Paraguay Adventist University

By Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Silvia C. Scholtus

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Eugenio Di Dionisio

Silvia C. Scholtus

First Published: October 10, 2021

The Paraguay Adventist University (UniADV) is an educational institution of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that operates in the territory of the Paraguay Union of Churches Mission (UP). It is located at 440 Carandayty Street, almost Yataity Corá, CP: 001235, Pinozá neighborhood, San Roque District, Capital de Asunción District, Paraguayan Republic.1

Developments That Led to the Establishment of the School

Historical records show that the first Adventist school in Paraguay started in Colonia González, in 1907, in which Emma Köhli de Ernst (Pastor Luis Ernst’s wife) taught. They lived in that place to serve the entire area of Alto Paraguay Mission since 1906. Emma became a teacher at Camarero Academy (nowadays known as River Plate Adventist University) in Entre Ríos, Argentina.2 The Colonia González school was discontinued until a primary school was created in the city of Encarnación, Itapúa Department, in 1953.3

However, more precisely in February 1951 the Progreso Adventist Academy had been established in Paraguay as a parish school. This school started with 12 students, but the following year it had 18 students. It operated behind the church and developed over the years.

At that time the number of Japanese immigrants in and around Asunción was large. To understand the situation, a missionary couple left Brazil to live with the Japanese community in Paraguay since there were not enough missionaries who could communicate in their native language. As a result of this work and others like it (such as medical-missionary and educational work), Japanese families were converted to Adventism.4

To serve the children of Adventists in general, church leaders saw the need to build a boarding school. With this, students who could not pay would be able to work in exchange for their studies. History reports that the help of eastern immigrants was fundamental to this construction. Therefore, “the Japanese Adventist community in Paraguay was an active part in this project, since its beginnings in the 1970s, the community wanted to have a school to teach children and young people and prepare them for life."5

As a result of the donations from members of the Japanese Adventist community, a large property in Asunción was managed, which was adapted to serve as a boarding school. In 1975 the Adventist primary school officially began operating under the name of Paraguay Adventist Academy. Later the name was changed to Asuncion Adventist Academy (CADA). Afterwards, in 1980, the Asuncion Adventist Academy began its secondary school activities6 with its first principal, Sergio Sosa.

In 1992 the East Paraguay Adventist Academy was inaugurated, located at National Route 7, Kilometer 48, in Colonia Yguazú, Alto Paraná department.7 The elementary classes started first, and later the high school level was added. In 1996, with thirteen students, student residences were built for young people from different regions of the country. Thereafter, more educational institutions have been created in most of the country.

The formation process of the Paraguay Adventist University is related to the Asunción Adventist Sanitarium. Therefore, the Asunción Adventist Sanitarium administration began to think about the possibility of creating a nursing school that depended on the sanitarium. In turn, the Paraguay Union of Churches Mission administration was also interested in offering young university students a preparation based on the Holy Scriptures, with the interest of forming human resources willing to dedicate their services for the benefit of God, the church, and the community in general.8

Meanwhile, in order to reach this goal, within February and March 2009, they started to prepare the curricula and the entire study plan that would be presented to the Chamber of Deputies and Senate of the nation. This project’s first stage was concluded in May of the same year, when the national deputy, Daniel Freitas, presented to his party the project to build the Adventist university.9

Months later, on September 8, the Chamber of Deputies unanimously approved the project through the law 3959. The Adventist Church was now one step away from achieving its goal, since senate approval was still necessary. However, this approval was also unanimous on December 15. Then, on December 24, 2009, "by law of the Nation no. 3959, the president of the republic and the minister of education signed the authorization for the operation of the Paraguay Adventist University."10

Along with this authorization, the new university was expected to help alleviate the lack of nurses in the country. The national average at that time was one nurse out of 10,000 people, while the average indicated by the World Health Organization was 10 nurses out of 10,000 people. By providence, the nursing course became the first course offered by UniADV.11

The name Paraguay Adventist University has been used since its establishment.

The Academy Foundation

The church administration in Paraguay, once having obtained the authorization, began the process of structuring and building the UniADV. Previously, the church had bought property, which was used to be the premises of UniADV, and immediately the building began to be remodeled and conditioned to be an ideal place for studies. Thus, thanks to the efforts of those involved in this project, March 7, 2011 was the day of the inaugurating act of UniADV and the school year of the bachelor degree in nursing that happened at Hotel Excelsior, in Asunción. In this solemn ceremony some government authorities were present, such as the vice-president of Paraguay, the deputy Federico Alberto González Franco, and other important ecclesiastical authorities.12

Officially, the classes of the first nursing group took place the day after the opening ceremony, on March 8, 2011. Initially they stayed in the building belonging to the Asuncion Adventist Sanitarium, at Capitán Figari 897, Asunción, Central Department.13 A year later, on February 27, 2012,14 the day the new UniADV campus was inaugurated, students, teachers, and Adventist representatives were present, including Luis Schulz, associate director for the educational area of the General Conference; Erton Kölher and Magdiel Perez, respectively South American Division president and secretary, and Edgar Leonel Luz, South American Division director of Education. Finally that group was joined by Pastor Marlon Lopes, South American Division treasurer, Dr. Carlos A. Mesa, departmental pastor of local education, Pastor Ignacio Kalbermatter, Paraguay Union of Churches Mission president, Pastor Gregorio Limenza, Dr. Kevin Vicente, and Pastor Jorge de la Rosa, representatives of the Asunción Adventist Sanitarium.15All of them represented the church, making the establishment of UniADV possible and intervening to make its organization and inauguration successful.16

Since its foundation, UniADV mission has been a higher education institution that “trains people in the knowledge of truth, service, and innovation, in order to restore in them the image of God.”17

School History

After so much effort, on August 15 and 16, 2015, teachers, officials, and especially the first students of UniADV celebrated the results of their work. First, on Saturday the 15th, in the morning, there was a consecration service, and in the afternoon an exciting thanksgiving ceremony. On the following day the diplomas that accredit the completion of the nursing degree were delivered. This ceremony was attended by important people in the establishment of the institution, as well as leaders in the educational area, administrators of the Seventh-day Adventists Paraguay Conference, and the Asuncion Adventist Sanitarium, as well as the university authorities.18

On March 7, 2017, the Paraguay Adventist University headquarters moved definitely to its present location at 440 Carandayty Street, almost Yatayty Corá, Asunción, where it shares spaces with Asuncion Adventist Academy and Japanese Adventist School.19

In 2018, within the context of social and evangelistic action of the university, UniADV participated in the “Hope Impact" program, an annual event held throughout the ecclesiastical territory of the South American Division, which encourages the practice of reading and provides a mass annual distribution of books. Then, on May 24, a worship service for the consecration of the books "The Power of Hope” was held. The day of the personal and virtual distribution occurred two days after the service.20

After nine years from the beginning of the university formation process, a conquest was obtained in the academic area, the nursing degree received official accreditation on October 1, 2018. To take this important step, it was necessary to receive the approval of the National Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (ANEAES).21 After this accreditation, a ceremony of gratitude to God was held on the 4th of the same month. This celebration was attended by students, administrators, and special guests.22 Likewise, UniADV has reached an agreement with the country's Ministry of Health and Welfare.

Another important step in the development of UniADV was taken when Distance Learning Offices of the Paraguay Adventist University were inaugurated on March 19, 2019. On the occasion, Karina Benavente was introduced as director of the Adventist Distance Learning (EAD).23 Nowadays, UniADV offers the following courses: Administration, Psychology, and Pedagogy.24

In 2019, within November 30 and December 1, the first year of the Business Administration course graduated. On Saturday, November 30, a Thanksgiving service was held and the next day, Sunday, the professional degrees were delivered. Likewise, in this same event, the Sixth Year in Nursing Degree from the Paraguay Adventist University graduated.25

At present the university offers the following courses: Bachelor of Accounting and Bachelor of Administration, from the Faculty of Economics and Administration; Bachelor of Nursing and Bachelor of Psychology, from the Faculty of Health Sciences. The number of students currently reaches 103.26 The university has eight administrative servers and 32 professors. The institution is related to the "New Time" Adventist Church which has 120 members.

The Institution Historical Role

In accordance with the institution's vision of “training leaders to serve the church and society,”27 UniADV offers its students and officials various opportunities to act in the midst of the community around them, such as participation in the “Dona Vida” (Donate Life) campaign; delivery of food to relatives of residents in the Social Welfare Institute (IPS); organization of Nursing Days28 and health care;29 support for the “Corre-Caminata” (Fun Run), organized by the Asuncion Adventist Sanitarium;30 and in the spiritual area, participation in the Share Hope project, Tutoring Plan, Small Groups of students, administrators, and professors. In addition to that, the institution offers weeks of prayer, vigils, camps, and creationism days.31

UniADV received on April 22, 2019, for the first time in its history, the visit of the SDA church world leader, Pastor Ted Wilson, who was accompanied by Pastor Erton Köhler, the SDA church president in South America, and other administrators of the Adventist Church in Paraguay. This visit was special, since it marked the first time that Pastor Ted Wilson arrived in Paraguay.32 On the occasion a reception was prepared for the visitors, and this ceremony was crowned with the baptism of Jhon Acosta, a first-year student of the psychology degree. During this event, pastors Ted Wilson and Erton Köhler were appointed as honorary professors, receiving a medal representing the act.33

In the intention of keeping its mission present and conveying it to its students and officials, UniADV opened the first mission school of Paraguay on September 28, 2019. This project is an initiative of the university in conjunction with the Adventist Voluntary Service, so that its students get to know new places and cultures as they act as volunteers. On that day the topic discussed was window 10/40.34

List of Directors35

Gregorio Limenza (2009-2011); Carlos A. Mesa (2012); Edgardo Muguerza (2013); Karina Paredes (2014); Gregorio Limenza (2015); Claudio Leal (2016-2017); Juan Choque Fernández (2018-2019); Gregorio Limenza (2020-Present).36

Sources

Adventists Paraguay. “Inauguración sede Unión Paraguaya - CADA/UNAPY” [Inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters - CADA/UNAPY] (video). Report on the inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters and CADA/UNAPY, March 16, 2017. Accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/39qUWgQ.

Adventists Paraguay. “Video UNAPY.m2t” (video). Adventists Paraguay, “Video UNAPY.m2t” (History about the creation of UNAPY in Paraguay, March 31, 2012), accessed on February 26, 2020. Accessed on February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VPLBLu.

Albrecht, Enrique. “Iglesia del Colegio Adventista del Este Paraguayo” [East Paraguay Adventist Academy]. Paraguay Mission Newsletter, August 2000.

Alcaraz, Fernando. Report received by Eugenio Di Dionisio on September 21, 2016. Available in the Paraguay Adventist University archives.

Cayrus, Eduardo. “Colegio con internado” [A boarding school]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], March 1984.

Dionisio, Eugenio Di. “Colocación de la piedra fundamental” [Laying the cornerstone]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1991.

Dionisio, Eugenio Di. “Escuela primaria en la tierra guaraní” [Primary school in Guaraní land]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1991.

Dionisio, Eugenio Di. “Nace el colegio con internado” [A boarding school is born]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1987.

Dionisio, Eugenio Di. “Primera donación” [First donation]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1988.

El Gobierno del Paraguay autoriza la creación de la Universidad Adventista” [The Government of Paraguay authorizes the creation of the Adventist University]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 2010.

Ernst, Luis. “Del Alto Paraná” [About Alto Paraná]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], 1907.

Galeano, Sofía. “Graduación marca hito histórico en la educación adventista sudamericana” [Graduation Marks Historic Milestone in South American Adventist Education]. Adventist News (Online), August 18, 2015.

Lechleitner, Elizabeth and Ansel Oliver, “29CN: Approval for Adventist University Pending in Paraguayan Congress.” Adventist Review (Online), October 13, 2009.

Mayr, Werner. “Centro Adventista de Formación Integrada” [Adventist Integrated Training Center]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1990.

National Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education. http://www.aneaes.gov.py/.

Peverini, Héctor J., En las huellas de la Providencia [In the footsteps of Providence]. Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988.

Portal of the Adventist Education. https://www.educacionadventista.com/.

Portal of the Encarnación Adventist Academy. http://eae.educacionadventista.com/.

Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University. https://uniadv.edu.py/.

“Primera semana de oración 2012 en la UNAPy” [First week of prayer 2012 at UNAPy]. La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 2012.

Quispitongo, Verónica. “Carrera de enfermería de la Universidad Adventista del Paraguay logra la Acreditación” [Paraguay Adventist University Nursing Dregree Achieves Accreditation]. Adventist News (Online), February 6, 2019.

Quispitongo, Veronica. “Líder mundial de los adventistas visita a autoridades públicas de Paraguay” [Adventist World Leader visits Paraguayan Public Authorities]. Adventist News, April 25, 2019.

Revista Nuevo Tiempo [New Time Review program]. “Inauguración Universidad Adventista del Paraguay” [Paraguay Adventist University Inauguration] (video). Report on the inauguration of the Paraguay Adventist University, March 27, 2012. Accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/3cOQPNx.

Scholtus, Silvia C. “Robert H. Habenicht.” In Misioneros fundacionales del adventismo sudamericano [Foundational missionaries of South American Adventism]. 3rd ed., Daniel O. Plenc, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra. Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2016.

“Se inauguró la sede definitiva de la UnAPy” [The UnAPy definitive headquarters was inaugurated], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 2012.

“Se inauguró la Universidad Adventista del Paraguay” [Paraguay Adventist University was inaugurated], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 2011.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. https://www.adventistyearbook.org/.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Hagerstown, MD.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2012.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, ID.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018.

Utz, Mario and Nilda Potes de Utz. La Iglesia Adventista en el Paraguay [The Adventist Church in Paraguay]. Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2013.

Notes

  1. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Paraguay Adventist University,” accessed on March 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2xgdx0M; Héctor J. Peverini, En las huellas de la Providencia [On the Footprints of Providence] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988), 111; Mario Utz and Nilda Potes de Utz, La Iglesia Adventista en el Paraguay [The Adventist Church in Paraguay] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2013), 195-212.

  2. Luis Ernst, “Del Alto Paraná” [About Alto Paraná], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], 1907, 7; Silvia C. Scholtus, “Robert H. Habenicht,” in Misioneros fundacionales del adventismo sudamericano [Foundational missionaries of South American Adventism]. 3rd ed., Daniel O. Plenc, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra (Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2016), 119, 123.

  3. Portal of the Encarnación Adventist Academy, “Nosotros” [We], accessed on March 5, 2020, http://bit.ly/2TroC7V.

  4. Portal of the Adventist Education, “Historia” [History], accessed on February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Eduardo Cayrus, “Colegio con internado” [A boarding school], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], March 1984, 17; Eugenio Di Dionisio, “Nace el colegio con internado” [A boarding school is born], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1987, 13; Eugenio Di Dionisio, “Primera donación” [First donation], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], year 88, no. 4 (April 1988): 15; Eugenio Di Dionisio, “Colocación de la piedra fundamental” [Laying the cornerstone], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1991, 14; Werner Mayr, “Centro Adventista de Formación Integrada” [Adventist Integrated Training Center], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1990, 14. On May 31, 1990, the East Paraguay Adventist Academy foundation stone was laid and a water tank, sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and ADRA, was inaugurated; Eugenio Di Dionisio describes the first construction stage of the East Paraguay Adventist Academy first building, which consisted of offices, three classrooms, storage, bathrooms and covered gallery. Eugenio Di Dionisio was the first director of the Development Project of the East Paraguay Adventist Academy, from 1985 to February 1991 (“Escuela primaria en la tierra guaraní” [Primary school in Guarani land], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1991, 14). Véase Enrique Albrecht, “Iglesia del Colegio Adventista del Este Paraguayo” [East Paraguay Adventist Academy], Paraguay Mission Newsletter, August 2000, 7. The local church was organized on Saturday, June 3, 2000.

  8. Adventists Paraguay, “Video UNAPY.m2t” (Historical Video about the creation of UNAPY in Paraguay, March 31, 2012), accessed on February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VPLBLu.

  9. Ibid.

  10. “El Gobierno del Paraguay autoriza la creación de la Universidad Adventista” [The Government of Paraguay authorizes the creation of the Adventist University], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], year 110, no. 4 (April 2010): 19; “Se inauguró la Paraguay Adventist University” [Paraguay Adventist University was inaugurated], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 2011, 22.

  11. Elizabeth Lechleitner and Ansel Oliver, “29CN: Approval for Adventist University Pending in Paraguayan Congress,” Adventist Review, October 13, 2009, accessed on February 24, 2020, http://bit.ly/3avB7oy.

  12. Adventists Paraguay, “Video UNAPY.m2t” (Historical Video about the creation of UNAPY in Paraguay, March 31, 2012), accessed on February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VPLBLu.

  13. Adventists Paraguay, “Video UNAPY.m2t” (Historical Video about the creation of UNAPY in Paraguay, March 31, 2012), accessed on February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VPLBLu; “Paraguay Adventist University,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2012), 541.

  14. Revista Nuevo Tiempo [New Time Review program], “Inauguración Universidad Adventista del Paraguay” [Paraguay Adventist University Inauguration], (Report on the inauguration of the Paraguay Adventist University, March 27, 2012), accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/3cOQPNx.

  15. Adventists Paraguay, “Video UNAPY.m2t” (Historical Video about the creation of UNAPY in Paraguay, March 31, 2012), accessed on February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VPLBLu.

  16. “Se inauguró la sede definitiva de la UnAPy” [The UnAPy definitive headquarters was inaugurated], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 2012, 26.

  17. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “Quienes somos” [Who we are], accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2S7r42N.

  18. Sofía Galeano, “Graduación marca hito histórico en la educación adventista sudamericana” [Graduation Marks Historic Milestone in South American Adventist Education], Adventist News, August 18, 2015, accessed on February 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/2HZ1lUk.

  19. Adventists Paraguay, “Inauguración sede Unión Paraguaya - CADA/UNAPY” [Inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters - CADA / UNAPY] (Report on the inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters and CADA/UNAPY, March 16, 2017), accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/39qUWgQ.

  20. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “El jueves 24 de mayo se llevó a cabo un culto de consagración de libros (‘El poder de la Esperanza’) e impacto virtual” [On Thursday, May 24, a consecration service of the book ‘The Power of Hope’, and a virtual impact was held], accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/3cPj7av.

  21. National Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education, “Resolución no. 327 de la UNAPY” [Resolution no. 327 of the UNAPY], accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2IB006n.

  22. Verónica Quispitongo, “Carrera de enfermería de la Universidad Adventista del Paraguay logra la Acreditación” [Paraguay Adventist University Nursing Dregree receives the Accreditation], Adventist News, October 8, 2018, accessed on February 6, 2019, https://bit.ly/37HUXuN.

  23. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “Inauguración de las Oficinas para Educación a Distancia” [Inauguration of the Offices for Distance Education], accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/39JwQ0D.

  24. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “Educación Virtual” [Virtual Education], accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/38GaH29.

  25. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “Emotiva Graduación de Licenciados en Enfermería y Licenciados en Administración de Empresas” [Emotional Graduation of Graduates in Nursing and in Business Administration], accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/38CgjKz.

  26. Educación Adventista [Adventist Education], “Paraguay,” accessed on February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o.

  27. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “Quienes somos” [Who we are], accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2S7r42N.

  28. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “Excelente Jornada de Enfermería en la UniADV” [Excellent Nursing Day at UniADV], accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2IBAmOS.

  29. Portal of the Paraguay Adventist University, “Jornada de atención a la salud” [Health care Day], accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2IH5VXn.

  30. Paraguay Adventist University – UniADV, Facebook post, September 29, 2013, accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2TEf9tR.

  31. “Primera semana de oración 2012 en la UNAPy” [First week of prayer 2012 at UNAPy], La Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 2012, 24; Fernando Alcaraz, Report received by Eugenio Di Dionisio, on November 21, 2016, available in the Paraguay Adventist University archive.

  32. Veronica Quispitongo, “Líder mundial de los adventistas visita autoridades públicas de Paraguay” [Adventist World Leader visits Paraguayan Public Authorities], Adventist News, April 25, 2019, accessed on February 26, 2020, https://bit.ly/391oVLX.

  33. Ibid.

  34. Paraguay Adventist University – UniADV, Facebook post, October 1, 2019, accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/3aKcjcp.

  35. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Paraguay Adventist University,” accessed on March 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/2xgdx0M; “Paraguay Adventist University,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2012), 541; “Central Argentine Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 464. For further details about all general presidents, consult the Seventh-day Adventist yearbooks from 2012 to 2018. 

  36. Adventists Paraguay, Twitter post, May 30, 2018 (8:34 p.m.), accessed on March 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/33bWmt1. More information about the Paraguay Adventist University can be found at https://uniadv.edu.py/, or in social networks as Facebook: @uniadv.edu.py, Instagram: @uniadv_paraguay and Twitter: @uniadv_paraguay.

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Dionisio, Eugenio Di, Silvia C. Scholtus. "Paraguay Adventist University." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. October 10, 2021. Accessed January 31, 2023. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=BI9N.

Dionisio, Eugenio Di, Silvia C. Scholtus. "Paraguay Adventist University." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. October 10, 2021. Date of access January 31, 2023, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=BI9N.

Dionisio, Eugenio Di, Silvia C. Scholtus (2021, October 10). Paraguay Adventist University. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved January 31, 2023, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=BI9N.