The Adventist University of Lukanga, known officially in French as L'Université Adventiste de Lukanga (UNILUK), is an institution of higher education in Butembo, Nord Kivu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Developments that Led to the Establishment of the University
In 1994, the only French-speaking university in Africa, the Adventist University of Central Africa (AUCA) at Mudende in Rwanda, suddenly closed its doors due to genocide taking place in the country. While students from other faculties could find refuge in other universities in their countries to complete their studies, those studying theology were facing an uncertain future. Thus, the first decision of the administrative authorities of AUCA was to look for a way out for the students in their final year of theology. The Lukanga site was chosen to host these students. This special session for those theology students was scheduled to begin in July of the same year, 1994.
Prior to this, Lukanga was an Institute (Institut Adventiste de Lukanga) which had been a co-educational institution operated by the Zaïre Union. While it was founded in 1965, it was not until 1975 that the government recognized it as a secondary and higher education institution offering a diploma in pedagogy. Additionally, two theology courses had been introduced with the help of AUCA. In 1990, a technical school was established (Institut Techniquede Lukanga). The schools operated independently of each other.1
However, Lukanga was only a temporary answer. Thus, a permanent solution had to be sought for the leadership training for the church. The Africa Indian Ocean Division (AID) established a resolution to initiate arrangements with Griggs University, which offered correspondence collegiate education, to take over the centers in several French-speaking countries in Africa as their own extensions under the patronage of the Department of Education of the division instead of relocating the sizeable AUCA. Accordingly, six extensions were created: two in the Republic of Zaire (Lukanga and Lulengele), one in Kigali, one in Madagascar, one in Cameroon, and one in Mauritius.2
The Griggs University Extension at Lukanga
In June 1994 a delegation under the leadership of Dr. Robert G. Pierson, former principal of AUCA and new director of AID Department of Education, arrived at Lukanga to establish the Griggs extension. The authorities of the Adventist Mission of Lukanga, under their head Safari Bisika and those of the Association supervised by Kamate Kyambale, with some lay people, gathered at “Mont Peak” and expressed their desire to welcome and support this development. Kasay Bisogho Laurent was appointed to lead this process. The vote was ratified at the Congo Union Mission in Lubumbashi and by AID.3
To supervise the students who had left AUCA, Kasay appealed to Kakule Mithimbo, then director of Church Ministries in the West Congo Field in Kinshasa, and Samuel Shyirakera, his colleague from AUCA. They held master's degrees from Andrews University’s extension in Nigeria. In October 1994 the Griggs extension opened on the premises of the old pastoral school that had closed 10 months earlier. The only faculty was in theology. Kakule Mithimbo was named director of Admissions and Archives and assistant at the faculty at Lukanga extension. Kasereka Kikama oversaw finances. Samuel Shyirakera was called to serve at Lulengele extension, Western Kasai.4
The steps were underway to prepare for the start of the new academic year. The rundown buildings needed refurbishment. It was also necessary to advertise to attract more students. About 40 students came in October. Besides the two theology teachers (Kakule Mithimbo and Samuel Shyirakera), other workers joined the staff of the new extension: Dale Kamberg, in charge of building the hydroelectric dam; Catherine Kamberg, his wife, was the librarian; and she was assisted by Edeline Bayikereta Kasay. Collette Kavira Mugheni was the receptionist in the library, which temporarily operated in one of the rooms of the Kamberg house. Kakevire was a typist and private secretary to the director of Admissions and Archives. Kasereka Bakwa served as driver for a short time.5
During the 1995 session of the Congo Union Mission, Kasay Bisogho Laurent was asked to add the directorship of the Lukanga Mission to his responsibility of overseeing Griggs extension. At this stage, Griggs University (U.S.A.) wanted to reopen the dispensary, which had been closed for several years. However, the financial situation was so precarious that two nurses declined to serve at the dispensary. However, one of the wives of the students accepted the challenge. To facilitate the start of the project, the Congo Union Mission, headquartered in Lubumbashi, entrusted some of the infrastructures of the Lukanga Adventist Mission to this extension. This heritage included 11 houses and apartments made of sustainable materials for teachers, eight apartments in sustainable materials for students, a dormitory for single students, two buildings serving as offices and auditorium at Mount Peak, and the entire library of the old pastoral school.6
Encouraged by the progress of the extension of Griggs University, which had 52 students in its second year of existence, and pressed by local communities who were highly motivated by the existence of a tertiary institution, the management team of the Griggs University sent a dossier of application for approval to the Ministry of Higher Education, University and Scientific Research. The establishment of a university at Lukanga had already been the subject of discussion in other meetings, including the mid-year committee of AID held in Douala on June 6, 1995, and during the annual committee held in Abidjan on November 14, 1995.
Because of the confidence that the authorities of the Republic of Zaire placed in the Adventist Church, the answer did not take long to come from the cabinet of ministers: a decree was issued to authorize the operation of Adventist University of Lukanga. The decree was signed on February 22, 1996. It allowed the planning of the opening of other faculties from October of the same year, 1996.
The Adventist University – Wallace Campus (AUWC)
As the Griggs extension continued operating, AID was considering a reorganization of higher education in the division. A commission was appointed to discuss this reorganization in Abidjan during August 7 and 8, 1996. There was an intention of creating two major universities--an English-speaking one (Babcock University -Nigeria) with a satellite campus in Ghana (Valley View College), and a French-speaking one (AUCA -Rwanda) with satellite campuses in Lukanga, Madagascar, and Nanga-Eboko (Cameroon). The decision was made to have each campus autonomous and report to two senates at the division: one for English-speaking universities and another for all French-speaking universities grouped under the supervision of the director of Education of AID. The grouping of French-speaking Adventist universities of Africa bore the name of the Adventist University followed by a name of the campus. This is how the University of Lukanga was named Adventist University-Wallace US (AU-WC), ignoring the name which had just been approved and communicated by the minister. The same commission proposed closing Griggs extensions at Lulengele and Mauritius. The first academic year of AU-WC started on October 15, 1996, with Jose Dial in charge. To begin, four faculties were launched: theology, education, economics, and languages, with a total of 100 students.7
Founding of Adventist University of Lukanga (AUL)
From the start of operation of the extension of AUCA, the administration felt the need to construct buildings, which could possibly welcome the other faculties there as soon as they were functional. This is how some students were asked to start making bricks. As the church was not yet financially supporting the extension, the administrators turned to lay members who had offered to build some classrooms. A few days after the start of the school year in October 1996, the first stone of the construction of building C was laid in the presence of the new principal, Dr. Jose Dial, and of association authorities and many lay people from Butembo and other locations. The foundation of the building was completed in May 1997. The war which had intensified over time forced Dial to leave Zaire and move to Madagascar in January 1997.8
In 1997, the area (North and South Kivu provinces) was still living under the liberation war, which was led by the AFDL (Alliance of Democratic Liberation Forces). In the meantime, Adventist University-Wallace (AU-WA) operated in parallel with Griggs University on the Lukanga site, where Kakule Mithimbo Paul was serving as registrar and vice-chancellor. At that time, Gerald Vyhmeister was the registrar at the Adventist University of Kigali and coordinator of the Griggs extensions in Zaire and Rwanda. In February 1997, Dr. Pierson, then principal of the AU-WA, was already proposing his replacement in the person of Doctor Jose Dial as vice-principal of the University while the latter was still working as a professor at the University of Zucher, Madagascar.
In Madagascar, Dial wrote to the interim authorities of the University and inquired about the political situation in Zaire. Dial doubted he would be ever going back to Zaire. Kakule Mithimbo Paul responded to him on February 9, 1997, and gave him details of the general situation in the country and the normal functioning of the university despite the aggressive situation that was raging in the east of the country. He explained that the schools were functioning normally in the liberated eastern territory of Zaïre. The message from Pastor Mithimbo's letter gave Jose Dial a glimmer of hope that he could return to Zaire to continue his activities at AU-WA. Indeed, at that time, everyone wanted Dial to return to Lukanga, which became a reality in March 1997. The university community and the population of Lukanga welcomed him with applause.
In November 1997, the foundation stone of the academic building C was laid. The ceremony brought together university staff composed of Jose Dial, Kakule Mithimbo, Bahati M. Vitsange, Joseph I. Masinda, and Syluvalwa Kambale, and the delegation of the Association of North Kivu led by Pastor Kamate, then president of the Association of North Kivu, and a group of lay members from Butembo led by Paluku Kyataka and Kavatsi, who had contributed to the building with two trucks of stones and a collection of 330 sheets. Doctor Dial remained as vice-principal of AU-WA until October 1998, a few months after the first convocation of academic degrees which took place from May 22 to 24, 1998. During his mandate (1997-1998), the Adventist University of Lukanga took the name of "Adventist Wallace University" (AWU) in memory of Doctor Elton Wallace, the first pioneer missionary of Adventist Higher Education in the north east region of Zaire. However, Dial proposed the name, “Adventist University of Lukanga” (AUL).
During the mandate of Jose Dial (1997-1998), Kakule Mithimbo Paul was academic secretary general and registrar of the university, while Bahati M. Vitsange led the Student Services Department and served as dean of men. Matsoro Mitondo Amédée, who arrived in 1997 from ADRA Goma, was dean of the faculty of Educational Sciences. Norbert Paluku Vagheni, freshly arrived from the University of Kinshasa, was dean of the faculty of Management and Administration, and Mabudi Biodi Stéphane from the Kasai Occidental Association was dean of the Faculty of Theology. Bahati Vitsange was dean of the faculty of Languages. Gymlin Anacleto oversaw the financial affairs of the University while the day-to-day cash and bookkeeping were the responsibility of Mrs. Dial. Dr. Joseph I. Masinda served as director of Student Services.
On May 24, 1998, UNADEL had the first convocation of academic degrees with 27 laureates from Griggs University and one laureate from UNADEL, Faculty of Theology. In October 1998, Dr. Jose Dial left. From that date, Dr. Joseph I. Masinda, then general academic secretary, became the acting principal of the University. He was confirmed principal of the University in the Senate of Adventist universities held in Kigali from February 17-19, 2001.
After the departure of Jose Dial and the arrival of Joseph I. Masinda as academic secretary general and principal of AUL, the national workforce took over the university from 1999. Then the development of the university took a new course in spite of the difficult periods caused by the outbreak of a new war coming from several rebel groups of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (AFDL).
The construction of the academic building (Building C) continued normally despite the difficult times. On October 17, 1999, the University had its second academic convocation with 20 laureates, including six in Management and Administration, seven in Educational Sciences, one in Theology, one in Languages and Human Sciences, and five in Griggs University. Musema Kasereka, then president of the North East Sector of Congo, chaired the academic graduation ceremony. The event was rich in colors, where for the very first time, the laureates walked in gowns. From then on, other universities wanted to emulate AUL, and they were borrowing University gowns from all over the country. On October 18, 1999, the Cafeteria opened for the first time, improving the welcoming conditions for our students on campus.
On December 1, 1999, the university experienced a notable increase in staff: Sihingirwa Kahindo as assistant professor in faculty of Education Sciences; Muhindo Masivi in faculty of Management and responsible for the computer laboratory; Kambale Muhongya in faculty of Theology; and in the technical sector; Kambale Matamo as trainee plumber; and Paluku Kisunzu as trainee carpenter. Taking advantage of the rebellion, some schools operated departments that were not attributed to them. Thus, the Ministry of Higher Education ordered the Higher Institute of Arts and Crafts (ISAM) to transfer its students from the Department of Psychology to the Faculty of Education Sciences of AUL on December 7, 1999. About 30 students came from ISAM to continue their training at AUL.
On February 6, 2000, AUL received the first container of books from the United States. The container arrived in difficult times because each service set up by the rebel administration tried to extract its share from everything that came from outside. Approximately US $6,000.00 was spent on transportation, customs clearance, and other multiple services set up by the rebel administration. From March 15-17, 2000, AUL received the visit of the International Board of Education. The delegation consisted of Gurland Dulan, director of Education at the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists in Maryland, the United States; Willard Munger, principal of Condesei University in Cameroon; Paul Pichot, principal of Zurcher University in Madagascar; Ms. Rasamoely, director of Education at AID; and Pastor Gray, treasurer at AID.
On April 24, 2000, the university saw an acceleration in construction and repair works, installation of toilets in the girls’ dormitory, completion of the Kasalala stable, and the kitchen of the provisional guesthouse.
In the midst of rebellion, threats of theft of private wealth loomed. Therefore, on May 28, 2000, the administration took measures to prevent the probable occupation of the Kasalala University land by the soldiers of the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC). Despite these preventive measures, on July 27, 2000, a letter confirming the occupation of the Kasalala field by the operations commander Lubwe Training Wing was received. This occupation was arbitrary because it took place without the consent of the university. In the meantime, the engagement and end of internship of the following staff were confirmed: Kasereka Kasumbu, Kavira K. Mbassome, Kambale Muhongya, Muhindo Masivi, Kasereka Muhyana, Katembo Bisusi, Kambale Matambo, and Paluku Kisunzu by the votes taken on July 27, 2000.
Despite all odds, the university continued to strive. In February 2001, the construction of the duplex for staff accommodation began, and the academic building (Building C) was inaugurated as well as the laying of stone for the construction of the Library (Building D) by Elder Owusu Ebnezer. In the meantime, the Senate of February 17, 2001, held in Kigali appointed Dechy Chinyabuuma as director of Student Services at UNADEL. He came from the South Kivu Field where he served as director of the Publications and Communication Department. The fame of the Adventist University of Lukanga had spread throughout the region. Imminent professors from other universities were interested in UNADEL. Among many others, Professor Kalala Nkundi of the University of Kisangani (UNIKIS) visited, followed by Professor Lubamba Fwanda, who initiated, in February 2001, the Higher Studies Diploma program (DES) on the AUL campus with the support of the University of Kisangani.
However, 2001 turned out to be more tumultuous politically and administratively. Rebels ruled the country, and it was the armed groups, notably the Mai-mai, who made the law. The period was so difficult that the public administration was powerless to protect the population against the ravages of the Mai-mai. This is how March 18 turned out to be the most difficult day for the University. The Mai-mai entered the university campus. Some staff members were assaulted. Some students from Goma were also attacked. Kakule Mithimbo, Mbassome Muluhirwa, and Tatasi Tshoma were taken to Nyarusunzu hill where another group of Mai-mai was waiting for them to interrogate them on the pretext that their land in Nyarusunzu was illegally occupied by the Adventist Mission of Lukanga. In the middle of the interrogation, one of the Mai-mai threatened to shoot at close range the group of people that had been arrested, and a discussion ensued between the Mai-mai themselves, so another Mai-mai had to follow the orders given by their leader. In this mess, it started raining suddenly, which instantly dispersed the people. The group of people arrested took the opportunity to leave in the middle of the rain, and they were saved. Many believe that God had sent the rain to save the lives of His servants.
The events of March 18 paved the way for unwarranted desires from property owners to attempt to take over the grounds belonging to the University. Voices were raised claiming that the University was illegally occupying the land. Thus in May 2001, to calm the situation, the University agreed to pay unduly the former land chiefs represented by the families of Kahungu Bwirabwahali and Mastaki Kisambi for the land of Kaghumo, Kyangulube and Kirumu, Kasisale Muhasa for the Vuyiri site, Paluku Muthahinga for the Katemaghetse site and Mathias Matolu for the Katwakangula site. Therefore, the Adventist Church had paid twice for the same land.
Despite the challenges of March 18, 2001, AUL did not give up. One thing that drove the authorities was the development of the university. It was with this in mind that on June 15, 2001, the AUL authorities sent a letter of request for final approval to the Ministry of National Education in Kinshasa. In July 2001, the university mandated Kakule Mithimbo Paul to do a follow up on the file in Kinshasa. The documentation, the status, and the beautiful photos of the university amazed the personnel at the Ministry because, for them, the old universities in Congo had never produced such documents. The trip to Kinshasa was not easy because the country was already split into two parts: The East administered by the rebels, and the West under the government administration. The citizens coming from the East were not only frowned upon in Kinshasa, but also the trip itself was long and arduous. At that time, to go to Kinshasa, one had to go through Kampala - Nairobi - Kinshasa. Direct communication between East and West was completely cut off. It is in this difficult context that Mithimbo traveled to Kinshasa.
After a stay of three months and hard work in Kinshasa, Mithimbo managed to send the file to the president of the Democratic Republic of Congo to be signed. The dossier having reached this stage, it was necessary to wait only for the moment when the president would affix his signature on the document. The file reached there, and some people in the Ministry advised Mithimbo to return to AUL and wait there. It appeared that the president had already signed the decree, but by handing the document over to the various departments, it apparently was lost. When a special advisor to the president visited AUL, he was asked to follow up on the document. He advised AUL to produce audiovisual elements that he would take to the president himself. Investigations by the president’s special adviser confirmed that the document had been lost, and that the university would have to wait.
Despite all those obstacles, UNADEL authorities did not lose hope. The university staff was growing. On October 15, 2001, Kasereka Kavinywa was called as professor in the faculty of theology.9 In the meantime, construction work on building D was still going on despite difficult and unstable moments.
In 2002, the political situation in the country was still the same. Clashes by armed groups were happening here and there. The war situation forced people to leave their place of origin, which plunged them into great poverty. Parents of students were unable to pay fees for their children.
However, the staff did not lose heart. They moved forward with the development of the University. The ceremony of the laying of the first stone for the construction of the Church of AUL took place on February 18, 2002, by Pastor Kasereka Kisunzu, then district leader of Lukanga.
Although still a very young university, AUL was no less known in the scientific world. Thus represented by Katembo Kambere Thaddée, AUL participated from July 24-26, 2002, in a large forum under the theme: “Quality of training in Higher and University Education in Kivu.” After the forum, AUL sent out its directory, a document that other universities attending the forum were missing. In this way, the Adventist University of Lukanga inspired other universities to develop their own version of this important document.
Adventist University of Lukanga Comes Under East-Central Africa Division
At the end of 2002, Africa was divided into three Divisions: Southern Africa and Indian Ocean Division, West-Central Africa Division, and the East-Central Africa Division. From this moment, the Adventist University of Lukanga became one of the three Adventist universities of the East-Central Africa Division. The other two were the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton in Kenya, and the Adventist University of Central Africa in Rwanda.
Officers from the East-Central Africa Division (ECD), once elected, made the Adventist University of Lukanga the recipient of their very first visit. This trip was a great blessing to UNILUK because ECD officers noticed that the church members, despite their low income, dreamed of building a beautiful temple to the Lord. They promised to do their best to collect money to complete the construction of the church, which had already started with the members’ contributions. They delivered on their promise. ECD financed the construction of UNILUK church until its completion. ECD also granted a scholarship to several faculty and staff to receive training at different universities in the country and abroad.10
As part of the university’s development, there was an upgrade in equipment. The new equipment included 16 computers, a photocopier, a projector, three clippers, a television screen, a receiver, two fire extinguishers, and two printers which were received on January 23, 2003. In March 2003, the university purchased the water source that supplies the secondary school and the university from the land chiefs of Vuhima.
In June 2003, the University was still going through difficult times because of the troops of the National Army of Congo (ANC) from Goma erected their camp some 600 meters on the southwest side of the campus. Some troops camped on the northeast side of the campus. During the morning and evening, a long line of armed men paraded across the campus. Students and staff fled, leaving the campus empty. This situation lasted for two months. One morning, ANC troops packed and left. It was then that the university learned that MONUC (the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo) had negotiated a buffer zone (neutral zone) in which the troops were to disengage. This put the Lukanga campus in the neutral zone, causing a sigh of relief. However, it was surprising to see soldiers, who were supposed to disengage, line up about 3 km and turn their guns towards the secondary school and the university. It was understood that they were only waiting for an order to attack and destroy the two schools. The armed forces of MONUC provided protection and asked the armed forces of Goma to retreat to carry out the order given within the framework of the peace agreement signed in Burundi in May 2003. The ANC troops backed down, but left a mass bomb 600 meters from the university campus.
The bomb had been concealed in the place where ANC troops had decamped. MONUC forces were alerted about the presence of this deadly device. When they arrived at the place where the bomb was placed, they advised the population to avoid walking in that area and to ensure that animals did not wander into there. To defuse the bomb, they needed to bring the materials from Kindu, almost 900 km away. One night, 15 km from the campus, the ANC soldiers threw a high-explosive shell in the direction of the bomb they had laid in order to detonate it and thus carry out their project. The high-explosive shell missed its target and crashed into a banana plantation. MONUC’s armed forces arrived to defuse the device. The device was defused without causing any damage.
The Government Approval
From October 24-25, 2004, the university received a visit from the delegation of the secretary general of Higher and University Education in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Among the objectives of the visit was to monitor the application of the instructions of the Ministry of Higher and University Education. The head of the delegation was the president of the National Commission for the Accreditation of Higher and University Education Institutions as well as the Commission for Endorsement and Approval of Academic Titles (Diplomas) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He commended the Adventist University of Lukanga for being among the best establishments in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Among the recommendations, the president of the delegation reiterated the opening of the cycle of the Bachelor for the Faculty of Educational Sciences and the other faculties should be accelerated. He added that after eight years of AUL operation (1996 to 2004), the establishment experienced a delay in the opening of the second cycle.
The year 2004 brought hopes of socio-political peace and security. The Sun City agreement in South Africa had just been concluded between rebel factions and the government of Kinshasa. A transitional government was led by a president and four vice-presidents. This situation slowed down decision-making on certain files. Thus, the Presidential Decree which was to sanction the final approval of the Adventist University of Lukanga would wait for another two years before it was signed on June 12, 2006.11
On April 22, 2007, the plenary assembly made up of all AUL staff members carried out an internal evaluation of their five-year strategic plan (2005-2010). It was noted with satisfaction that half of the actions requested in 2005 were already being carried out.
In May 2007, AUL members of staff who had been sent on staff development began to arrive, in particular Mumbere Kavughe, for the faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kambale Muhongya, for the faculty of Theology and Mumbere Kisumano for the faculty of Economic and Sciences. The Senate of May 20, 2007, held in Nairobi hired Dr. Muhindo Luthegha at the AUL Polyclinic and Pastor Kasereka Muthavaly in the faculty of Theology. The Senate recommended ECD Executive Committee to vote on the allocation of 0.5 percent of the tithes of the Union’s constituent to AUL. On May 27, 2007, the AUL polyclinic was inaugurated. In order to strengthen the structure of the emerging polyclinic, on June 29, 2007, procedures for authorizing the opening of the polyclinic and the assignment of the doctor was initiated with the Provincial Government of North Kivu. At the same time, Musundi Musikwa committed to the polyclinic as medical secretary and cashier. On August 17, 2007, to make the Lab service more efficient, Muhindo Kahamba was hired for a six-month trial period.
In April 2008, UNILUK complied with the recommendations of the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo to raise all departments to the Bachelor level.
AUL Extensions Closed
On April 9, 2010, AUL implemented instructions from the DRC Ministry of Higher and University Education related to the closure of the extensions. In order to comply with the instructions of the Ministry of Higher and University Education, the UNILUK Senate held on May 6, 2010, in Nairobi decided to transfer a first group composed of 30 students from Lubumbashi, Kinshasa, and Kananga to the Lukanga central campus. In July 2010, through Paul Kakule Mithimbo, principal of UNILUK, during his visit to Germany, UNILUK signed a partnership with SAI (Support Africa International) to equip the polyclinic with medical equipment. This medical equipment was a donation from the German government to UNILUK through Support Africa International from Germany, chaired by Dr. Pfeiffer.
AUL Purchases More Land and Introduces a New Program
UNILUK purchased 30 hectares of land in July 2011 for the cultivation of cocoa in Kisima in the Beni Territory. The administration decided to buy another piece of land in Bunzi / Beni for agriculture on December 12, 2011. The School of Medical Techniques at UNILUK became a reality by the evaluation conducted by the Adventist Accrediting Association (AAA) in March 2012. It directly followed an authorization to operate by the Ministry of Higher and University Education in Kinshasa on August 29, 2012.12
Rectors (Vice Chancellors)
Griggs Extension: Kasay Bisogho Laurent (October 1994-October 1996)
Adventist University of Lukanga: Jose Dial (October 1996-October 1998), Joseph Is’Evikondo (October 1998-October 2006), Kakule Mithimbo Paul (October 2006-February 2014), Benjamin Akyiano (February 2014-February 2018), Amir Gulzar (February 2018-November 2018), Malembe Tatasi Fils (November 2019-Present).
Adventist University of Lukanga address: Adventist University of Lukanga, P.O. Box 180 Butembo, North-Kivu D.R. Congo
Kakule, Mithimbo Paul, Cours d’histoire de l’Eglise Adventiste du 7e Jour en Afrique et en RD Congo. UNILUK: Lukanga, 2O14.
Seventh-Day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2013.
Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Second revised edition. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996. S.v. “Lukanga.”
The Democratic Republic of Congo Government Approval letters. University of Lukanga Archives, Butembo, North-Kivu, the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Votes of the Administrative Committee of University of Lukanga, 2001-2003. University of Lukanga Archives, Butembo, North-Kivu, D.R. Congo.
Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, 1996 edition, s.v. “Lukanga.”↩
Laurent Bisogho Kasay personal knowledge.↩
Lukanga, AID Year-End Executive Committee Minutes, 1994.↩
Personal knowledge of Kakule Mithimbo Paul as rector from 2006 to 2014.↩
Personal knowledge of the authors as rectors of the university.↩
Kasay Bisogho Laurent, personal knowledge as rector from 1994 to 1996.↩
Kakule Mithimbo Paul, personal knowledge as rector from 2006 to 2014.↩
Personal knowledge of the authors.↩
Vote 2001-040 of the Administrative Committee, October 15, 2001, University of Lukanga archives.↩
Vote 2003-018, April 17, 2003, University of Lukanga archives.↩
Presidential Decree number 06/0106, University of Lukanga archives.↩
Letter N. UNILUK/REC/MTB/052/012 of August 29, 2012, University of Lukanga archives.↩