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Group of Sabbath-Keepers in Reyjavik, Iceland, 1907.

Photo courtesy of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Archives.

Iceland

By Sven Hagen Jensen

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Sven Hagen Jensen, M.Div. (Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, USA) has worked for the church for over 50 years as a pastor, editor, departmental director, and church administrator in Denmark, Nigeria and the Middle East. Jensen enjoys reading, writing, nature and gardening. He is married to Ingelis and has two adult children and four grandchildren.

First Published: May 1, 2023

The first-known Seventh-day Adventist to enter Iceland was the Norwegian minister O. J. Røst who, in the summer of 1893, made a trip to Iceland and the Faroe Islands. He sailed around the island of Iceland, stopping at various ports to visit with people and share the Adventist message. In November 1897, the Denmark Conference sent David Östlund of Sweden to be the first Seventh-day Adventist missionary to Iceland. 

Background Information

Iceland is an island nation in the North Atlantic Ocean. It covers 102,775 sq km and is the most sparsely populated country in Europe with a population of only 387,800 (2022). Reykjavík on the southwestern coast is the capital, home to a third of the population and the northern-most capital of a sovereign state in the world.1 The country’s central volcanic plateau is erupting almost constantly with its 32 active volcanic systems, geothermal lakes, and many hot springs, the latter being used for heating homes and greenhouses. The interior, which is uninhabited, consists of a plateau of sand and lava fields, mountains (with the highest snowcapped peak Hvannadalshnjúkur at 2110 m), and glaciers with many glacial rivers that flow to the sea through the lowland. The thundering waterfalls are among the largest in Europe. Trees are very scarce, and real forests are not found at all. Because of the Gulf Stream, the climate is oceanic, with cool summers and comparatively mild winters.2 3

The national language, Icelandic, is a North Germanic language descended from Old West Norse and most closely related to Faroese and western Norwegian dialects. English is widely understood and spoken, while a basic to moderate knowledge of Danish is common mainly among the older generations.4

The Sagas of Icelanders says that a Norwegian named Naddodd was the first Norseman to reach Iceland, and he named it Snæland (Snowland) because it was snowing. After him, a Swede, Garðar Svavarsson, arrived and called it Garðarshólmur (Garðar's Isle). Then came a Viking by the name of Flóki Vilgerðarsson, whose daughter and livestock died en route, and when this despondent Viking climbed a mountain and saw a fjord full of icebergs, he gave the island its new and present name, Iceland.5 6

From early Icelandic sagas, we are told that Irish monks took hermit-like residence in parts of what is now known as Iceland even before it was inhabited by Norsemen from Scandinavia.7 They were probably Sabbathkeepers, according to Celtic researcher Leslie Hardinge.8

The actual settlement of Iceland began in Reykjavík in 874 A.D. when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, Norwegians and, to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them serfs of Gaelic origin. The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the native parliament, the Alting (Alþingi), one of the world’s oldest functioning legislative assemblies (930-1262). Following a period of civil strife, Iceland entered a union with Norway from 1262-1397. With the establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397, the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden were united, and Iceland followed Norway’s integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden seceded from the union in 1523.9

In 1874, on the millennial anniversary of the settlement in Iceland, Christian IX became king of Denmark and attended the festivities of this watershed occasion. This opportunity was used to issue Iceland its own, separate, constitution. This constitution was called Stjórnarskrá um hin sérstaklegu málefni Íslands and became the basis of Iceland's current constitution. With the Danish-Icelandic Act of Union in 1918, the Kingdom of Iceland was established, sharing the incumbent monarch from Denmark. During the occupation of Denmark in World War II, Iceland voted overwhelmingly to become a republic on June 17, 1944, with Sveinn Björnsson as its first president, thus ending the remaining formal ties with Denmark.10

The nation formally became a member of NATO on March 30, 1949, and joined the European Economic Area in 1994. Vigdís Finnbogadóttir served as the fourth president of Iceland from 1980 to 1996. She was the world's first woman democratically elected as president. With a presidency of exactly 16 years, she also remains the longest-serving elected female head of state of any country to date.11

Religion in Iceland

From Njál’s Saga, we learn that the Alting declared Christianity the official religion in Iceland A.D. 1000. This event is known as the kristnitaka (literally, “the taking of Christianity”). Before that, most of the population had been pagans worshipping the Norse gods. The Christianization of Norway and other Scandinavian countries put pressure on the population of Iceland, and in order to avoid division, a proposal in the Alting “one law and one religion” was carried through, after which baptism and conversion to Christianity became compulsory.12 “The Icelandic Reformation” took place in the middle of the 16th Century. Iceland was, at this time, a territory ruled by Denmark-Norway, and Lutheran religious reform was imposed on the Icelanders by King Christian III of Denmark. Resistance to the Icelandic Reformation ended with the execution of Jón Arason, the Catholic bishop of Hólar, and his two sons, in 1550.”13 As of 2017, about 67.22 percent of the population belonged to the Lutheran Church of Iceland and 11.56% in other Christian denominations.14

The Beginning of Seventh-day Adventist Work

The first-known Seventh-day Adventist to enter Iceland was the Norwegian minister O. J. Røst who, in the summer of 1893, made a trip to Iceland and the Faroe Islands. He sailed around the island of Iceland, stopping at various ports to visit with people and share the Adventist message. At Eskifjörður on the east coast, he convinced a Lutheran minister about the Sabbath. Although the minister never became a member of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, he kept the Sabbath through the end of his life, and in spite of opposition from his own church, he retained his ministerial position.15

In November 1897, David Östlund of Sweden was sent by the Denmark Conference to be the first Seventh-day Adventist missionary to Iceland. On the ship taking him to his field, he was surprised when he met a Sabbathkeeping Icelander who was returning from Denmark to his homeland. The Icelander had been led to keep the Sabbath by reading a copy of The Great Controversy, but he and his wife had not yet been baptized. When he read in the church paper Evangeliets Sendebud that a missionary was being sent to start Seventh-day Adventist work in Iceland, he and his wife decided to return home, hoping they could assist in this new missionary endeavor. Östlund regarded this as a clear sign that he would have a successful mission in this new field. “It gives me strength to begin in faith.”16 He immediately set out to learn Islandic, and only five weeks after his arrival, he preached his first sermon in almost faultless Islandic to 350-400 people.17 He wrote a small book on the Sabbath called Hvidardagur Drottins og helgihald hans fyrr og nu (The Lord’s Sabbath and Its Observance in Earlier Times and at Present), which he published and distributed in the fall of 1898.18 Also, the books The Second Coming of Christ by James White and Steps to Christ by Ellen White were printed in 1898. Later, many new titles followed. Being a printer himself, he set up his own press, and in the year 1900, he began publishing the semimonthly magazine called Fraekorn (The Seed) which, for a time, had the widest circulation of any magazine in the country.19

For a long time, Östland labored alone. He visited the European section of the General Conference in Friedensau in the summer of 1901 and asked for a helper. He was promised an assistant, and in the autumn of 1903, Nils Andersson of Sweden was sent.20 He was a colporteur who worked with the many books that Östlund published, and he stayed as a pioneer canvasser there until 1916.21 Östlund’s public lectures were focused on Reykjavík, but he also visited the east coast. In 1905, Östlund opened a church school with three teachers, but it was discontinued after only a few years.22 The first church was organized on May 19, 1906, in Reykjavík. A church building erected in 1905 was destroyed by fire in 1910, but it was rebuilt and dedicated by Östlund’s successor in 1912.23

The stirring reports of progress from Iceland given by Östlund at the yearly meetings24 did not reflect the true picture of all that was going on. Running some business on the side, which was totally unknown to the church leadership in Copenhagen, had resulted in financial misconduct, and he had to flee to America in 1909 to escape prison.25 Sadly, this resulted in all that had been built up being left in disarray.

In the summer of 1911, the Scandinavian Union sent a new missionary family to Iceland, Olaf Johan Olsen and his wife.26 Here we shall deal with some of the major developments. During his time, a strong foundation was laid for the Seventh-day Adventist work in Iceland, and he became known in Adventist circles outside Iceland as “Iceland-Olsen” and “the apostle to Iceland.” He wanted to reach all of Iceland with the gospel. With a population at the time of 85.000 spread out over the country primarily in small communities and farming areas and with almost non-existing roads, he prepared the ground by visiting with books and other literature, then following up with preaching about the prophecies, when there was an interest.27 And interest there was. He could often fill halls and was invited to hold house meetings. He was a hardworking man, and it was not unusual to for him have 10 house-meetings a day. It caused strong opposition from the ministers of the Lutheran State Church,28 but the opposition abated when, at the outbreak of a typhoid epidemic, he showed his compassion for the people by organizing quarantine quarters and helping treat the sick.29

A major breakthrough came in the Vestmannaeyjar isles, a community of 3,300 population off the coast of the main island. Here a church was organized, and a church school started. Being a practical man, Olsen led out in a major building project with church, school, and clinic, and a hydrotherapy clinic was opened that operated for many years. Evangelistic campaigns were held in Reykjavík, Vestmannaeyjar, and other smaller communities, and many were added to the church. During these years, the awareness of what the Adventists stood for had become well known, and eight organized churches were established.30 31 An interesting feature of Olsen’s work in Iceland, especially in his later years, was the friendly relationship he sustained to the other church leaders. On a number of occasions, he was permitted to hold his meetings in their churches.32 From a report in 1924, we learn that the members of the MV societies equaled more than 40 percent of the entire church membership and were very active in mission work and literature distribution.33

Church Institutions and Further Developments

The Seventh-day Adventist Church in Iceland had been led by Scandinavian missionaries for more than 50 years until 1949, when they received their own national leader, Julius Gudmundsson.34 He was to serve his church in Iceland as pastor, departmental director, and president for 34 eventful years.35 It was during his time that the JMV (Junior Missionary Volunteer) work was organized, the monthly youth paper Viljinn was published, and youth and family camps were introduced.36 The Iceland Publishing House, Frækornið-Bókaforlag Adventista, had already been established in 1932.37 The Bible Correspondence School was opened in 1948,38 and the Iceland Secondary School Hlíðardalsskóli began operating on June 8, 1949.39 40 As a coeducational boarding school, it came to play a major part in training and preserving Adventist youth in Iceland. In the summers of 1954-1964, the school housed a summer sanitarium, Hressingarheimili Hliðardalsskóle.41 On September 24, 1967, the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Iceland had its first TV appearance with an evening religious service.42

Colporteurs (full-time or part-time) continued to cover the country with literature, and in the summer months, there was a student colporteur program where students from abroad could come and earn their school fees by selling the new books that were produced. This climaxed in the mid-1960s when 28 students participated. A health food and literature store was operated for a time next to the conference office. Anti-smoking clinics were conducted for the public, and smoking, alcohol, and drug prevention programs were run in schools. At some point, the boarding school Hliðardalsskóli offered 8th-10th grade education for up to 90 students, and there were four local church schools in function. A successful Ingathering campaign each year reached the remotest places of the country.43 Active Dorcas societies,44 45 a yearly Vacation Bible School, a camp meeting for the churches, and a youth camp became regularly features. With the opening of the secondary school in 1949, there was a slight growth in additions to the church until it plateaued in the 1980s. In 1988, a conference evangelist was employed, an Islander, who worked with materials for a new Revelation Seminar and involved trained laypeople in conducting meetings. A church was reestablished in Hafnarfjörður in 1992 as a result.46 The membership in the conference peaked in the early 1990s, with one Adventist for every 457 population.47

In 1973, a volcanic eruption on the Vestmannaeyjar caused considerable damage and the evacuation of many people. Nearly one third of all homes and buildings burned or had been covered with lava and ashes. This greatly affected the Adventist work. The church building had suffered extensive damage, and the church school, which had operated for 50 years, was closed when only one-half of the members returned to the island.48 The closure of the Hliaðardalsskóli in 1995 was another traumatic experience for many church members. And a schismatic event took place in the church when a pastor who formed his own group was terminated. This gave the church in Iceland a setback for a time.49

The Church in the 21st Century

As secularism has been increasing, this has made an impact on the mindset of people in Iceland. The Seventh-day Adventist Church has had to come up with new ways of reaching the population as a result. Among these was “The Bible 3D” exhibition in the Harper Conference Center in Reykjavík in February 2012, where people could walk through the story of redemption, experiencing a gospel presentation together with a comprehensive Bible-based story. People were reminded of the Bible reading of their ancestors and were then introduced to the Creation, the Fall, the promise of a Redeemer, the birth of Christ, etc. In essence, the exhibition told the story of the Great Controversy.50

Another major event was “Give Me Iceland!” in August 2019, with 50 young Seventh-day Adventist missionaries visiting from six continents met for 10 days of prayer, door-to-door visitation, and the distribution of 150,000 Glow tracts all over the nation. This was a great source of encouragement and inspiration to the church’s members.51 In addition, there have been Health Expos and an evangelistic series by Björgvin Snorrason in the parish hall in Hafnarfjörður.52 The Church in Iceland has been eager and resourceful in sharing the good news of the Three Angels messages in new and appealing ways.

Organization

The General Conference supported the Iceland Mission until 1901, when it was taken over by the Central European Conference, later called the European Division. In 1904, the Mission was incorporated into the Scandinavian Union.53 From 1923, it was operated by the European Division, and in 1928, it became a detached Mission under the Northern European Division. In 1930, it was organized as the Iceland-Faroes Conference and was incorporated in the West Nordic Union in 1931. In 1946, it was separated from the Faroe Islands, and in 1947, it became a Mission attached to Northern European Division. In 1954, it regained its conference status as the Iceland Conference attached to the Northern European Division, then the Northern Europe–West Africa Division in 1971, the Northern European Division in 1980, and lastly the Trans-European Division in 1985.54

Directors, Superintendents, and Presidents

David Östlund (1897-1909), Olaf J. Olsen (1911-1947), O. Frenning (vice-president 1933-1936)55, Johannes Jensen (1947-1949), Julius Gudmundsson (1949-1968), Svein B. Johansen (1968-1973), Sigurdur Bjarnason (1973-1979), Erling B. Snorrason (1979-1988), Eric Gudmundsson (1988-1996), Derek Beardsell (1996-1997), Finn Eckhoff (1997-1998), Gavin Anthony (2000-2006), Eric Gudmundsson (2006-2014), Erling B. Snorrason (2014-2016), Gavin Anthony (2016- )56

Sources

Burgess, Reg. “Icelandic Adventists Conduct Sunday Television Service.” News and Notes, ARH, November 23, 1967.

Buxbaum, Catharina M. “Apostle to Iceland.” Youth Instructor, April 20, 1948.

“Christianization of Iceland.” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianization_of_Iceland.

Cooper, Victor. “The Church in Iceland: small but courageous.” ARH, March 25, 1982.

Dall, Guy. “From the far North.” ARH, February 10, 1903.

Gudmundsson, Eric. “A Strategy for Revitalization and Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Iceland.” Research paper, Andrews University, 2005.

Gudmundsson, Julius. En ny verden blev åbnet (A new world was opened), Autobiography, Skjern, Denmark: Øko-Tryk, 1998.

Guðsteinsson, Reynir. “Aðventistaöfningen í Vestmannaeyjum 40 ára.” Blik, 1965.

“Iceland.” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceland.

“Icelandic volcanoes.” Wikipedia. https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=iceland+volcanoes.

“Icelandic Reformation.” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_Reformation.

Jensen, Sven Hagen. “Olsen, Olaf Johan (1887-1978).” Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists.

Johansen, S. B. “Iceland: Thermal Steam Tapped; School Building Heated.” ARH, February 13, 1963.

Johansen, S. B. “Awakened Volcano Causes Extensive Damage in Iceland.” ARH, April 12, 1973.

Johansen, Svein B. “Iceland Welfare Sisters in Action.” Northern Light, April 1962.

Lindsay, G. A. “Iceland Conference.” ARH, December 29, 1949.

Lindsay, G. A. “From Iceland.” Northern Light, August 1956.

Olsen. O. J. “Our Work in Iceland.” ARH, November 5, 1925.

Olsen, O. J. “Vestmannaoerne, Island.” Missionsefterretninger, May 1923.

Östlund, David. “Iceland: Its Names and Its People.” ARH, April 14, 1903.

Östlund, David. “Religious and Social Conditions in Iceland.” ARH, January 26, 1905.

“Papar.” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papar.

Pedersen, Emanuel W. “Annual Meeting in Iceland.” Northern Light, November 1955.

Raft, J. C. “Iceland.” ARH, February 11, 1915.

Raft, J. C. “Iceland (Concluded).” ARH, February 18, 1915.

Rasmussen, Steen. “Missionary Volunteers on Iceland and Mauritius.” Youth Instructor, September 2, 1925.

Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996. S.v. “Iceland.”

Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996. S.v. “Iceland Sanitarium.”

Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996. S.v. “Iceland Secondary School.”

Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996. S.v. “Iceland Publishing House.”

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Various years. https://www.adventistyearbook.org/.

Snorrason, Bjorgvin. “Pastor David Östlund and the Beginnings of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Iceland.” Research paper, Andrews University, School of Graduate Studies, 1975.

Taylor, Charles. “Adventism in Iceland: warmth in a cold world.” ARH, January 19, 1984.

“The Volcanic Eruption 1973.” Visit Westman Islands. https://visitwestmanislands.com/volcanic-eruption-1973/.

Vigmostad, Arno. Olaf Johan Olsen from Jørstad: Pastor and Missionary in Iceland. Forlagshuset Vigmostad and Bjørke, Bergen, Norway: April 10, 2021.

Notes

  1. “Iceland,” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceland. Accessed February 27, 2023.

  2. “Icelandic volcanoes,” Wikipedia. https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=iceland+volcanoes. Accessed February 27, 2023. American astronauts made their moon moon-landing preparations on the volcanic terrain. Victor Cooper, “The Church in Iceland: small but courageous,” ARH, March 25, 1982, 14.

  3. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Iceland.”

  4. “Iceland,” Wikipedia.

  5. Ibid.

  6. David Östlund, “Iceland: Its Names and Its People,” ARH, April 14, 1903. 14-15.

  7. “Papar”, Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papar. Accessed March 6, 2023.

  8. Cooper, 14.

  9. “Iceland,” Wikipedia.

  10. Ibid.

  11. Ibid.

  12. “Christianization of Iceland,” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianization_of_Iceland. Accessed March 6, 2023. Cooper, 14.

  13. “Icelandic Reformation,” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_Reformation. Accessed March 6, 2023.

  14. “Iceland,” Wikipedia. Accessed March 6, 2023.

  15. J. C. Raft, “Iceland,” ARH, February 11, 1915, 14.

  16. Bjorgvin Snorrason, “Pastor David Östlund and the Beginnings of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Iceland,” 10. Quoted in Eric Gudmundsson, “A Strategy for Revitalization and Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Iceland, research paper, Andrews University, 2005, 185.

  17. Ibid.

  18. Ibid., 22.

  19. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), “Iceland.”

  20. Guy Dall, “From the Far North,” ARH, February 10, 1903, 10.

  21. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), “Iceland.”

  22. Ibid.

  23. Ibid.

  24. David Östlund, “Religious and Social Conditions in Iceland,” ARH, January 26, 1905, 15.

  25. J. C. Raft, “Iceland (Concluded),” ARH, February 18, 1915, 11.

  26. For more about Olsen’s life and 33 years of service to Iceland see, for example, Sven Hagen Jensen, “Olsen, Olaf Johan (1887-1978),” Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists, March 22, 2023, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=6JKR&highlight=Olsen,.

  27. Reynir Guðsteinsson, “Aðventistaöfningen í Vestmannaeyjum 40 ára,” Blik, 1965, 87

  28. Arno Vigmostad, Olaf Johan Olsen from Jørstad: Pastor and Missionary in Iceland, Forlagshuset Vigmostad and Bjørke, Bergen, Norway, April 10, 2021, 8.

  29. Catherine M. Buxbaum, “Apostle to Iceland,” Youth Instructor, April 20, 1948, 4

  30. O. J. Olsen, “Our Work in Iceland,” ARH, November 5, 1925, 9-10.

  31. O. J. Olsen, “Vestmannaoerne, Island,” Missionsefterretninger, May 1923, 45.

  32. “News Flash,” Northern Light, October 1951, 8.

  33. Steen Rasmussen, “Missionary Volunteers on Iceland and Mauritius,” Youth Instructor, September 22, 1925, 2.

  34. G. A. Lindsay, “Iceland Conference,” ARH, December 29, 1949, 17.

  35. See the Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventist article “Gudmundsson, Julius (1909-2001” for further details.

  36. Julius Gudmundsson, En ny verden blev åbnet (A new world was opened), Autobiography, Skjern, Denmark: Øko-Tryk, 1998, 10-12.

  37. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Iceland Publishing House.”

  38. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Iceland.”

  39. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Iceland Secondary School."

  40. An interesting feature was how they by drilling to the depts of 3,600 ft succeeded in tapping thermal steam to heat the school building. This project was supported by a Thirteenth Sabbath Offering overflow. S. B. Johansen, “Iceland: Thermal Steam Tapped; School Building Heated,” ARH, February 13, 1963, 16-17.

  41. Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia (1996), s.v. “Iceland Summer Sanitarium." The Sanitarium could accommodate 50 patients and offered hydrotherapy and electric treatments administered by a qualified physiotherapist and supervised by a physician from Reykjavík.

  42. Reg Burgess, “Icelandic Adventists Conduct Sunday Television Service,” News and Notes, ARH, November 23, 1967, 32

  43. Gudmundsson, 237-238.

  44. Emanuel W. Pedersen, “Annual Meeting in Iceland,” Northern Light, November 1955, 3. G. A. Lindsay “From Iceland,” Northern Light, August 1956: “The Dorcas Society in Reykjavík, named Systrafelagid Alfa, deserves special mention. This society has been in existence well over thirty years and it was the first Dorcas Society in the Northern European Division to work on a wide scale, collecting funds, articles of clothing, and food from the public for general welfare work among the destitute and helpless. Banks, business houses, and firms appreciated so much the welfare work of this society that they gave most generously, and they continue to help year after year. When the founder and leader of the society passed away at a good ripe age a few years ago, she was mourned and missed both by the church and the public, as was Dorcas in the book of Acts.”

  45. Svein B. Johansen, “Iceland Welfare Sisters in Action,” Northern Light, April 1962, 8.

  46. Gudmundsson, 237-238.

  47. “Iceland Conference”, Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1991), 335.

  48. “The Volcanic Eruption 1973,” Visit Westman Islands. https://visitwestmanislands.com/volcanic-eruption-1973/. Accessed March 6, 2023. S. B. Johansen, “Awakened Volcano Causes Extensive Damage in Iceland,” ARH, April 12, 1973, 17-18. Charles Taylor, “Adventism in Iceland: warmth in a cold world,” ARH, January 19, 1984, 20.

  49. Gundmundsson, 239.

  50. TedNEWS, https://ted.adventist.org/news/bible-3d-would-the-bible-fit-in-harpa/. Accessed April 13, 2023.

  51. Jonathan Walter, “Give Me Iceland!” Adventist Mission website. https://am.adventistmission.org/m360v8n2-24. Accessed April 13, 2023.

  52. Eric Gudmundsson e-mail to Sven Hagen Jensen, March 8, 2023.

  53. J. C. Raft, 14.

  54. Seventh-day Adventist Yearbooks, 1906-2021.

  55. On the site leader, when Olaf J. Olsen was principal for the Onsrud Mission School in Norway 1933-1936.

  56. Seventh-day Adventist Yearbooks, 1904-2021.

×

Jensen, Sven Hagen. "Iceland." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. May 01, 2023. Accessed February 20, 2024. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=DCR7.

Jensen, Sven Hagen. "Iceland." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. May 01, 2023. Date of access February 20, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=DCR7.

Jensen, Sven Hagen (2023, May 01). Iceland. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved February 20, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=DCR7.