, 1876, 91; cf. Jos. Clarke, “Genuine Liberality,” ARH, August 15, 1871, 65.

  58. Alton Hornsby, Jr., “The Freedmen’s Bureau Schools in Texas, 1865–1870,” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly 76, no. 4 (April 1973): 414.

  59. A. B. Rust, “The Freedmen,” ARH, August 3, 1876, 47.

  60. C. W. S., “Testimonial,” ARH, December 14, 1876, 192.

  61. Jos. Clarke, “Our Field,” ARH, March 1, 1877, 72; J. and S. Clarke, “Texas: Deckman, Dallas Co.,” ARH, March 22, 1877, 94; Jos. Clarke, “Texas: Deckman, Dallas Co.,” ARH, May 24, 1877, 166; Joseph Clarke, “Notes By the Way,” ARH, September 26, 1878, 111.

  62. “Wanted,” ARH, April 12, 1877, 120.

  63. Jos. Clarke, “Texas,” ARH, March 8, 1877, 78; J. and S. Clarke, “Texas: Deckman, Dallas Co.,” ARH, March 22, 1877, 94.

  64. Jos. Clarke, “Texas: Deckman, Dallas Co.,” ARH, May 24, 1877, 166.

  65. A. B. Rust, E. G. Rust, and Jos. Clarke, “Texas,” ARH, April 5, 1877, 107.

  66. R. M. Kilgore, “Texas,” ARH, May 17, 1877, 158; Lest We Forget: The Heritage of Southwestern Adventist College, Where Students Live (Keene, TX: Southwestern Adventist College Alumni Association, 1985), 2-3.

  67. C. W. S., “Testimonial,” ARH, December 14, 1876, 192.

  68. D. M. Canright, “Texas,” ARH, May 25, 1876, 166.

  69. Joseph Clarke to Uriah Smith, February 24, 1878, copy in author’s possession.

  70. Ibid.

  71. Hornsby, Jr., “The Freedmen’s Bureau Schools in Texas, 1865–1870,” 398, 408-409.

  72. Joseph Clarke to Uriah Smith, February 24, 1878. The author has a copy of this letter in his possession.

  73. Joseph Clarke to Uriah Smith, September 22, 1878. The author has a copy of this letter in his possession.

  74. Joseph Clarke, “Notes By the Way,” September 26, 1878, 111.

  75. J. G. Wood, “Missouri,” ARH, September 11, 1883, 587-588.

  76. Geo. I. Butler and D. C. Hunter, “Missouri T. and M. Society,” ARH, November 11, 1880, 315.

  77. Geo. I. Butler and S. Clarke, “Missouri Tract Society,” ARH, November 1, 1881, 284; Geo. I. Butler and S. Clarke, “Missouri T. and M. Society,” ARH, October 10, 1882, 631; D. T. Jones and Clara E. Low, “Report of the Missouri T. and M. Society,” ARH, November 6, 1883, 694-695; The Seventh-day Adventist Year Book, 1883 (Battle Creek, MI: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, 1883), 5.

  78. Geo. I. Butler and S. Clarke, “Missouri Tract Society,” ARH, November 1, 1881, 284.

  79. Sarah Clarke, “Missouri Tract Society,” ARH, March 29, 1881, 204; Mrs. S. Clarke, “Missouri Tract Society,” ARH, May 24, 1881, 332; Mrs. Sarah Clarke, “Missouri Tract Society,” ARH, September 6, 1881, 172; Sarah Clarke, “Missouri Tract and Missionary Society,” ARH, March 14, 1882, 174; Mrs. Sarah Clarke, “Missouri Tract and Missionary Society,” ARH, May 30, 1882, 348; Sarah Clarke, “Missouri Tract and Missionary Society,” ARH, August 29, 1882, 557; Sarah Clarke, “Reports of T. and M. Societies: Missouri,” ARH, March 20, 1883, 189; Sarah Clarke, “Report of T. and M. Societies: Missouri,” June 5, 1883, 365; Sarah Clarke, “Report of Missouri T. and M. Society,” ARH, September 11, 1883, 582; Geo. I. Butler and S. Clarke, “Missouri Tract Society,” ARH, November 1, 1881, 284.

  80. Sarah Clarke, “Encouraging Words,” ARH, October 30, 1883, 679; Sarah Clarke, “Tract Work,” ARH, November 6, 1883, 695; Joseph Clarke, “St. Louis Reading-Room,” Signs of the Times, September 3, 1885, 538.

  81. N. W. Allee and J. M. Gallemore, “Missouri Sabbath-School Association,” ARH, October 17, 1882, 653; J. G. Wood and R. S. Donnell, “Missouri H. and T. Society,” ARH, November 14, 1882, 717; Geo. I. Butler and D. T. Jones, “Missouri Conference,” ARH, October 31, 1882, 684.

  82. The Seventh-day Adventist Year Book, 1883 (Battle Creek, MI: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, 1883), 9, 17, 19; “To Brethren in Missouri,” ARH, July 21, 1885, 464; D. T. Jones and J. Clarke, “Missouri Conference Proceedings,” ARH, November 10, 1885, 701.

  83. D. T. Jones and J. Clarke, “Missouri Conference Proceedings,” ARH, November 10, 1885, 701.

  84. Joseph Clarke, “The St. Louis Mission,” ARH, , May 26, 1885, 325; S. N. Haskell, “International Tract and Missionary Society Directory,” Signs of the Times, August 27, 1885, 526; The Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, 1886 (Battle Creek, MI: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, 1886), 13.

  85. Joseph Clarke, “St. Louis Reading-Room,” The Signs of the Times, September 3, 1885, 538.

  86. Joseph Clarke, “Missouri Camp-Meeting,” ARH, November 3, 1885, 682.

  87. Joseph Clarke, “St. Louis Mission,” ARH, January 19, 1886, 39.

  88. Joseph Clarke, “Bible Readings,” ARH, August 10, 1886, 512.

  89. The Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, 1887 (Battle Creek, MI: Review and Herald, 1887), 139.

  90. Joseph Clarke, “Sabbath or Sunday,” ARH, October 22, 1889, 660; cf. Joseph Clarke, “Camp-Meeting at Kingsville, MO.,” ARH, September 17, 1889, 588; Joseph Clarke, “Reforms,” ARH, March 2, 1897, 131.

  91. Joseph Clarke, “United We Stand,” ARH, February 17, 1891, 100; Joseph Clarke, “Our Need of the Spirit of God,” ARH, October 21, 1890, 644; Joseph Clarke, “Forsaking Home,” ARH, January 15, 1895, 36; Joseph Clarke, “Items,” ARH, May 14, 1895, 308.

  92. Joseph Clarke, “Genesis 5:24,” ARH, August 9, 1898, 504.

  93. Joseph Clarke, “Apostasy, or Death in the Pot,” ARH, July 9, 1901, 436.

  94. Ibid.

  95. Michigan, Certificate of Death no. 2053 (1908), Joseph Clarke, Department of State Division of Vital Statistics, Lansing, Michigan; Kevin Morgan, “The Long, Lost Obituary of Joseph Clarke,” Adventist History Blog, July 24, 2014, accessed July 16, 2019, http://www.adventisthistory.org/2014/07/24/the-long-lost-obituary-of-joseph-clarke/#more-277.

  96. C. C. L., “Sketches of Sabbath-School History—No. 3,” ARH, 62, no. 8, February 24, 1885, 118-119.

  97. Joseph Clarke, “Taxes,” The Weekly Perrysburg (OH) Journal, August 15, 1861, 3; cf. Geo. I. Butler, “The Missouri Camp-Meeting,” ARH, October 14, 1880, 248.

  98. Jos. Clarke, “The Review,” ARH, November 5, 1867, 328; cf. Anna H. Hale, “Conference Department: From Sister Hale,” ARH, August 25, 1868, 155.

  99. Kevin Morgan, “The Long, Lost Obituary of Joseph Clarke.”

  100. Jos. Clarke, “A Response,” ARH, November 3, 1868, 230.

  101. Arthur Whitefield Spalding, Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists, vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1961), 226-227.

  102. Emphasis is mine. J. W[hite], “The Review and Herald,” ARH, June 20, 1865, 21.

  103. J. Clarke, “Babylon is Fallen! Come Out of Her, My People!—Rev. xviii,” ARH, November 4, 1858, 190; Jos. Clarke, “The Old Earth,” ARH, May 26, 1859, 6; Joseph Clarke, “Hours,” ARH, December 10, 1895,795.

  104. Jos. Clarke, “Why I Wrote as I Did,” ARH, March 17, 1863, 126.

  105. Joseph Clarke, “Overcoming,” ARH, November 28, 1878, 170.

  106. Jos. Clarke, “Sabbath Meditations, No. 5,” ARH, August 16, 1864, 89-90; Joseph Clarke, “Crumbs,” ARH, April 3, 1879, 107; Joseph Clarke, “Take Heed,” ARH, February 1, 1877, 37; Joseph Clarke, “A Reverie,” ARH, February 14, 1882, 99.

  107. Joseph Clarke, “Spiritual Gifts,” ARH, July 28, 1868, 81-82.

  108. Joseph Clarke, “Genuine and Counterfeit,” ARH, July 1, 1875, 4-5.

  109. Joseph Clarke, “The Fall of Adam,” ARH, July 1, 1890, 404.

  110. Joseph Clarke, “The Two Glories,” ARH, May 27, 1880, 352; Joseph Clarke, “Faith and Works,” ARH, September 2, 1880, 169-170; Joseph Clarke, “Results of the Leipsic Disputation,” The Present Truth, February 12, 1891, 52.

  111. Joseph Clarke, “Freedom of the Press,” ARH, September 16, 1890, 564; Joseph Clarke, “Items from History,” ARH, June 5, 1894, 356.

  112. Joseph Clarke, “Brevities,” ARH, July 9, 1895, 436.

  113. Joseph Clarke, “Crossing at a Ford,” ARH, February 5, 1884, 84.

  114. Jos. Clarke, “Education and Crime,” The Youth’s Instructor, July 15, 1871, 54.

  115. “Turkey,” ARH, December 1, 1859, 14-15; Jos. Clarke, “Sliding Down Hill,” ARH, January 12, 1860, 58.

  116. Joseph Clarke, “‘At It Again’,” The American Sentinel, July 1887, 53.

  117. Jos. Clarke, “Contentment,” The Youth’s Instructor, August 15, 1871, 62.

  118. J. H. Rogers, “Missouri,” ARH, June 16, 1891, 379.

  119. A. H. Lewis, “Letters: From Bro. Lewis,” ARH, February 3, 1859, 87; B. F. Robbins, “From Bro. Robbins,” ARH, July 28, 1859, 79-80; C. Lawton, “A Few Words for the Review,” ARH, January 5, 1860, 55; [James White], “[Editorial],” ARH, May 3, 1864, 180; Wm. Lawton, “The Right Kind of Response,” ARH, April 2, 1867, 200; Anna H. Hale, “Conference Department: From Sister Hale,” ARH, August 25, 1868, 155; Charles P. Whitford, “Are You Going to Camp-Meeting?,” ARH, August 16, 1877, 63.

  120. Joseph Clarke, “Change of the Sabbath,” ARH, March 15, 1887, 164.

  121. Michael Edward Dunn, “Joseph Clarke, a Biography,” 1975, p. 1, White Estate Document File 005514, CAR.

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Burton, Kevin M. "Clarke, Joseph (1818–1908)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. August 29, 2020. Accessed January 27, 2023. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=A953.

Burton, Kevin M. "Clarke, Joseph (1818–1908)." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. August 29, 2020. Date of access January 27, 2023, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=A953.

Burton, Kevin M. (2020, August 29). Clarke, Joseph (1818–1908). Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved January 27, 2023, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=A953.