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Hong Kong Adventist College Administrative building, 2018. 

From Adventism in China Digital Image Repository.

Hong Kong Adventist College

By Kristopher C. Erskine

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Kristopher C. Erskine completed an M.S. in social science at Syracuse University and a Ph.D. in the history of Sino-U.S. Relations at The University of Hong Kong. Erskine teaches American Foreign Policy, topics in the 20th century United States and Chinese history.  Erskine has published articles on Sino-U.S. Relations, written a book on the history of Adventist commercial cookie bakers, and is completing a manuscript on the role of non-state actors in the formation of international relations. Erskine is an assistant professor of history and history education at Athens State University. 

First Published: August 3, 2020

Hong Kong Adventist College and Hong Kong Adventist Academy are coeducational institutions, grades K-16 located in Clearwater Bay, Hong Kong. The college traces its lineage to 1903, and for much of its early beginning, it operated as an elementary school or as a training center for church workers. The college has officially operated as a postsecondary institution since 1958. Hong Kong Adventist Academy also traces its origins to 1903. Although the academy opened unofficially in 2007, it did not gain formal legal status until 2010.

Developments That Led to Establishment of the School

Throughout North America and the world, Seventh-day Adventists were following the counsel of Ellen G. White and opening schools that would train young people in teaching, medicine, health, and industry. The Chinese-speaking territory was no exception to this movement. Coinciding with White’s call to education, China’s government was just beginning to open up to Western education. The Boxer Uprising (1899-1901) had disrupted the status quo in China, and Empress Dowager Cixi had issued an imperial edict that both abolished the millennium-long system of civil-service examinations and opened more Western curriculum schools.

The first Seventh-day Adventist to begin mission work in this part of the world had already been in China for more than a decade. This was Abram LaRue, who arrived in Hong Kong in May 1888. LaRue was not a pastor nor was he a teacher, but he worked the docks and ports, providing Christian literature to sailors. LaRue’s efforts gained a foothold for the next pioneer Adventist missionaries to Hong Kong, and the first to China.1 These were Edwin and Susan Haskell Wilbur, Ida E. Thompson, and Jacob Nelson Anderson and his wife Emma Thompson Anderson, who arrived in 1902.2 Following shortly thereafter was Emma Anderson’s sister, Ms. Ida E. Thompson, who also arrived in 1902. Other families followed.

For the first two years, these missionaries primarily focused on learning the language and preparing for the work in mainland China.3 But in May 1902, just weeks after she arrived in February, Ida Thompson began teaching two local men near what may have been an Adventist-run food shop in Hong Kong.4 There was a need for English teachers, and Thompson reasoned that she “might as well help a number in that same time,” rather than focus just on those two men. After securing the help of LaRue, Anderson, and some local Chinese businessmen, Thompson was able to secure use of a teaching space, desks, and other teaching implements, and the school fees were fifty cents Mexican a month.5 The school was called The English Conversation School and was a boys’ school, with many “fine lads,” according to Thompson.6 The school proved popular, and enrollment quickly rose to twenty, which was the limit, and “many were turned away.”7 But in August 1903 Thompson contracted malaria and was forced to close the school. Although she considered reopening after she recovered, Thompson later wrote, “We did not feel it profitable to start the school again, as I wanted to get into China to work among the women as soon as possible.”8

Although China’s reforms presented an opening for Adventists to open schools in China, much about Adventism was against the pillars of Chinese culture; women were generally not valued outside of the home, and educating them was thought unnecessary, the study of medicine was not considered a worthwhile pursuit, and industrial and agricultural training was the work of coolies –laborers–not scholars. Yet, the church did teach service to humanity, honoring one’s parents, and benevolence, values that were built into Confucian and Chinese thought.

Founding of the School

Bethel Girls' School, 1904-1922

In June 1903 Ida Thompson left Hong Kong and arrived in Canton City, Kwantung Province (today’s Guangzhou, 广州), in South China. Thompson and the Andersons immediately began planning to open a girls’ school.9 Records are conflicting, but a first building in Tongqing Fang (同庆坊) may have been rented and then purchased, but it was also immediately renovated.10 The location was in the Nankwan area (Nanguan, 南关) of Canton, close to the Pearl River. By mid-March 1904 Thompson had already admitted twenty-four students, and the school was at capacity; probably on March 17 the school held their first classes, with Thompson as the only teacher.11 Enrollment continued to increase, and in July 1906 Thompson hired a second teacher to assist with an enrollment of thirty-six.12 Bethel students were both young girls and adult women.13

It is not clear when the school adopted the name Bethel Girls’ School (BGS), but it seems to have been shortly after the school opened. Of the name, Thomson wrote, “This name was adopted as a compliment to my native state Wisconsin and was maintained at the expense of that [Seventh-day Adventist] conference. The Wisconsin Conference had called their intermediate school ‘Bethel School. . . .’ Aside from this, Bethel, House of God, appealed to us as being an appropriate title for a Christian school set in the midst of a great heathen city.”14

The school location in this “heathen city” of Canton was in a rented house on a narrow street two blocks from the Pearl River. It was apparently small and makeshift.15 Limited by space, in 1906 the BGS purchased a nearby empty Baptist Academy and moved to a more permanent location.16 This new location was on Chu Kwong Lane (珠光里, later, Man Tak South Road), but was still in Nankwan.17 Here Bethel Girls’ School was able to open a dormitory and take in twenty boarding pupils. From this point forward, “the training work was much more effective,” Thompson reported.18 Not only did the school prosper at the new location, but the missionary school for girls was so popular that a branch school was opened in March 1907, about two miles outside the East Gate, with Miss Amanda Van Scoy in charge.19 That branch school was called the East Gate School and operated until at least 1912.

By November 1909 Bethel had 60 students, 25 of whom were boarding.20 But the old Baptist Academy was soon outgrown and “the market in the neighborhood made the place unsuitable for a school location,” one Chinese school official later reported.21 By 1913 a site had been purchased about two miles outside the East Gate of the city, where a new campus would be built. Although records are not clear, this new property may be on or near the site where Miss Van Scoy began the branch school in 1907. Both are described as located two miles outside of the East Gate.22 That new campus would be in Tungshan (today it is Dongshan, 东山,in the middle of Guangzhou). Here they began to build dormitory and classroom buildings, and by 1915 they were using the new facility.

Travel by riverboat was a common mode of transport from Canton, and one former missionary described getting to the Tungshan compound by boat; it was a twenty-five minute ride from the Pearl River, then a three-block walk from the river landing, walking on narrow streets of smooth paving stones.23 Arriving on the compound came into a south-facing semicircle, with the eight-grade girls’ school on one end of the semicircle and the ten-grade boys’ school (once the boys joined the campus in 1916) on the other end of the semicircle. The missionaries occupied brick houses in the middle. There was also a dormitory on the compound.24

Canton Boys’ School 1904-1922

In August 1904, only a few months after BGS opened, Edwin H. Wilbur opened a boys’ school. In the initial year of operation, the school claimed forty students on the books, but only about twenty were reported to have attended regularly.25 The name given to the school was Yik Chee Boys’ School (益智男校, and some records Romanize the English name as Yick Chi), roughly translating as Beneficial Wisdom Boys’ School.26 The first thirty minutes of each day were devoted to singing and Bible study, which was usually led by Jacob N. Anderson, brother-in-law to Ida Thompson. Lectures on physiology and hygiene were also given.27

By 1905 the school seems to have regularly been referred to in English as the Boys’ School in Canton, or the Canton Boys’ School, but with none of the name-consistency that came with mentions of BGS. And the school seems to have struggled in the early years. In February 1909 Principal Wilbur, trying to remain positive, wrote in the Review and Herald of the boys’ school that “Though the attendance was small, I was much encouraged, as I saw that after all our struggles we were really succeeding in establishing a Seventh-day Adventist boys' school in the Chinese language… [but] the time for the study of English has been cut down to one hour a day. As was expected, this change has not had a tendency to increase the enrollment. But I think the crisis is now past, and I am encouraged.…”28 The crisis was not past. In that same year, lacking “means,” the boys’ school was forced to surrender much of their existing campus and transfer to an old chapel, “where the crowded condition has compelled us to refuse earnest applicants.” Prior to the move to the old chapel, the school had an enrollment of sixteen, most of whom had been boarding students.29 Finally in 1911 the boys’ school closed, and the motive for closure was oddly phrased, “for certain reasons.”30 At least one of those reasons was a lack of teaching help.31

In 1915, when the Bethel Girls’ School relocated to Tungshan, another effort was made to establish a boys’ school. The new boys’ school opened in the now-vacant Bethel compound in Canton City, with Mr. Allen L. Ham as principal. This also seems to be the first time the boys’ school regularly used the same name. It became known as Sam Yuk (三育) in Chinese and Canton Training School in English.32 The new school opened in the autumn of 1915 and was immediately successful, enrolling twenty-nine students. By April of 1916 enrollment in the ten-grade school was at 46, 23 of whom were enrolled in the secondary-level ministerial-training program. And “boys are still coming in, one by one, and two by two, so that by the beginning of next year, I anticipate that we will have 80 or 100 students in this school,” one school official reported.33

But as was true when BGS occupied the facility in Canton City, “the [old Bethel compound] is not fit to continue school in any great length of time.”34 The school occupied an odd-shaped building with limited space and was located on a narrow street; and the administration began planning to relocate the boys’ school to share the new BGS campus in Tungshan.35 Approximately three thousand five hundred dollars was needed for this move, however, and “Through the efforts of the young people of the Central Union Conference in America, funds were provided for a boys' school building at the Tungshan compound, and this was erected in 1917.”36

Although they shared a campus after 1917, the boys’ and girls’ schools continued operating separately. As the boys’ school had operated in Canton City, in two sections, both the elementary section, Sam Yuk, and the ministerial training section, also continued in Tungshan.37 With enrollment stable by 1920, ranging between seventy and ninety–with about equal numbers of males and females–the school continued expanding its campus. Yet, in a hint of what would define much of the next thirty years of this school’s history, in late 1920 Canton was the center of an armed political struggle for power between Chinese nationalist Sun Yat-sen and local opposing warlords. At some point during that fall semester, the girls’ school moved to Hong Kong for a month due to the “political disturbances,” and about half of the boys also left the city, although where the boys relocated to is unclear.38

With the political unrest gone by 1921, the school resumed its work, and the missionaries opened an “out-school.”39 In 1921 Ms. Sau King, a Chinese teacher from Bethel, was sent to Five Eye Bridge, or Ng Ngan Kiu (五眼桥), a “heathen village” about two miles across the Pearl River. Although initially struggling, the school was eventually successful and seems to have continued operating until the late 1930s.40 Little is known of the out-schools, but they were apparently a significant component of the BGS and Sam Yuk ministry and acted as feeder programs, indicating perhaps the out-schools taught only some of the elementary grades. By 1927, a few years after Bethel and Canton Training School had merged and been rebranded as Sam Yuk Middle School, there were eight teachers in the out-schools; Sam Yuk itself had only seven teachers.41

As the two schools continued to evolve after the campus merger in 1917, “it was found advisable to have both boys' and girls’ schools' under one management, and this was effected in 1922. Thus, our administrative expenses were greatly reduced and some supervisional and instructional problems solved.”42

Sam Yuk Middle School–the Chinese Name (1922-1935)

The academic year starting in the fall of 1922 marks the first year that there is a coeducational school with a single name and on the same location under a single administration.43 Although both the Chinese and English names changed multiple times between 1922 and 1981, the boys and girls would never again be on separate campuses, nor would the elementary, secondary, or postsecondary programs. Since 1922 the institution has educated students of all grades on a single campus. This is still true of the college today.

When BGS and the Canton Boys’ School merged in 1922, the boys’ school principal, Mr. Allen L. Ham, was named principal of the new school. Miss Ida Thompson was named dean of girls, and Mr. H. S. Leung was named dean of boys. The school was named Sam Yuk Middle School, but still the school was limited to six years of curriculum. Industries were also in operation by this time. Students produced peanut butter, crafted embroidery, constructed home furnishings, and students were instructed in new methods of farming. There was also mission work, and each Sabbath students went to villages with song books and medical boxes to “preach to the villagers and promote healthful living.”44

Canton Middle School–the English name (1925-1935)

While the name Sam Yuk Middle School was the English transliteration of the Chinese characters, through the early 1920s the school was often referred to–particularly in the English-language Seventh-day Adventist Yearbooks–as Canton Intermediate School. Although the Chinese name for the school changed multiple times over this period, the English name remained relatively stable and in 1925 was first referenced in the SDA yearbook as Canton Middle School.

This period is defined largely by political tension and anti-foreign rhetoric and this unrest gives context to the multiple name changes. From March 1926 to December 1927 the Communists and Nationalists were engaged in a struggle that began with the Canton Coup in 1926 and ended with the Guangzhou Uprising in 1927. In 1926 the Communists in China and the Soviet Union had attempted to divide the Nationalist party, but the Nationalist army commander Chiang Kai-shek declared martial law, cut the phone lines, and captured those leading the coup effort. Then, in September 1927, nearly twenty thousand Communist soldiers began plotting to oust the Nationalists in Canton and created the Guangzhou Soviet.45 The Communist uprising failed, but thousands were killed, and it created uncertainty for the students at the school. Uncertainty necessitated both a temporary displacement of the school and also a name change that would suggest neutrality. In 1927 the school changed its Chinese name to what was translated into English as Theological Training Seminary so that the belligerents would understand the school trained only ministerial students. Simultaneously, staff and students relocated to Hong Kong. Here a makeshift school was established and was called Hua An School (华安), or Peace for China School, and was under the principalship of Lei Tat Ming (李达明).46

Students returned to Canton the next year and continued their “Sam Yuk”–or three-fold–learning of the head, heart, and hand. The curriculum of manual labor was further developed, and students produced neckerchiefs, tablecloths, bed sheets, pillow slips, wooden desks and chairs, and fly catchers. Later, students also expanded their menu of health food at the Sam Yuk School Food Factory.47 And it was these industries that made possible the continuance of Adventist schools in China when the politics became unfriendly toward foreign mission schools. By 1931 the Nationalist government–generally considered friendly to Christians and missionaries–began requiring schools to meet several conditions. Students could no longer be required to complete religion coursework as part of the curriculum. Additionally, students could not be required to attend religious chapel services, there could be no integration of faith in learning in any of the required regular coursework, a Chinese national must hold the title of principal, and the majority of the board members must be Chinese.48 But because Adventist schools (and schools of many other denominational missions) had a large component of industry and training built into their curriculum, some were exempted from these requirements and permitted to register as vocational schools. This allowed circumvention of the very law that was designed to reduce the missionary’s influence. According to Herbert Ford, in his book For the Love of China, it was a relative of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek who suggested such a solution to Adventist physician, Dr. Harry Miller, administrator at the China Theological Seminary, near Shanghai.49 So, in 1935 when these new registration laws came into force in Canton, the Theological Training Seminary changed its name, once again, to the Canton Training Institute; an institute or training center was treated differently than a middle school under Chinese law.50

In fact, the Canton Training Institute was genuinely much more of a training center than a school. Although the school was indeed structured by grade, as traditional schools were, Sam Yuk Middle School students heavily focused on Bible and English in the mornings and farming and industry in the afternoons. They conducted evangelism and hygiene classes on Sabbaths, and many of the upper secondary students were training as Bible workers.

It was during this period, in 1932, that the Far Eastern Division of Seventh-day Adventists voted to grant Sam Yuk twelve-grade accreditation, but with conditions. Those conditions were “prevailing standards as to teachers, equipment, and apparatus . . . , and [when] there are sufficient students to make practicable the carrying of higher work, the [Southern China] union may authorize the school to increase its work year by year to full twelve grades.”51

Canton Training Institute in Tungshang (1935-1937)

By 1935 the Tungshan compound was running out of space, and administrators began looking to expand its footprint yet again. In addition to the church and the schools already on site, in 1935 a large new building for the Canton Sanitarium was completed, enlarging their already significant presence on the Tungshan compound. Also, in 1935 the school constructed a new Sam Yuk School (SYS) Food Factory building, creating additional jobs for students; the factory produced “cereals, crackers (whole wheat, no-soda, and fruit), whole wheat flour and corn flour, peanut butter, nut meat, [and] Nutene,” a vegetarian meat-replacement.52 And the Adventist student community was also growing. In 1937 it was reported that 148 students were enrolled for the 1936 to1937 academic year, the highest enrollment in eight years. “More than half of these are academy students. Young people from the homes of our church members make up more than seventy percent of the number.… During the past eight years, over five hundred young people have attended this institute of training. Three-fifths of these were children of our own church members. Eighty-two persons are calculated to have been baptized during the past eight years as a result of the work of the institute.”53

During this period the school also moved out of local mission control and under the supervision of the South China Union Mission. The aim was to enable the school to serve a larger constituency and in turn offer higher grade levels. Yet, with the food factory and the Canton Sanitarium and Hospital requiring much space, the Board of Trustees decided to move the school’s location. After 20 years the school had been engulfed not only by other Adventist institutions but also by the city. “Traffic is open in every direction and [even] the road in front of the school received its name from our institute, ‘Sam Yuk.’”54 The road in Guangzhou continues to use the name Sanyu Road, the Mandarin Chinese rendering of the Cantonese, Sam Yuk.

In August 1937 the South China Union Mission purchased forty acres of land in remote Clearwater Bay, Hong Kong, from the government and area villages (in 1940 another twelve acres were purchased across the road from the front gate). Construction of the new campus in Clearwater Bay was not complete when the Japanese Imperial Army began bombing Canton in August of 1937, and as late as December 1937 the school was still in Tungshan.55 Sometime between late December and early February of 1938–while still suffering from intense naval and aerial bombardment but before military occupation–the students and staff left Canton for Hong Kong. Unable to settle on the new campus, the Canton Training Institute spent two years at a rented villa in Shatin, in north Hong Kong’s city center. But the move had taken its toll, and total enrollment in Hong Kong was only 69.56 This was a drop from 171 in 1936.57

South China Training Institute and South China (Island) Union Academy (1937-1958)

The move to South China Union Mission’s administration precipitated yet another renaming of the school. There may have been an unofficial name change to South China Training Institute (SCTI) in 1936, as many records of the college indicate, but official minutes are not clear. The various Adventist monthly union publications do not appear to have begun using the new name until 1937, and the Adventist Yearbook did not reflect the change until 1939.

Fleeing the mainland at the same time was the China Training Institute (CTI), out of Chiaotoutseng (桥头镇), located about halfway between Nanjing and Shanghai. These two cities had suffered tremendous losses by early 1938, and CTI students and staff had shared in that loss and were forced to leave China. As with Canton Middle School’s enrollment drop upon arrival in Hong Kong, CTI’s enrollment also dropped. The CTI had enrolled around four hundred in the year prior to coming to Hong Kong, and enrollment at SCTI had been in the mid-one hundreds – with a total combined enrollment of the schools’ numbering in the mid-five hundreds. But after CTI and SCTI relocated to Hong Kong and opened jointly in September 1938, they had lost much of this enrollment. The CTI had fled China with none of their equipment or books. Some students had lost their lives when Japan invaded Shanghai in 1937, and others had simply chosen not to leave. Total enrollment for both schools in September 1938 was only around two hundred.58 Due to this merger, for the first time in the South China Union Mission, a campus offered education from grade 1 through grade 14: the South China Training Institute offered grades 1 to 10, while the China Training Institute offered grades 11 to 14.59 These schools were run jointly and under a single administration. Mr. Paul Quimby had been president of CTI in 1937 when that institute moved to Hong Kong and was appointed president of the combined schools.60

After nearly two years of building the campus, the two schools–named China and South China Training Institute (中华华南三育研究社) –finally moved to the new Hayueng village campus in Clearwater Bay in the autumn of 1939.61 Of the new campus it was reported in 1940 that “The building units thus far completed are: one administration building; one normal training building; one girls' dormitory; one temporary dining hall, and eleven teachers' homes and apartments. The total cost of these buildings was HK$143,030.… New equipment for the commercial, domestic science, physiology and chemistry, and engineering courses, the library books, the water pump and supply system, the electrical plant, etc., were installed.… The purchase of about forty acres of land and improvement of the site cost about fifteen thousand nine dollars; [including other] miscellaneous items.… The total investment up to date has been HK$186,430. Among our urgent needs are: a boys' dormitory, one vocational training building, a church, an auditorium, and several teachers' homes.”62 By 1940 enrollment had reached 250, and joint operation of the two schools seemed to be working well.63 With the move to Clearwater Bay, Paul Quimby returned to the United States, and the dean of students, Cameron A. Carter, became president.64

But the war followed the school to Clearwater Bay. On December 8, 1941, the Japanese invaded Hong Kong, and within a few weeks transportation out of the rural college location had been completely cut. The college was eleven miles over narrow, mountainous and curvy roads from the city. Students and staff rationed food, ate vegetables from the garden, took turns being watchmen at night–keeping a lookout for pirates and Japanese soldiers–and feared the kidnapping of the female students. Approximately forty female students were hidden from the Japanese soldiers who, “time and again,” came looking for them. They hid in neighboring village homes and in the attics of the dormitories, but the Japanese never found the girls.65

Although the Japanese soldiers never found the college girls, harassment of foreigners continued, and the internment of foreigners began in early 1942. When the president of the combined schools at that time, Cameron A. Carter, was interned by the Japanese, H. S. Leung assumed the position of president. Leung had been with the school since before the merger with Bethel in 1922. Low on food, subsisting on starvation diets and eating chicken feed and drinking rice gruel (one student died, seemingly from either starvation or malnutrition), with village thieves stealing garden vegetables by night and Japanese soldiers stealing them by day, robbed of their valuables and beaten by Japanese soldiers, and completely cut off from the outside world, the Leung and administration decided to evacuate Hong Kong.66

In April 1942, after four months under these conditions, the CTI staff and students hired five junks to take them to China, probably sailing east of Hong Kong and then north to the mainland. Acting CTI President Joseph Hsing Su wrote, “We had sailed only half the distance when pirates, with their machine guns pointed at us, ordered us ashore. Upon landing they locked us in a small house where we remained for a day and night without food and water. When we left the house at daybreak, we found only one of the five boats there, and it was empty.” After 120 days of foot, rail, and boat travel, while sometimes sleeping in train stations, the CTI group reached Waichow (Huizhou, 惠州), the first city they came to in Free China.67 From here they traveled to Chongqing, where they set up a temporary campus about twenty miles outside the city, where they remained for the duration of the war. But the CTI and SCTI groups did not stay together, and the CTI group seems to have fractured as well, at least for part of the journey; by May 1942, –before the SCTI group left Hong Kong, some of the CTI group arrived in Lao Lung (Lao Long, 老隆), a free town in Kwantung Province.68

Ultimately it was determined that SCTI would remain in Lao Lung, where some of the CTI families had already either settled, or passed through, in May. The South China Union Mission headquarters also relocated to Lao Lung, although why this small river town in the remote upper reaches of the Kwantung Easter River was ever a candidate for relocation at all is unknown.69 The SCTI staff and students left Hong Kong on June 8 and arrived in Lao Lung on July 2.70 Luckily the schools had evacuated before the Japanese arrived to requisition the campus. When the soldiers did arrive, they found a caretaker, Sui Pok On, who had volunteered to remain and care for the school facilities.71 While the Japanese occupied the Clearwater Bay campus, in Lao Lung the SCTI constructed a new campus, classrooms, dormitories, a chapel, and faculty homes. The school operated on the Lao Lung campus from July 1942 to summer 1946.72

After the war the administration began to plan the return to Hong Kong, but the British had requisitioned the Clearwater Bay campus and after more than four years of “occupation” by both the Japanese and British military, the buildings were not suitable for immediate educational use. The school left Lao Lung in 1946 but because the Hong Kong campus was not ready, they relocated to the old Tungshan campus grounds for the next school year and finally moved back to Hong Kong for the 1947 academic year. By 1948 the Clearwater Bay campus was repaired and “in fine shape.”73

Because their campus near Shanghai had been completely destroyed during the war, in the fall of 1947 CTI also returned to Hong Kong and again shared the Clearwater Bay campus while waiting for their campus in Chiaotoutseng to be reconstructed. The plan was for CTI to rebuild the Shanghai campus and move back to the mainland within two years, in 1949.74 But for the interim these two schools would operate jointly once again. The South China Training Institute, no longer constrained by Chinese law prohibiting the classification of the institution as a school, was renamed South China Union Academy by the fall of 1948.75

Although the Chiaotoutseng campus was completed and CTI returned to the mainland in late 1948 or early 1949, the return was brief.76 In a stay that may have been only weeks long, in January 1949, after a third warning from the American consulate for foreigners to leave the mainland, the Communists had just defeated the Nationalists in the civil war, which ended in October 1949–the CTI again departed for Hong Kong. But only the post-secondary students and staff would be leaving–125 students, in total. All lower CTI grades would merge with the East China Training Institute. Unlike the first evacuation in 1937, this evacuation was orderly.77 “Since this school is located on the Yangtze River, a ship has been chartered that will take the entire group of college faculty and students, with their belongings, from the school to Hong Kong. Much of the college equipment will also be removed to the temporary site for safe keeping.”78 The CTI shipped 5,000 pieces of luggage and equipment to Hong Kong.79

And the move and combined administrations of the two schools was not without stress:

Our school day begins at 5:40 A.M., and we carry on with our classes until 9:15 at night. We have to juggle classes in at all odd hours of the morning, afternoon, and evening in order to find a time and place when a room or space is available to us. When I began my classes here the first day, I learned that two were scheduled for the library. We attempted to carry on, but there was such bedlam, I asked for another room and was given the library of the primary school with its little tables and tiny chairs. It serves admirably! Classes are held in private homes, in the dining rooms, in a garage, and even in the school bus! None of our teachers have their own living quarters as yet but are crowded into hallways, classrooms, offices, and in private dwellings.80

The new total enrollment of both schools was around five hundred, and new dormitories, science laboratories, and faculty homes were under construction almost immediately.81 But by the summer CTI had determined to return to China, shipping their equipment and books back upriver to the Chiaotoutseng campus. But before the school had even been fully reestablished, the Communist government requisitioned the new campus.82

The actual closure of CTI and the proverbial closure of mainland China to Adventist missions was significant. In 1949, from the South China Union was created an additional union, the South China Island Union Mission, and the Hong Kong school constituency had now shrunk from the southern territories of China–Kwangsi, Kwantung, Fukien, the island of Hianan (Guanxi, Guangdong, Fujian, and Hainan), and the colonies of Hong Kong and Macao–to now encompass only Macao, Hong Kong, and the newly acquired Nationalist Chinese territory of Taiwan–a Japanese colony until the end of World War II. No longer could the South China Union Mission count on mainland areas as recruiting grounds for students. And no longer could the South China Union Mission truly claim the title of South China; the union changed its name to the South China Island Union Mission (SCIUM), and the academy likewise adopted the name South China Island Union Academy.

Neither Adventist periodicals nor board minutes of official records of votes make clear when that name change took place. The old name of South China Union Academy appears in few Adventist periodicals, as early as 1947 and as late as 1951. The Adventist Yearbook does record the school as South China Union Academy in 1949, however.83 And in the 1950 Adventist Yearbook muddied the waters further by referencing the school as both the South China Island Union Academy and the South China Island Union Training Institute.84

In 1952 the South China Union Mission disappeared behind the Bamboo Curtain completely, and all mainland post-secondary programs disappeared. It was in this year that the SCIUM began planning to fill that void and applied with the Adventist church’s school accrediting body to operate post-secondary programs; the goal of these programs would be primarily to train Cantonese-speaking pastors and teachers.85 Those plans came to fruition when on January 7, 1953, the China Division Committee voted to seek approval from the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists to authorize both the Taiwan ministerial school and SCTI to operate as junior colleges.86 Delbert W. Curry was hired as president of the school.

Because the school would no longer offer only a secondary curriculum, once again the name was changed. Although it retained the Chinese name for the lower and secondary grades–Sam Yuk Middle School–the English name for the entire institution became South China Training Institute (SCTI). It was a name the school had used in Tungshan for legal reasons, in Hong Kong the name more accurately reflected the goals of the school.87 The ministerial training program was headed by S. H. Lindt and eventually Curry began to teach some of the teachers’ training courses.

Due to a mass influx of mainland migrants arriving in Hong Kong during the early 1950’s, four additional schools were opened in Hong Kong and Macao. These schools were in Tai Po, Happy Valley, Kowloon, and in Macao.88 The SCTI hoped that these branch schools would act as feeder programs to the main campus, but despite enrollment in these schools that combined to total nearly two thousand students, few of them landed in Clearwater Bay after finishing their Sam Yuk secondary programs.89

South China Training College (1958-1962)

In addition to any ministerial training the school offered, in 1957 they began to offer teacher training, as well as secretarial science, which included typing, shorthand, and college bookkeeping. They also offered basic Chinese, basic English, and some practical industrial courses.”90 The challenge was that by this time, the college’s student body was primarily non-Adventist. By 1955 with a K-12 enrollment of 220, only about seventy-five of whom were either baptized or came from Adventist homes, and despite its focus on training Bible workers, the school had effectively become a mission school rather than a ministerial and teacher-training institute.91

It took five years, on December 10, 1958, for the Far Eastern Division of the General Conference to vote and grant junior college status under the name South China Training College.92 Despite the designation as a junior college in 1958, the curriculum was still limited and student numbers continued to be low. In 1961 total enrollment between both Taiwan Missionary College and the South China Training Institute stood at 67, and in 1962 the combined enrollment was only 75.93

South China Union College and South China Adventist College (1962-1981)

In 1962 the Far Eastern Division voted once again to approve a name change. The college would now be called the South China Union College.94 Samuel Young was hired to be president of the newly named college and in a 1979 interview stated that when he had first arrived, “there was no curricula, no college organization. It was predominantly a secondary school,” and despite having been approved as a junior college in 1958, the college did not graduate its first student until 1964.95

Although student numbers remained low, Samuel Young’s presidency can be characterized as one of progress; on the condition the college maintained at least eighty-five students in the following two years, in 1965 the school was granted permission to upgrade to a senior college offering four-year degrees in education and theology.96 Then in their mid-year meetings from May 30 to June 1, 1967, the Far Eastern Division granted temporary approval for the college to develop a nurses’ training program in partnership with Tsuen Wan Hospital in Hong Kong.97 Whether due to not meeting the enrollment numbers or some other factor, the General Conference did not formally approve the Bachelor’s in Theology degree until January 1969, and the Bachelor’s in Education was not approved until 1978.98

Despite the new degrees, both South China Union College and Taiwan Missionary College (TMC) struggled. The SCIUM was the smallest conference in the Far Eastern Division (FED), but they supported two colleges. Because of the financial burden, in 1971 the constituency voted to tentatively grant approval to merge the new TMC and South China Union College into a single institution, on two separate campuses. There would be a single administration, but the main campus would be in Hong Kong.99 The new name would be South China Adventist College.

South China Adventist College was short-lived. For legal reasons the name of the colleges never actually changed to South China Adventist College, except in Adventist records.100 Although the Far Eastern Division did not formally rescind the merger of these colleges until 1976, informally, the colleges became known as separate entities prior to that year and last appear in the Adventist Yearbook as South China Adventist College in the combined 1973--1974 yearbook.101

Samuel Young left SCUM in 1977, and Charles H. Tidwell Sr. was appointed president.102 Still enrollment was low–only 34 college students in 1978–and this was due largely to not having registration with the Hong Kong government. The solution that Young had begun pursuing, but which had not yet been formalized, was a partnership with Loma Linda University.103 The new president, Tidwell, pushed forward with the Loma Linda partnership and in April 1978, the FED approved an extension school partnership between South China Union College and Loma Linda University.104 Although the partnership with Loma Linda (LLU) had not yet been negotiated, this first step of approval from the FED was a positive step. Once complete, South China Union College (SCUC) graduates would have standing, it was hoped, in Hong Kong and around the world.

As the 1980s arrived, Tidwell finally brought to fruition the effort of presidents before him–a partnership between South China Union College and Loma Linda University was finally signed in 1981. This agreement required an LLU representation on the SCUC board, it enabled faculty exchange, and gave SCUC an accredited bachelor’s degree in Religion, Business, and Education.105

Hong Kong Adventist College (1981-Present)

In 1981 the college changed names yet again, but even with the new programs, it proved difficult to bring new students to campus; in 1982 enrollment was at 61 and was trending no better than it had over the previous decade.106 Over the next four decades the college narrative has continued to be one of low enrollment, and the creation and success of new programs has proven elusive. Despite multiple attempts since the 1970s, the college has been unable to obtain registration for a nursing program, as one example; this barrier to local recognition of its programs has limited the college’s ability to recruit students. In 2015 the college enrollment stood at 54, and in 2016 it was at 74.107

In keeping with the mission to train church workers for its constituents, classes are still held in Cantonese, and the college offers degrees through a partnership with Andrews University, a sister Adventist institution in Michigan. Those degrees are an A.S. in Business, a B.A. in Religion, a B.S. in Psychology, and a Bachelor of Health Science. Students can complete their entire degree in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Adventist College also maintains what is known as a 2+2 partnership with La Sierra University in California, as well as through Andrews University. Through this agreement students in Hong Kong can complete two years of general education requirements in Hong Kong and then transfer to La Sierra for the final two years. As of fall 2019, when school began, the college enrolled 102 students.108

Chinese Adventist Seminary

As of 2014 the college campus also became home to Chinese Adventist Seminary (CAS), a ministerial training program “tasked to train church pastors, evangelists, health workers, teachers, church institution workers, and church administrators for the Adventist denomination in the Greater China Region and among the global Chinese diaspora.”109 The CAS goal is to train Chinese-language pastors to work on the mainland and offers Associate’s, Bachelor’s, and Master’s level programs both independently and through a partnership with Andrews University. According to Dan Cheung, HKAC president in 2020, the undergraduate programs through CAS count approximately 900 undergraduate and 50 graduate students, both fulltime and parttime, and nearly all of whom are enrolled in online or distance-learning courses.110

Sam Yuk Middle School (1922-1942 & 1949-2008)

Although the name Sam Yuk Middle School (SYMS) had first been used in this institution in the 1910s, it was not until 1984 that Sam Yuk registered with the Hong Kong EDB as a separate entity. Prior to 1984 the school had typically operated under the same administrative structure as the college, and although it did sporadically appoint a principal, often the position was still under the larger college umbrella.111 When Sam Yuk registered with the EDB as a government subsidized private school with the EDB in 1984, Doris Wong was appointed principal.

Enrollment at Sam Yuk Middle School was stable through the 1990s and 2000s, but its survival depended largely on government subsidy, and in 2008 the EDB overhauled how that subsidy was structured and allocated. That overhaul removed the subsidy that had kept SYMS fiscally operational, and after nearly a full century of the Sam Yuk name being tied to the lineage of this educational institution, Sam Yuk was forced to close. Sam Yuk’s replacement school had already been set in motion.

Hong Kong Adventist Academy

In 2004 David J. Candy was hired to oversee the development of a new English-language K-12 school. Obtaining the new registration proved elusive and in 2007, still without a government registration and faced with the imminent closure of SYMS, it was determined that while Candy sought a license for the lower and middle schools, a new administrator would assume control of the upper school; administratively the schools would separate. In June of that year Kristopher C. Erskine was hired as principal of the new Adventist academy upper school on the campus of HKAC.

In August 2007 the new academy opened with a faculty of four foreign teachers, including Erskine. Initial enrollment was nine students.112 Because of the registration delay, the academy could operate only under the college’s secondary license, and academy graduates were granted diplomas from an affiliate school, the Griggs International Academy. Legally, the academy existed as the International School Section of the college until 2010.113

Although government registration with the EDB was delayed, the Chinese Union Mission (CHUM) pressed forward with denominational accreditation, and in 2008 the new academy was recommended for accreditation to the Adventist Accreditation Association by the North Asia-Pacific Division Commission on Accreditation (NSDCA). In its recommendation for accreditation, the NSDCA Executive Committee wrote that CHUM “has been facing the pressures of changing trends resulting in the closure of … Sam Yuk Middle School. However, the union and the college have seized the opportunity” to continue providing Adventist education on the campus of Hong Kong Adventist College. “The newest institution is the Hong Kong Adventist Academy, and it was surveyed by a team from the Northern Asia Pacific Division Commission on Accreditation.” The NSDCA survey team recommended “candidacy status through the NSDCA to the Accrediting Association of Seventh-day Adventist schools, colleges, and universities for two years.”114 Although the CHUM, NSCDA, and HKAC all internally recognized the new academy under the new name of Hong Kong Adventist Academy in 2008, that name was not registered with the Hong Kong Education Bureau until 2010, nor was it accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association until 2012.115

After the 2008-2009 academic year, with an enrollment of approximately forty, Erskine left the academy, and David Candy took over the principalship. In 2010 the EDB granted Hong Kong Adventist Academy registration, and enrollment has generally maintained an upward trajectory since that time. Enrollment during the 2018 to2019 academic year stood at approximately two hundred thirty.116 But the 2019 to 2020 school year proved challenging. School opened in the autumn at the height of a months-long, often violent protest movement in Hong Kong against a pro-China extradition bill. Then by early spring the COVID-19 pandemic had forced the academy to move all instruction online for the remainder of the semester. Consequently, school enrollment had dropped to 202 by the end of the 2019 to2020 school year. 117

Hong Kong Adventist Academy currently operates a lower and middle school, both of which award local Hong Kong diplomas. The upper school continues to grant diplomas through Griggs International Academy.118

What Remains to Be Done to Fulfill Mission of the School

The aim of the institution from its first day of classes in Canton, in 1903, was to build a school that would train native, Chinese-speaking church workers–ministers, teachers, and nurses, primarily. Presidents for the next century would reflect that mission and build on the vision of Edwin Wilbur and Ida Thompson, the first principals of the boys’ and girls’ schools respectively. Former college President Samuel Young noted that “the college has as its first responsibility training young people for service in the Hong Kong-Macao Mission territory.… In addition to this, however, we do feel a responsibility to train young people that will eventually go into mainland,” to the “invisible church.”119 A HKAC teacher, R. K. Boyd, wrote that “SCAC is one of two colleges established to serve one-fourth of the world's population that speaks Chinese.”120 In 1979 then-president Charles Tidwell stated that, “Of course our first aim is to prepare workers, first for Hong Kong-Macao and then for other parts of the Far Eastern Division or wherever there is a need for workers with Chinese orientation.… Then, of course, we are interested in developing good Seventh-day Adventists whether they are workers or laymen.”121 More recently, in 2018, the Adventist Accrediting Association recognized the college’s expanded vision to include the training of “church pastors, evangelists, health workers, teachers, church institution workers, and church administrators for the Adventist denomination in the Greater China Region and among the global Chinese diaspora.”122

The administrators of the college over the decades have understood that their mission was to serve the mainland by training Chinese-language Bible workers. Because mainland China has been closed to proselytizing since 1949, the mission remains ongoing and challenging.

Temporary Associated Branch Schools, and Principals, if Known

The Bible Training School was likely a school that was connected to the boys’ school in Canton City, but the record is not clear. Students already had several years of education, and this school’s purpose was to train Bible workers. It seems to have opened around 1905, and Jacob N. Anderson was in charge of this school.123

East Gate School was a branch school about two miles outside East Gate of Canton; it opened in 1907 and was in operation until at least 1912. From the first year, there were about thirty in attendance. Amanda Van Scoy was principal.124

Five Eye Bridges School (五眼桥) was located across the Pearl River and two miles from Canton; it began in 1921. It is not known how long the school lasted, but 46 pupils enrolled in 1922. The school was administered as a branch school from Bethel, and Ms. Sau King, a female teacher, was sent from Bethel.125

Hua An School (华安学校) was established during political turmoil in Canton in 1927, and the school only lasted for one academic year, from 1927 to1928. In Adventist periodicals it is often romanized as the Wah On School. This school was opened in Hong Kong, and after the political turmoil had settled, the students returned to Tungshan. The Tungshan treasurer, Lei Tat Ming (李達明), was also principal of the Hua An School.126

Principals and Presidents

Principal of the English Conversation School in Hong Kong: Ida E. Thompson (譚爱德), 1902 to1903. After 1903 Thompson moved to Canton City and opened Bethel Girls’ School.

Principals of the Bethel Girls’ School: Ida E. Thompson (譚爱德), 1904-1909; Amanda Van Scoy Anderson, 1909-1911; Ida E. Thompson (譚爱德), 1911 to 1912; Cassie H. Harlow, 1912-1914; Kathryn F. Meeker, 1914 to1915; Susan Wilbur (邬秀珊), 1915 to1916; Carrie B. Thomas, 1916 to1917; Harry B. Parker (柏加德), 1917-1919; Ida E. Thompson (譚爱德), 1919-1922. After 1922 Bethel joined with Canton Boys’ School, with Thompson as dean of girls.127

Principals of the Canton Boys’ School: Edwin H. Wilbur (邬尔布), 1904-1911; Allen L. Ham (許華欽), 1915-1917; Harry B. Parker (柏加德), 1917-1922; Allen L. Ham (許華欽), 1922-1925; After 1922 Canton Boys’ School joined with Bethel Girls’ School, with H. S. Leung as dean of boys.

Principals /Presidents After 1922: Allen L. Ham (許華欽), 1922-1925; Lyle C. Wilcox (衛理覺), 1925-1929; Allen L. Ham (許華欽), 1929-1931; Lyle C. Wilcox (衛理覺), 1931-1934; H. S. Leung (梁慶燊), 1934-1938; Paul Quimby (孔保罗), 1938 to 1939; Cameron A. Carter (柯德邇), 1939-1942; H. S. Leung, (梁慶燊), 1942-1949; Thomas S. Geraty (葛立德), 1949-1951; H. S. Leung (梁慶燊), 1951 to 1952; Lei Tat Ming (李達明), 1952 to 1953; Delbert W. Curry (居義理), 1953-1962; Samuel C. S. Young (杨健生), 1962-1968; Lee Ming Dao (李明道), 1968-1971; D. K. Brown (布樂恩), 1971 to 1972; Wilbur K. Nelson (寧爾生), 1972 to 1973; Samuel C. S. Young (杨健生), 1973-1977; Charles H. Tidwell, Sr. (惕德偉), 1977-1981; Wong Yew Chong (黃有祥), 1981-1983; Eugene Hsu (徐精一), 1983-1986; Rudolf E. Klimes (高仁德), 1986-1989; Handel Luke (陸慶達), 1989-1991; Roger Po Wen Li (李博文), 1991-1996; Daniel Gim Teng Chuah (蔡錦程), 1996-2000; Sally C. H. Lam-Phoon (林秋軒), 2000 to 2001; David Bissell (費大衛), 2001; Daniel Gim Teng Chuah (蔡錦程), 2001-2011; Samuel K. L. Chuah (蔡錦亮), 2011-2015; Daniel K. F. Cheung (張擎輝), 2015-Present.

Principals of Sam Yuk Middle School: Bunjee Chui-Bun Choi (蔡昭斌), 1980-1982; Wong Yew Chong (黃有祥), 1982-1984; Doris Wong (黃有群), 1984-1989; Handel Luke (陸慶達), 1989-1991; Anna Shum Tsuen Lee (李沈津), 1991-1993; Po Wen Li (李博文), 1993-1996; Ricky Shun On Lau (劉順安), 1996-2008. SYMS Closed in 2008.

Principles of the Academy Section and Hong Kong Adventist Academy: Kristopher C. Erskine (畢思明), 2007-2009; David J. Candy, 2009 to 2010; Bervinda Sui Yung Chan (陳少容), 2010 to 2011; Cleon White (懷傑安), 2011-2013; Samuel Chuah (蔡錦亮), 2013 to 2014; Frank Wai Ming Tam (譚偉明), 2014-2018; Tom Decker (戴華達), 2018-Present.

Hong Kong Adventist College Names and Locations

                                             Year Girls’ School Boys’ School
1902 The Conversation School in Hong Kong  
1904

Bethel Girls’ School (in Canton)

伯特利女校

Yik Chee Boys’ School (in Canton)

益智男校

1911   (BOYS’ SCHOOL CLOSED)
1915

Bethel Girls’ School (in Tungshan)

伯特利女校

Canton Training School (in Canton)

三育小學及

Theological School

神道學校

1917  

Canton Training School (in Tungshan)

三育學校

Theological School

神道學校

1918  

Canton Training School (in Tungshan)

三育學校

IN 1922 THE BOYS’ AND GIRLS’ SCHOOLS COMBINED.

All programs are secondary or informal post-secondary.

1922 Canton Training School (in Tungshan)
  三育中學
1925 Canton Middle School
  三育中學
1928 Canton Middle School
  神道訓練院
1935 Canton Training Institute
  廣州三育研究社
1937 South China Training Institute
  華南三育研究社
1939 South China Training Institute (in Clearwater Bay, Hong Kong)
  中華華南三育研究社
1942 South China Training Institute (in Lao Lung, Canton)
  華南三育研究社
1946 South China Training Institute (in Tungshan)
  華南三育研究社

From this point forward the school has remained

on the same location.

1947 South China Union Academy
  華南三育研究社
1948 South China Union Academy
  華南三育研究社
1949 South China Island Union Academy
  中華華南三育研究社
1951 South China Training Institute
  華南三育研究社
1952 South China Training Institute
  三育中學
1958 South China Training College
  華南三育書院
1962 South China Union College
  華南三育書院
1971 South China Adventist College
  華南三育書院

1972 /1973

South China Union College
  華南三育書院
1981 Hong Kong Adventist College
  香港三育書院

The college begins offering both secondary

and postsecondary under different names.

College Secondary
1984

Hong Kong Adventist College

香港三育書院

Sam Yuk Middle School
    三育中學
2007   International Section of Hong Kong Adventist College
    香港三育書院國際中學部
2011   Hong Kong Adventist Academy
   

香港復臨學校

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Notes

  1. J.O. Corliss, “The Experience of our Former Days – No. 19. The Opening of our China Field,” ARH, December 6, 1904, 12-13.

  2. Trevor O’Reggio and Jomo Smith, “Christianity With Chinese Characteristics: The Origins and Evolution of Adventist Mission in a Chinese Province,” Journal of Adventist Mission Studies 8 no. 21 (2012): 2. Accessed June 25, 2020, https://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1203&context=jams.

  3. J.N. Anderson, “Our Work in China,” ARH, February 10, 1903, 11.; E.H. Wilbur, “China,” ARH, July 27, 1905, 14.

  4. Ida E. Thompson, “Our School Work in China,” ARH, June 2, 1904, 22.

  5. Ibid. The Mexican dollar was the global currency in the early 1900s and was frequently cited by missionaries in periodicals when relating costs to readers in their home country.

  6. Mrs. J.N. Anderson, “Some Missionary Experiences,” Youth Instructor LII no. 4 (February 5, 1903): 1; J. N. Anderson, “Our Years in China,” ARH, June 9, 1904, 14.; Ida E. Thompson, “Our School Work in China.”

  7. Ida E. Thompson, “Our School Work in China,” 22.

  8. Ibid, 22.

  9. Ibid, 22.

  10. Emma T. Anderson et al., With Our Missionaries in China (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1920), 58.

  11. E.H. Wilbur, “Hong Kong, China,” The Workers Bulletin, April 5, 1904, 154; “A Chinese School,” Signs of the Times, June 1, 1904, 13; Ida E. Thompson, “Our School Work in China,” ARH, June 1904. 22.

  12. E.H. Wilbur, “China,” ARH July 27, 1905, 14; Ida E. Thompson, “China,” ARH, July 26, 1906, 15.

  13. Emma T. Anderson et al., With Our Missionaries in China (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1920), p. 58.

  14. Handel Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist Higher Education in the China Mission, 1888-1980.” Ph.D. diss., Andrews University, 1982, 130. Accessed June 26, 2020, https://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1533&context=dissertations.

  15. Emma T. Anderson et al., With Our Missionaries in China, 58.

  16. Ibid.

  17. H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches: The South China Training Institute,” The China Division Reporter 10 no. 16 (September 1940): 3.

  18. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 130.

  19. E.H. Wilbur, “Educational Work in Canton – East Gate School,” ARH, February 4, 1909, 28.

  20. “Canton Girls’ School,” ARH, November 4, 1909, 29.

  21. Ibid.; U.S. Navy Ports Around the World: Canton (Bureau of Navigation, 1920), flyleaf. Accessed June 26, 2020, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Canton1920_d006_map_of_of_the_city.jpg, and, https://archive.org/details/cantonchina00unitrich/page/n1/mode/2up; H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches.

  22. A.L. Ham, “Pioneer Mission Sketches: Beginnings of the Cantonese Mission,” China Division Reporter, September 1940, 6. Van Scoy’s name also appears as Vanscoy, van Scoy, and VanScoy in various church and legal documents.

  23. Mrs. J.N. Anderson, “A Visit to Bethel School,” The Church Officers’ Gazette, May 1914, 15.

  24. W.W. Rubie, “Boys Training School, Canton, China,” Central Union Outlook, December 1916, 6; Myrtie B. Cottrell, “Items From South China,” Asiatic Division Outlook, April 1918, 6; Minutes Two Hundredth Meeting of the Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Committee, (Spring Council), Far Eastern Division Committee, March 17, 1919, Folder, Far Eastern Division Minutes, 1919, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventist Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland.

  25. E.H. Wilbur, “The Boys’ School, in Canton, China,” ARH, March 23, 1905, 12.

  26. Ibid. The Chinese name 益智男校is sometimes referred to as益智學堂.

  27. Ibid.

  28. E.H. Wilbur, "The Boys' School, Canton, China”; E.H. Wilbur, “Educational Work in Canton,” 28.

  29. “Canton Schools,” ARH, June 16, 1909, 19.

  30. H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches,” 3.

  31. A.L. Ham, “Pioneer Mission Sketches: Beginnings of the Cantonese Mission,” 6.

  32. H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches,” 3.

  33. W. W. Ruble, “Missionary Volunteer Financial Goal,” Central Union Outlook, April 11, 1916, 1; “South China,” and “Educational Work,” Asiatic Division Outlook, April 15, 1917, 11, 44.

  34. “Missionary Volunteer Financial Goal,” 1; “South China,” 11; “Educational Work,” 44.

  35. N.Z. Town, “Cantonese Training School for Boys,” Central Union Outlook, August 7, 1917, 3; “Union Conference Missionary Volunteer Enterprise for 1917,” Central Union Outlook, August 7, 1917, 1.

  36. H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches,” 3; W.W. Ruble, “Missionary Volunteer Financial Goal,” Central Union Outlook, April 11, 1916, 1; W.W. Ruble, “Land and Building for Boys’ School at Canton,” Central Union Outlook, April 18, 1918.

  37. T. M. Lee, “My Recall of and Hope for the South China Union College," Clarion, no date, 43, as cited in, Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 131.

  38. H.C. Cooper, “Canton, China,” Asiatic Division Outlook, February 1921, 5.

  39. A.L. Ham, “Five Eye Bridge,” China Division Reporter, October 1940, 4.

  40. Ibid.

  41. Ibid.; A.L. Ham, “Cantonese Provincial Prison Biennial Report – 1925-1926,” Asiatic Division Outlook, July 1927, 10..

  42. H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches,” 3.

  43. R.M. Milne, “Girl Canvassers in Hong Kong,” Asiatic Division Outlook, December 1923, 7. The exact date of the merger between the two schools is unclear. It could have been in the spring semester of 1923, but not later. Most other transitions this school undertook, however, were made during natural transition periods over the summer. Also, the name Sam Yuk Middle School is an English transliteration of the Chinese, and Chinese referred to the school as Sam Yuk. By English speakers, the school was referred to as Cantonese Intermediate School, or Canton Middle School, both of which are translated from the same Chinese characters. The official English appellation from Cantonese Intermediate School to Canton Middle School probably took place in 1925, as reflected by the 1926 Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, which is the first yearbook to reference Canton Middle School. Prior to 1926 it was referenced as Cantonese Intermediate School.

  44. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 132-134; H.C. Cooper, “Canton, China,” Asiatic Division Outlook, February 1921, 5.

  45. Philip Jowett, China's Wars. Rousing the Dragon 1894–1949. (Atglen, Pennsylvania, Schiffer Publishing: 2013).

  46. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 195; Chinese individuals who do not appear in the principals list with their Chinese names will have Chinese names added in the text, if known.

  47. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 132-134; H.C. Cooper, “Canton, China: Superintendent’s Report Rendered at the Union Mission Meeting, December, 1920,” Asiatic Division Outlook, February 1921, 5; L.C. Wilcox, “The Educational Work in South China – 1931-1934,” China Division Report, January 1935, 16.

  48. Herbert Ford, For the Love of China: The Life Story of Denton E. Rebok (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1971), 77-78.

  49. Ibid., 77, 78.

  50. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 196.

  51. Minutes of the Second Annual Council of the China Division of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, February 6, 1932, Folder, China Division, January – March 1932, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventist Archives, Silver Springs, Maryland (GC Archives).

  52. “S.Y.S. Food Products,” China Division Reporter, December 1934, 24.

  53. “Canton Training Institute – 1936,” China Division Reporter, May 1937, 19.

  54. H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches: The South China Training Institute,” The China Division Reporter, September 1940, 3.

  55. D.E. Rebok, “Missionary Volunteer Department – More Friends!,” China Division Reporter, December 1937, 5..

  56. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 132-134.

  57. Statistical Report of Seventh-day Adventist Conferences, Missions, and Institutions, The Seventy-Fourth Annual Report Year Ending December 31, 1936, ed. H. E. Rogers (Washington D.C.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1937),19.

  58. Paul E. Quimby, “China Training Institute: Opening of the Institute,” China Division Reporter, October 1938, 5..

  59. H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches: The South China Training Institute,” 3.

  60. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” oral history begins on page 247.

  61. “Adventist Schools in South China and Hong Kong: 1903-1941,” Adventist Heritage, A Journal of Adventist History 8 no. 1 (Spring 1983): 58.

  62. “Division Notes,” China Division Reporter, April 1940, 8; H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches: The South China Training Institute,” 3.

  63. Ibid, 8; H.S. Leung, “Pioneer Mission Sketches: The South China Training Institute,” 3.

  64. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 77.

  65. T.S. Geraty, “Development of Christian Character in the China Training Institute,” Missions Quarterly, April 1944, 5; E.L. Longway, “A Note of Courage from China,” ARH, January 3, 1946, 16, 17.

  66. T.S. Geraty, “Development of Christian Character,” 5.

  67. Ibid., 5.

  68. “Of Special Interest,” ARH, May 14, 1942, 23.

  69. “Of Special Interest,” ARH, August 20, 1942, 23.

  70. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 139; E.H. Longway, “The China Division,” ARH, June 14, 1946, 183, 184; “Adventist Schools in South China and Hong Kong,” 57-60.

  71. “Adventist Schools in South China and Hong Kong,” 57-60; N.F. Brewer, “South China Union Session,” China Division Reporter, June 1948, 4; “The Light of Asia,” The Journal of True Education 10 no. 5 (June 1948): 28..

  72. H. S. Leung, "Brief Report of the Hardship of the School during the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong," 60th Anniversary Special: Clarion, Graduation Annual of South China Union College, Hong Kong, 1963-1978, 33, as cited in, Luke Handel, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 140.

  73. N.F. Brewer, “South China Union Session,” China Division Reporter, June 1948, 4; Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 193.

  74. “China Training Institute,” The Journal of True Education 9 no. 3 (June 1947): 27.

  75. George J. Appel, “Onward Old Cathay,” Missions Quarterly, January 1946, 10; Thirty-Seventh Meeting, China Division Committee, August 26, 1948, Folder, China Division (Section II) 1948, GC Archives.

  76. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 142, 193.

  77. W.H. Branson, “Emergency Plans for our Work,” China Division Reporter, January 1949, 2; “Division Notes,” China Division Reporter, January 1949, 7.

  78. Ibid., 7.

  79. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 83.

  80. “China Training Institute,” ARH, April 14, 1949, 23.

  81. Su Sing, "The Southward Move of the China Training Institute," The Friend of Youth (YPMV Department of China Division) 2 (Jan. 1949): 3, as cited in, Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 83.

  82. Ibid, 84.

  83. Yearbook of the Seventh-day Adventist Denomination, 1949, ed. Claude Conard (Washington D.C.: The Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949), 283.

  84. Yearbook of the Seventh-day Adventist Denomination, 1950, ed. Claude Conard (Washington D.C.: The Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1950), 250, 288.

  85. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 143.

  86. China Division Committee, January 7, 1953, Folder, China Division, 1953, GC Archives.

  87. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 143.

  88. Anna Lee, “Development of Adventist Education in Hong Kong”, MA Dissertation, February 1975, Loma Linda University-La Sierra, 34-70.

  89. D.W. Curry interview with Handel Luke, September 19, 1979, Sacramento, California. As cited in, Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 214.

  90. Dale Chow interview with Handel Luke, September 18, 1979, San Francisco, California. As cited in, Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 265.

  91. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 143-145.

  92. H.S. Lo, interview with Handel Luke, September 14, 1979. As cited in Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 220; Far Eastern Division Minutes, Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Committee, December 10, 1958. Accreditation of Schools, Folder, Far Eastern Division, 1958, GC Archives.

  93. Ninety-Ninth Annual Statistical Report of Seventh-day Adventists, 1961, (Washington D.C.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1962), 22; One-Hundredth Annual Statistical Report of Seventh-day Adventists, 1962, (Washington D.C.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1963), 22.

  94. Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Committee, May 18, 1962,” Folder, Far Eastern Division Minutes, 1962, GC Archives.

  95. Samuel Young interview with Handel Luke, September 15, 1979, Gospel Villa, Clearwater Bay Rd., Hong Kong. As cited in, Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 226.

  96. Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Mid-Year Committee Meeting, Kowloon, Hong Kong, December 7, 1965, Folder, Far Eastern Division Minutes, 1965, GC Archives.

  97. Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Committee, Singapore, May 31, 1967, Folder, Far Eastern Division, 1967, GC Archives.

  98. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 149.

  99. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 115; Far Eastern Division Minutes, Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Committee, January 7, 1971, Singapore, Folder, Far Eastern Division Minutes, 1971 (Jan-Sept), GC Archives.

  100. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 150.

  101. Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Committee, Singapore, June 18, 1976, Folder, Far Eastern Division Minutes, 1976 (Jan-Oct), GC Archives.

  102. Charles H. Tidwell Sr., interview with Handel Luke, September 5, 1979, South China Union College, Hong Kong. As cited in, Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 240.

  103. R.K. Boyd, “Workers in Hong Kong Find Witnessing Ministry,” ARH, March 23, 1978, 15.

  104. Far Eastern Division of the General Conference Committee, Singapore, January 19, 1978, Folder, Far Eastern Division Minutes 1978 (Jan-Jun), GC Archives.

  105. “Appendix B: Affiliation Agreement Between Loma Linda University and South China Union College,” as cited in, Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 207.

  106. “Institutional Statistics for 1982,” 120th Annual Statistical Report, 1982, ed. F. Donald Yost (Washington D.C.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1983), 24.

  107. “Institutional Statistics for 2015,” 2017 Annual Statistical Report, (Washington D.C.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2019), 74; “Institutional Statistics for 2016,” 2018 Annual Statistical Report, (Washington D.C.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2019), 76.

  108. Dan Cheung, email to Kris Erskine, June 16, 2020. Accessible in, Adventism in China (2020), Center for Chinese Adventist Heritage Collection, "Hong Kong Adventist College." Accessed July 2, 2020, https://ccah-collection.weebly.com/hongkongadvcol.html.

  109. “Chinese Adventist Seminary,” Directory of Seventh-day Adventist Colleges and Schools, (Silver, Spring, Maryland: Adventist Accrediting Association, 2018), 76. Accessed July 1, 2020, https://adventistaccreditingassociation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/directory2017-2018.pdf.

  110. Dan Cheung email to Kris Erskine, June 16, 2020. Accessible in, Adventism in China (2020), Center for Chinese Adventist Heritage Collection, "Hong Kong Adventist College." Accessed July 2, 2020, https://ccah-collection.weebly.com/hongkongadvcol.html.

  111. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 146.

  112. Kris Erskine, email to Heather Cook, July 23, 2020. Accessible in, Adventism in China (2020), Center for Chinese Adventist Heritage Collection, "Hong Kong Adventist College." Accessed July 2, 2020, https://ccah-collection.weebly.com/hongkongadvaca.html.

  113. Daniel Chuah, email to Kris Erskine, June 13, 2020. Accessible in, Adventism in China (2020), Center for Chinese Adventist Heritage Collection, "Hong Kong Adventist College." Accessed July 2, 2020, https://ccah-collection.weebly.com/hongkongadvcol.html.

  114. “NAD Annual Council for October 31 – November 3, 2008,” Folder, NSD Northern Asia Pacific Division Executive Committee Minutes 2008, GC Archives.

  115. 2019 Adventist Accrediting Association (AAA) Record of Accredited and Authorized Secondary Schools, (April 2019), 43, accessed, October 2, 2020, https://adventistaccreditingassociation.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/SecondaryInstitutions.pdf.

  116. Tom Decker, email to the author, June 10, 2020. Accessible in, Adventism in China (2020), Center for Chinese Adventist Heritage Collection, "Hong Kong Adventist College." Accessed July 2, 2020, https://ccah-collection.weebly.com/hongkongadvcol.html.

  117. Ibid.

  118. “Affiliation / Accreditation,” Hong Kong Adventist Academy, accessed July 1, 2020, https://www.hkaa.edu.hk/affiliation-accreditation.

  119. L.R. Colburn, interview with Luke Handel, September 14, 1979, SCIUM office in Hong Kong. As cited in, Luke “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” interview begins on page 269.

  120. R.K. Boyd, “Workers in Hong Kong Find Witnessing Ministry,” ARH, March 23, 1978, 15-16.

  121. Charles H. Tidwell, Interview with Luke Handel, interview begins on page 238.

  122. “Hong Kong Adventist college,” Directory of Seventh-day Adventist Colleges and Schools, (Silver, Spring, Maryland: Adventist Accrediting Association, 2018), 93. Accessed July 1, 2020, https://adventistaccreditingassociation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/directory2017-2018.pdf.

  123. E.H. Wilbur, “The Bible School,” ARH, February 14, 1909, 28.

  124. E.H. Wilbur, “The East Gate School,” ARH, February 4, 1909, 28.

  125. A.L. Ham, “Five Eye Bridge,” China Division Reporter, October 1940, 4; Mrs. R. M. Milne, “Practical Missionary Volunteer Work,” Asiatic Division Outlook, July 1922, 11-12.

  126. Luke, “A History of Seventh-day Adventist,” 134.

  127. Most histories of this school indicate Miss Ida Thompson was principal of BGS from 1904 until 1922. This is incorrect. Thompson left Canton for Hong Kong in 1909, on furlough. Ida returned to Asia with her sister Gertrude in 1911. Gertrude was to take over the principalship of Bethel, but she died from Malaria in 1912. In 1913 Ida Thompson again returned to the United States where she taught in Battle Creek, and perhaps one other location. She also went for further education at Union College. She returned to China in August 1919 to again take the principalship of BGS.

×

Erskine, Kristopher C. "Hong Kong Adventist College." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. August 03, 2020. Accessed February 20, 2024. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=98EV.

Erskine, Kristopher C. "Hong Kong Adventist College." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. August 03, 2020. Date of access February 20, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=98EV.

Erskine, Kristopher C. (2020, August 03). Hong Kong Adventist College. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved February 20, 2024, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=98EV.