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Luzeiro V dental treatment and clothing donation

Photo courtesy of Brazil National Center of Adventist History Archives, 2017. 

Rolling Clinics

By Rodolfo Figueiredo de Sousa

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Rodolfo Figueiredo de Sousa lives in the State of Goiás, Brazil. He holds a degree in theology, languages and history from Brazil Adventist University. For a time he served as a writing assistant on the editorial team of the Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists at the South American Division.

First Published: October 23, 2021

To meet the needs of areas without medical facilities, the Seventh-day Adventist Church has created mobile hospitals to reach vulnerable and geographically isolated people. Often called rolling clinics, mobile hospitals were a milestone for the development of Adventist work in Brazil. Whether sailing rivers, moving on wheels, or flying across the sky, they have accomplished the goal of helping thousands of people in “forgotten” places in South America.

Adventists believe that “true religion and health laws go hand in hand”,1 and thus, charitable help provided is missionary work. The rolling clinics are among the boldest stories of medical missionary missions ever recorded on Brazilian soil. The journeys made by these vehicles and their crews often sent them into the unknown for many months.

Developments that Led to the Establishment of the Institution

Mobile evangelism was a work system pioneered by James Edson White, who sailed the “Morning Star” mission boat on the Mississippi River in 1895.2 In 1927 Hans Mayr was the first missionary to Brazil to use a boat, the Ulm am Donau, meaning “on the Danube,”3 in honor of his hometown. This launch was dedicated exclusively to canvassing work.

In 1927, the Brazilian mission field was too large for the number of workers available. Brazil was already the fifth largest country on the planet, and the largest in South America. Brazil has always been a rural country, and in the early 20th century, most of the population lived in less urbanized areas. In regions such as the north and northeast, inland residents faced difficulties in accessing hospitals. To reach the major centers, they had to navigate some of the 40,000 miles of rivers in a green maze,4 because there were no roads or trains through the jungle. Often getting sick meant relying on a miracle.

Today, while 60.4 percent of Brazilian counties are considered rural, the nation’s rural population is only 17 percent.5 Hospitals are still concentrated in urban centers. The north and northeast remain the most rural areas in Brazil.6

Twentieth century life expectancy in Brazil’s rural regions was around 40 years.7 Diseases such as malaria,8 typhoid fever,9 and smallpox10 were accompanied by malnutrition and poor sanitation.11 People lived alongside such animals as the jaguar,12 piranhas,13 and venomous snakes.14 The human presence was as an invading element in this habitat.

The South American Division organized medical missionary activity along the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Lower Amazon Mission, based in the city of Belém in the state of Pará, was formed by the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Ceará, Maranhão, Pará, and Piauí and the Federal Territories of Acre, Amapá, Rio Branco and Rondônia.15 However, the scarcity of human resources caused the South American Division to send only two canvassers with the task of evangelizing that immensity of land,16 Hans Mayr17 and André Gedrath.18 These two men, along with Mercedes, Mayr’s wife,19 were the only three Adventists in the state of Pará.

Leo and Jessie Halliwell20 obtained the knowledge and inspiration needed to build the first Luzeiro launch through the pioneer vessels on the mainland,21 Ulm am Donau and the Messenger, commanded by Enrique Marker on the Mamoré River and its tributaries.22

Founding of the Institution

In January 1929, Leo B. Halliwell was transferred with his family from the Bahia Mission, where he was ordained pastor,23 to Belém,24 to assume the presidency of the Lower Amazon Mission.25 There he replaced Pastor J. L. Brown (sent in 1927 by the East Brazil Union to organize the new mission),26 who later became publications secretary for the South American Division.27

Pastor Halliwell had strong support from Jessie Halliwell, his wife, a distinguished nurse who was famous for delivering babies. For this work, the beneficiaries paid as much as they could, and every penny received was sent to the Lower Amazon Mission.28 In order to visit those interested in Jessie Halliwell’s work, Pastor Halliwell undertook perilous, time-consuming, and uncomfortable journeys along the world’s largest river, the Amazon. Due to their size, the available ships could not go directly to their intended locations, and crews had to continue by canoe through the narrow tributaries. The mission had the idea of purchasing a launch to better meet their needs,29 but had no resources to build it.

Through exhaustive study, Leo Halliwell designed a missionary launch. Over the holidays of 1930, the Halliwells returned to the United States, where they raised some of the money needed to build it.30 Halliwell visited churches and camp meetings, and thrilled people talking about the new mission field. The Missionary Volunteer Society donated $5,400,31 allowing the builder to deliver the innovative design of the vessel in March 1931.32

Although the shipbuilding master questioned the buoyancy of the boat, Pastor Halliwell took the risks33 and, as an electrical engineer, installed a 20 HP diesel engine.34 Construction of the 11-meter-long launch lasted four months35 and required the wood of the pau d’arco, imbaúba, piquiá, and cedar trees. Oxen carried the trunks of these trees from the forest to the river, where they were towed by motorboat to the exact point where they would be cut.36

After the project was completed, the vessel’s name was chosen by a committee of the Lower Amazon Mission.37 On July 4, 1931, four months after the delivery of the drawing, Jessie Halliwell named the launch Luzeiro.38 After deciding that all vessels would be given the same name, the original Luzeiro received the Roman numeral “I.” This boat would cut the waters to provide health education and medical and dental care39 to about one million people.40 But for that to be possible, the launch would also be the Halliwells second home. Each trip the Luzeiro made from Belém to the city of Manaus took seven months.41 Along the way, the Halliwell family visited the different regions and stayed in each location for up to three days.42

It was not uncommon to find patients who were too debilitated to go to the launch, who had to receive assistance where they were. On other occasions the vessel received up to 300 people seeking treatment.43 The Halliwells continued their journey preaching, comforting, praying, and studying the Bible with their patients. Over the course of 25 years, the couple served about 250,000 people, many of whom accepted the Christian message they brought.44

With scant resources to assist the vulnerable, the government welcomed the work done for the riverside and indigenous people.45 Even where there were no clear and defined regulations on social assistance partnerships, collaboration was established between the government and some philanthropic entities so that they could serve the needy. This was guaranteed by Acting President Getúlio Vargas.46

State governments began to supply medicines purchased at great savings. In 1937, the Department of Public Health from Belém do Pará donated so many medicines that they had to be transported by truck to the vessel, allowing the treatment of 5,800 patients.47 The calls were virtually uninterrupted and were around 6,000 each year.48 At the time in question, Brazilian law did not allow a foreigner to license himself as a vessel captain, but the government made an exception for Halliwell and praised him for helping the needy.49

Before leaving Belém do Pará, Pastor Halliwell received an invitation from the Brazilian government. In front of an auditorium, Leo and Jessie Halliwell received the Order Cruzeiro do Sul, which honors foreign people who deserve the recognition of the Brazilian nation.50 At the event, Dr. Souza Lima spoke about the Adventist work. “Seventh-day Adventists must be as proud to have Halliwell in their ranks as they [the couple] are proud to be Adventists. We congratulate the Adventists for the work done by the Halliwells.”51

During the long years in which he led the launch, Pastor Halliwell counted on the help of several God-fearing people, including R. A. Wilcox, president of the North-Coast Mission for several years;52 John and Carlota Baerg, who together conducted many evangelism series;53 and Emeri Cohen, who before being cured of a serious illness gave Bible studies from his bedroom door and later became a district worker for the Lower Amazon Mission.54

In addition to nursing, Jessie Halliwell was a hydrotherapy specialist and an excellent vegetarian nutritionist. For a while she canvassed exclusively to maintain the Bahia Mission, which was chaired by her husband before he was transferred to the Lower Amazon Mission. She helped several young people obtain education and prepared many other workers, who spread out all over Brazil.55

As the Amazon and other regions of Brazil are geographically marked by rivers, the Adventist Church sought to develop work capable of reaching inland rural areas, which in the early years of Luzeiro I were more populated than the cities. In the 1940s, while Manaus already had 100,000 inhabitants and a single Adventist church, the interior had more than 40 congregations, all reached by missionaries with launches.56

History of the Institution

After Brown and Wilcox visited the area in 1928, indigenous communities looked forward to the establishment of a school, finally built in 1934.57 The first teachers of the institution were Honorino and Maria Tavares, who moved to a location on the Andira River. Although the local community had requested the school, they still met resistance. Opponents stole their chickens, poisoned their cow, and killed their dog. Their baby died of sunstroke, but they did not give up on their work, which in the third year of operation yielded 15 baptisms.58

In 1942, two new launches were added to the Lower Amazon Mission: Luzeiro II, to accompany Luzeiro I, and the Auxiliadora launch, to work on the Upper Amazon rivers in Peru. Alfredo Kalbermater, captain of the Auxiliadora, did a precious job of caring for the sick, extracting teeth and preaching the gospel to people along the rivers.59 In the same year, Pastor Halliwell handed over the command of launch Luzeiro I to North American worker Fred Pritchard, who traveled with his wife and two young children. In addition to being a great nurse, Pritchard was able to extract teeth. The Luzeiro II received the command of Walter and Olga Streithorst.60

In 1948,61 Luzeiro III was dedicated for service on the Paranaíba River, bordering the states of Piauí and Maranhão. It was commanded by Américo Quispe, whose medical missionary work reached 74 people in 1957.62 He took care of fractured bones, extracted teeth, delivered babies, provided short Bible studies, and preached sermons.63 Luzeiro IV was built in 1953. The budget of Cr$430,000.00 was supported by the federal government in the amount of Cr$200,000.00. The rest was funded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Luzeiros V and VI were led by Argentine pastor Carlos Victor Boock, who had previously sailed with Halliwell.64 Boock was also a nurse, a dentist, and an obstetrician.65 During the day the launches helped the sick and brought food to hundreds of people in the cities they passed. During the night they dedicated themselves to preaching about the love of God.66 They carried the most serious cases to Belem Adventist Hospital.67

Luzeiro VI was equipped with x-ray, ultrasound, and minor surgery equipments. This launch was a pioneer in the cities of Limoeiro do Ajuru and Cametá, in the interior of the state of Pará, where the Adventist message was not yet known.68 One night, near the Amazon River, the launch ran aground and began to tip dangerously until the only way to walk was through the walls of the boat. It was then that the crew heard the pororoca69 approaching. Despite the deafening noise, a four-man canoe appeared to rescue the crew, who managed to cross the raging river.70

In 1977 the Luzeiro XIV, the largest of its time, was constructed with resources from the Evangelische Zentralstelle für Entwicklungshilfe e. V. (Protestant Central Office for Development Assistance), Brazilian Legion of Assistance (LBA), and Adventist Church. At this time the agreements with the LBA and Rural Worker Assistance Fund (FUNRURAL) began to require that launch doctors and dentists be graduates.71

Later, Luzeiro XV crossed the waters, and became the largest medical missionary vessel. Eighteen meters long by six feet wide of iron,72 the launch weighed almost 90 tons. It was equipped with medical and dental offices, four crew cabins, and an accommodation for the commander. An agreement was signed between Luzeiro XV and the health company Golden Cross,73 a major supporter of the church, to develop work in six counties, ten rivers, and numerous villages. According to Pastor José de Garcia, a Panamanian missionary, 4,042 people were served in three months. Sergio Montalbán, a Chilean, commanded the vessel.74 The assistance to the churches was by bus or truck.

In turn, Luzeiro XX served the needy populations of the region bordering the Solimões River, including the counties of Tefé, Alvarães, Codajás, Anori, and Anamã. Launches enabled these populations’ initial contact with Adventists.75 Luzeiro XXI was sent to four riverside counties on the Madeira River: Nova Olinda do Norte, Borba, Manicoré, and Humaitá. In 1994 the launch, which also served as a home for Pastor Alijofran Brandão, sank on the river it served. At the time, Brandão was in the city of Panelas to get married, and learned that he no longer had a house to live in with his new wife, Roseane.76

Thanks to grants from the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), in 1994, Luzeiro XXV began working with the restored Luzeiro I and with Luzeiros V, X, XX, XXI, and XXII.77 At the time, ADRA was chaired by the missionary Elwyn Owen.

Throughout their intense work, the launches of the Amazon rarely had land vehicles to assist with social and medical care.78 When they lacked such support, missionaries made their way to patients on foot, carrying their medicine in their backpacks.79

The first Luzeiro boat lasted for 67 years.80 Today the vessel is preserved at Amazonia Adventist College (AAC) as a memorial.81

Mobile clinics in the form of road vehicles began operating in the late 1960s, aided by the construction of the Transamazon Highway.82 There are records of mobile clinics also operating in the states of São Paulo, Espírito Santo, and Maranhão, as happened in La Paz and Cochabamba, Bolivia, and at Lake Titicaca in Peru.83 These vehicles were equipped with a light engine, amplifier, speaker, sterilizer, tub, dental extraction tools, water reservoir, two stretchers, nylon tent, two chairs, and a table. Due to the performance of the North Coast Mission, which favored the vehicles, the medical missionary launches concentrated on the Central and Lower Amazon missions.84

Airplanes came to play a critical role assisting the launches. The first was named Leo Halliwell on November 5, 1967.85 In just 30 minutes, the aircraft could cover the distance traveled by a launch for an entire month. Marvin Daniel Walter, an instructor and commercial pilot who dedicated his life to missionary medical work, was the pilot of the single-engine for over 11 years.86

In 1974 the plane was flown to the US to be sold and replaced by a more modern one. The amount raised, plus Recoil, a donation plan for relief work, and Golden Cross grant transfers, allowed the purchase of another aircraft.87 In the 1980s two aircrafts were in operation, Lake and Halliwell II. Both helped to take the most serious medical cases to Belém Adventist Hospital.88

Due to successive economic crises, the Luzeiro project gradually lost subsidies from some supporters, which made it difficult to continue the work in the 1980s and 1990s. Even so, the work continued through volunteer doctors. Dr. Rogério de Paula, an infectious disease specialist, often mobilized professionals and students of medicine and dentistry. They rented launches with their own resources to visit the riverside population twice a month. In 1999 and 2000, about 5,000 people received care.89

The Central Amazonas Conference90 promoted medical missionary launches through the Luzeiro 2000 Project. On November 30, 2001, two new launches were inaugurated in the Tarumã. These launches cost $500,000, and were made of naval steel, being faster and safer than their predecessors.91 The vessels included a light generator, medical and dental offices, laboratories, clinics, kitchen, dining room, and auditorium.92 After the inauguration, technical problems prevented the largest of the Luzeiro 2000 launches from sailing. As a result, only Luzeiro 2000 II was able to make medical visits.

Inaugurated in 2010, Luzeiro XXVI operates in the Juruá River region, in riverside communities belonging to the city of Juruá. The crew includes a commander, a dentist, a doctor, and a Bible worker.93 Luzeiro XXX was inaugurated in 2017 and also operates on the Juruá river, in one of the most isolated regions of the Amazon. It takes at least three weeks to travel from Manaus to the end of the river. Living so far from resources, the population finds it difficult to receive basic health care.94

With ADRA formally established in the Northwest Brazil Union in April 2012, the launches started to operate under its supervision.95 Currently the Luzeiro project operates three vessels, preserving the project’s original objectives by touring different regions of the Amazon. With skilled health professionals, these launches support pioneering evangelism with the riverside and indigenous populations. In addition, the project has the support of two health posts that function as permanent help bases in the cities of Barreirinha and Manacapuru. These bases have trained health professionals, medicines, and launches to transport the sick and injured. The project continues to work in partnership with local municipalities.96

Many other rolling clinics operated in other Brazilian states and even in other South American Division countries. The launch El Mensajero (The Messenger), led by Enrique Marker, sailed the rivers of Bolivia from its base in Guayaramerin.97 In Brazil, the great São Francisco River received the Luminar launch (The Light), led by the Scofield brothers, both nurses, who were called from the United States with the aim of “relieving the sick, teaching the neighbor to live and especially to carry the light of the gospel and heal the wounds of the sin of thousands.”98 During their first nine months of work, they treated 15,000 patients and brought 45 people to Christ.99

Luminar II, known as the “Ark of God,”100 operated in the state of Minas Gerais. Pastor Léslie Scofield was honored April 21, 1965 with the Medal of Honor of the Order of Inconfidentes for service to the state of Minas Gerais and Brazil.101

Between 1960 and 1963, the Luminar III and IV vessels operated in the state of Bahia and in Furnas, Minas Gerais. Luminar V launched in 1983, led by Pastor Gustavo Pires, department leader of the Mineira Mission.102 Their work has saved thousands of lives.103

In 1954 the Pioneer, under the leadership of Adams Correa, launched on the Araguaia River.104 This river separates the states of Goiás and Mato Grosso, crossing a territory that is inhabited by several Indian tribes, such as the Xerente,105 Xavante, and Carajá.106 These indigenous communities had bonds of trust with Adventists, having previously requested teachers to be sent to the villages.107 In 1929 missionaries built both a school and a chapel,108 prompting several students to accept the Adventist message. In 1956, Pioneer III, the “White Angel,”109 began to operate in three cities: Piedade, Fontour, and Araguacema. It was greeted by former Brazilian President Joao Goulart as he went overland to the Araguaia River.110

The Araguaia River also received vessels called Luzeiro do Araguaia. The first of these was inaugurated in 1976, with 48 tons spread over 17 meters in length, making it the largest missionary vessel on the river.111 Fifteen years later, the costs of maintaining the launch and the difficulties in navigating during the drought led to the construction of a smaller and more economical vessel, the Luzeiro do Araguaia II. It was commanded by Pastor João Werreriá, a Caraja graduate in theology.112 In 1972, in Mato Grosso, the Luzeiro D’Oeste was built to travel the Cuiabá, Paranaguá, and Pantanal rivers. It reached 600 people daily.113

The Ribeira River, in Paraná and São Paulo, received a small boat called Samaritana (The Samaritan), commanded by Benito Raymundo. The interest in the work was so strong that people built medical posts in five locations, so that when Raymundo arrived he could run a clinic and hold his public meetings there.114 In the state of São Paulo, a new launch, Luzeiro Paulista, was inaugurated in 1981.115 It made agreements with the National Institute of Social Welfare Medical Assistance (INAMPS) and the Rural Worker Assistance Fund (FUNRURAL) because of the government’s reliance on Adventist social works.116

In the state of Paraná, three launches sailed with the name Luzeiro do Sul on their bow. The first one measured 11 meters and presented navigation difficulties certain times of the year. The second measured 16 meters and sailed Paranaguá Bay and its tributaries from 1964. The third and last Luzeiro do Sul debuted in 1980,117 commanded by the nurse Rubens Conrad.118

Historical Role of the Institution

The diligent efforts of dedicated people made the medical launches possible. “They were made to facilitate the transportation of missionaries, to serve as homes for them and their families, and to serve the population in their homes on the banks of rivers and their tributaries. As people were attracted by the care assistance, their trust was gained and the doors were opened to the gospel.”119

These launches operated during a time when much of the Amazon was still undocumented, malaria killed thousands, and the government had serious difficulties serving riverside populations due to lack of resources and long distances. The launches contributed to the development of the region. They have been recognized by governments at various levels and places and have gained recognition from the Brazilian media.120

Adventist hospitals in the Northern Region of Brazil emerged from the remarkable work of mission launches. Belem Adventist Hospital was directly influenced by Leo Halliwell, and Manaus Adventist Hospital was opened by the influence of Halliwell’s daughter and son-in-law.121

Overview

Even today, “the Luzeiros have the mission of bringing physical, spiritual and social support to the river access regions in the Amazon area. The launches take missionaries who serve the communities and seek to open doors to plant new churches. Through ADRA, launches carry medical and social assistance services. The Mission Institute seeks to insert workers who will facilitate the planting and growth of churches. When possible, the navigating church promotes public evangelism. Thus the Luzeiros launches serve integrally in the mission to the interior of the Amazon region.”122

In regions such as the Amazon, which has the largest river basin in the world, missionary activities by boat will always be indispensable. The challenge for this type of project will be to increase the capacity for action. And because it is a costly activity, it will require even more investment. It will be necessary to raise funds and devote a higher percentage of budgets to maintain the services provided by the teams of these increasingly modern vessels.123

The challenges mentioned are seen in the light of all the blessings already received. Many of the launches, due to accidents or the deterioration of their structures, are now at the bottom of rivers or deactivated. Just as it is impossible to record all the achievements of these launches, automobiles, and airplanes, so it is impossible to list all commanders and their crew due to the rudimentary form of their records. Dozens of missionaries lived aboard these launches; some for decades, some for a few days, because in those days, everything was more difficult and it was common for doctors to become patients in the place of those they intended to serve.124

List of Names

Most medical missionary launches were built to order according to the experiences and needs to be met. Most were not built in series, although in isolated cases once in a while there was a vessel that was exactly the same model as another.

Below are successive alphabetic lines of the most notable launch crews, according to an official survey of the Adventist Yearbooks.

La Auxiliadora I, Amazon River, Peru: Captain R. A. Hayden (1942-1948), Captain J. D. Replogle (1949-1954), Captain Alfredo Kalbermatter (1955-1960), Captain A. E. Bussio (1961-1965), Captain H. J. Meier (1966-1968).125

La Auxiliadora II, Ucayali River, Peru: Captain A. M. Tillman (1961-1962), Captain H. J. Meier (1963).126

Luminar I, São Francisco River, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: Captain P. S. Seidl (1959-1960), Captain L. C. Scofield (1961-1962), Captain C. M. Silva (1963-1967), Captain Caleb Pinho (1968-1970), Captain Dido P. Santos (1974-1985).127

Luminar II, São Francisco River, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: Captain L. C. Scofield (1963-1965), Captain L. C. Scofield (1967-1970), Captain Dirson Pereira Santos (1984-1986), Cirector Dido Pereira Santos (1987-1996).128

Luminar IV, Lago de Furnas, Brazil: Captain Cecílio Abrascio (1965-1993).129

Luminar V, Lower São Francisco River, Brazil: Captain Dido P. Santos (1985-1986), Captain Dirson Pereira Santos (1987-1988), Captain Dirson Pereira Santos (1989-1993).130

Luzeiro I, Manaus and Parintins rivers, Brazil: Captain Leo Blair Halliwell and Nurse Jessie Halliwell (1931-1941), Captain F. C. Pritchard and Nurse Pritchard (1942-1948), Captain Samuel Utz (1952), Captain E. M. Gutierrez (1953-1961), Captain A. D. Carvalho (1966-1967), Captain J. I. Costa (1968), Captain Luiz Carlos Silva, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil (1981-1984), Captain Natércio Melo Uchoa (1985-1988), Captain Jair Figueiredo dos Santos (1989-1993), Captain José Dias (1994-1999).131

Luzeiro II, Marajó Archipelago, Brazil: Captain Leo Blair Halliwell and Nurse Jessie Halliwell (1942-1960), Captain Eduardo Schmidt (1961-1962), Captain J. P. Moura (1963-1964).132

Luzeiro III, Maués River and indigenous tribes, Brazil: Captain F. C. Pritchard (1950-1951), Captain Américo Quispe (1952-1960), Captain C. V. Boock (1961-1962), Captain R. F. Correia (1963-1965), Captain A. A. C. Pittau (1966-1968), Captain R. L. Wearner (1969-1972).133

Luzeiro IV, Prainha and Faros, Brazil: Captain W. J. Streithorst (1952-1954), Captain W. S. Lima (1955-1960), Captain Willy Buchhammer (1961), Captain J. P. Moura (1962), Captain Manoel Porto (1963), Captain J. P. Moura (1964-1966), Captain Ronald Wearner (1972-1973), Captain Thomas Larsen (1974-1977), Captain Manoel Nunes Pinto (1978-1979), Captain Wandir Santos, Delta Island in the Amazon (1980), Captain Roberval Marinho (1981-1986), Captain Tufi Oliveira Fernandes (2001-2004).134

Luzeiro V, Solimões and Madeira rivers, Brazil: Captain Américo Quispe (1961-1967), Captain A. A. Pittau (1968-1973), Captain Cosme Martins (1974-1977), Captain Paulo Roberto Penedo, Solimões and Juruá rivers (1978), Captain Carlos Hein (1980), Captain Luiz Gonzaga (1981), Captain Natércio Uchoa (1982), Captain Sebastião Bezerra, Juruá river (1985-1987), Captain Sebastião Bezerra (1988), Captain Carlos Pacheco (1989-1991).135

Luzeiro VI, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain R. G. Ley (1961-1963), Captain C. V. Boock (1964-1971), Captain Joao Pinheiro (1972-1977), Captain José Lessa (1978), Captain Joao Pinheiro de Moura (1979-1981), Captain Oziel Damasceno (1982), Captain Delcio Farias Diaz (1983-1984), Captain Joel de Almeida Carvalho (1985-1986), Captain Walter Rezende (1987-1993), Captain Norberto Moraes Brabo (1994-1995), Roberval Moura Marinho (1996-2003).136

Luzeiro VIII, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Arlindo Pacheco (1981-1991), Captain Francisco Abdoval Cavalcanti (2001-2004).137

Luzeiro IX, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Valter Rezende (1999-2001), Captain saias de Sá Mascarenhas (2002-2004).138

Luzeiro X, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: captain Elizeu Pontes (2001), Captain Roberto Cesar Bento de Freitas (2002-2004).139

Luzeiro XIV, Solimões River, city of Manaus and Purus River, Brazil: Captain Eric Monnier (1979), Captain Clarismundo Galvão (1980-1981), Captain Enoque Vasconcelos Reis (2001), Captain Francisco Lima (2002-2004).140

Luzeiro XV, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Bernardino Sena (1978-1978), Captain Jose D’Garcia Gonzalez (1979), Captain José Lessa (1980), Captain Manoel Pina Santos (1981), Captain Sérgio O. Montalvan (1982), Captain Enoque Vasconcelos Reis (2000).141

Luzeiro XVI, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Natalino Belchior (1979-1983).142

Luzeiro XVIII, Captain Messias da Conceição Marques (1985-1986), Captain José Ribamar (1987-1994).143

Luzeiro XIX, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Walter Procópio (2001-2004).144

Luzeiro XX, Madeira River, Brazil: Captain Carlos Hein (1981-1983), Captain Carlos Reis, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil (1989-1993), Captain Arlindo Pacheco Filho (1994-1996), Captain Arlindo do Carmo Brandão, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil (2000-2004).145

Luzeiro XXI, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain José Carlos Bezerra (1985-1988), Captain Ezequias Guimaraes (1989-1992), Captain Arlindo Pacheco Filho (1993), Captain Jair Figueiredo (1994-2000).146

Luzeiro XXII, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Natércio Melo Uchoa (1989-1993), Captain Arlindo Pacheco (1994-1998).147

Luzeiro XXIII, Captain Jose Ribamar (1993), Captain Arlindo Pacheco (1994-1999), Captain Jose Alves Maciel Junior (2000-2001), Captain Marcondes do Nascimento Bentes (2002-2004).148

Luzeiro XXV, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Isaias de Sá Mascarenhas (2001).149

Luzeiro 2000 I, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Antônio Moisés de

Almeida (2001), Captain Lourival Gomes de Souza (2002-2004).150

Luzeiro 2000 II, Delta Island in the Amazon, Brazil: Captain Antônio Moisés de

Almeida (2001), Captain Lourival Gomes de Souza (2002-2004).151

Luzeiro d’Oeste I, Paraguai and Cuiabá rivers, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil: Captain Joaquim de Oliveira (1972-1876), Captain D. A. Campos (1978-1994), Captain Paulo Rocha Dias (1994-1997), Captain Daniel Arruda Campos (1998-1999).152

Luzeiro d’Oeste 2, Paraguai and Cuiabá rivers state of Mato Grosso, Brazil: Captain D. A. Campos (1980-1983).153

Luzeiro d’Oeste 3, Paraguai and Cuiabá rivers in the states of, Brazil: Captain Daniel A. Campos (1981).154

Luzeiro do Araguaia, Araguaia River, Brazil: Captain Caleb Pinto (1977-1980), Captain Jonas Abreu Jr. (1981), Captain and Nurse Miguel A. Maganhoto; Nurse Senhora Miguel A. Maganhoto (1982-1984), Captain Eurico Muniz (1985-1993), Captain Joao Werreria (1994-1995), Director E. Bwogi (1996), Captain João Werreria (1997-2003).155

Luzeiro do Sul, Baía do Paranaguá, state of Paraná, Brazil: Captain Osorio Santos (1963-1966), Captain Juan Belvedere (1967-1976), Captain Eduardo Conrad (1980-1982), Captain Daniel Leichsenring (1983-1991).156

Luzeiro do Sul, Paraguai and Cuiabá rivers, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil: Captain D. A. Campos (1980).157

Luzeiro Paulista, Ribeira de Iguape River, state of São Paulo, Brazil: Captain Joaquim Diniz (1981), Captain Alvino X. de Campos; Associated José R. de Oliveira (1982-1985), director, Tercilia Torres Pereira (1987-1993).158

Maranatha, Mamoré and Yacuma rivers, Bolívia: Captain E. C. Marker (1963), Captain Dionisio Dalla Tor (1964-1969).159

Mensajero Adventista, Mamoré River, Bolívia: Captain Enrique Marker (1962).160

Pioneira, Araguaia River, state of Goiás, Brazil: Captain L. M. Montebello (1953-1960), Captain Isaac Fonseca (1961-1963), Captain Alvino X. Campos (1964-1970), Captain Caleb Pinho (1971-1977).161

Samaritana, Ribeira River, states of Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil: Captain Benito Raymundo (1955-1962), Captain M. M. Rojas (1963-1970), Captain Alvino X. Campos (1971-1976).162

List of Leaders

Among the best known crew members of medical missionary vessels are names such as Leo Blair Halliwell, Hans G. Mayr Brachert, André Gedrath, Walter Streithorst, Fred Pritchard, and Natércio Uchôa, who spent 18 years in launches in the Amazon. He was aboard Luzeiros IV, V, IX, XXII and XXIII, an experience that provided him with vast knowledge of the Juruá River.

Among the project managers of the medical missionary launches, Pastor Adamaor Lopes Pimenta stood out as a major promoter of this work in the Amazon. As president and treasurer of the Amazonas Central Mission (1982-1987), he built a naval shipyard on the Tarumã River to build and repair the Luzeiros. During this period, nine launches were in full activity, the Luzeiros I, V, VII, VIII, XIV, XVI, XVIII, XX and XXI. Among the supporters, Dr. Rogério de Paula and his team can be remembered for their important volunteer medical missionary work during the thirteen years in which Luzeiros could not operate.

Sources

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Borges, Michelson. A Chegada do Adventismo ao Brasil [The arrival of Adventism in Brazil]. Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2001.

Brown, J. L. “A Coisa Vae” [The Thing Goes]. Revista Mensal [Monthly Review], August 1927, 10-11.

Cavalcanti, Abdoval, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil]. Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010.

Gomes, Irene and Pedro Renau. “Nova proposta de classificação territorial mostra um Brasil menos urbano” [New territorial classification proposal shows a less urban Brazil]. Agência IBGE Notícias (online) [IBGE News Agency], July 31, 2017.

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Halliwell, Leo B. “Aos Missionarios Voluntarios do Brasil” [To the Missionary Volunteers of Brazil]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1931, 10-11.

Halliwell, Leo B. “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 21, 23-24.

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Mayr, Hans. El abuelito Hans [Grandpa Hans]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: South American Spanish Publishing House, 2004.

Melo, Diógenes. “O Que Faz a Clínica na Associação Costa-Norte” [What the Clinic Does at the North Coast Conference]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1967, 21.

Ministério das Relações Exteriores [Ministry of Foreign Affairs]. “Regulamento da Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul” [Regulation of the National Order of Cruzeiro do Su]. accessed February 6, 2019, http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/.

Oliveira, João Batista de. “A Lancha Pioneira no Rio Araguaia” [The Pioneer launch on the Araguaia River]. Monograph, IAE, 1990.

Ramos, Ana Paula. Desafio nas Águas: um resgate da história das lanchas médico-missionárias da Amazônia [Water Challenge: A rescue of the history of medical missionary launches of the Amazon]. Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2009.

Seidl, Paulo S. “Viajando Pelo Rio São Francisco” [Traveling the San Francisco River]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1947, 10-11.

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Silva, D. Peixoto. “Enquanto Descansam, Carregam Pedras...” [While Resting, They Carry Stones ...]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1960, 6.

Streithorst, O. S. Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Halliwell in Amazonia]. Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979.

White, Ellen G. O Colportor Evangelista [Colporteur Ministry]. Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1997.

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Notes

  1. Ellen G. White, O Colportor Evangelista [Colporteur Ministry], Tatuí, SP: Casa Publicadora Brasileira, 1997, 131.

  2. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil] Niterói, RJ, Ados, 2010, 19.

  3. Ibid., 27.

  4. Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 21.

  5. Irene Gomes and Pedro Renau, “Nova proposta de classificação territorial mostra um Brasil menos urbano,” [New territorial classification proposal shows a less urban Brazil], IBGE Agency News, July 31, 2017, accessed January 31, 2019, https://bit.ly/2sFfNsR.

  6. Nelson do Valle Silva and Maria Ligia de O. Barbosa, “População e Estatísticas Vitais” [Vital Population and Statistics], Estatísticas do Século XX [Twentieth Century Statistics], Rio de Janeiro, RJ: IBGE, 2006, 49.

  7. Ibid., 39.

  8. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 358; O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Halliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 68.

  9. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 358.

  10. Ibid.; O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Halliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing, 1979, 86.

  11. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing, 1979, 46.

  12. Ibid., 96-97.

  13. Ana Paula Ramos, Desafio nas Águas [Challenge in the Waters], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2009, 83.

  14. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Casa Publicadora Brasileira, 1979, 99-100.

  15. “Lower Amazonas Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1928, 197.

  16. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 44; Loriza Kettle, Uma Igreja na Selva [A church in the Jungle], Campinas, SP: Millennium, 2016, 12.

  17. J. L. Brown, “A Coisa Vae” [The thing goes], Revista Mensal [Monthly Review], August 1927, 10.

  18. E. H. Wilcox, “Notícias da União Éste-Brasileira” [News from East Brazil Union], Revista Mensal [Monthly Review], October 1929, 8.

  19. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 113.

  20. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 16.

  21. Ibid., 28.

  22. Ibid., 74.

  23. Ibid., 42.

  24. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope), Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 354; Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 21.

  25. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 44.

  26. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope), Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 353.

  27. “Lower Amazonas Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1929, 9.

  28. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 36-37.

  29. Ibid., 50.

  30. Ibid.

  31. Ibid.

  32. Leo B. Halliwell, “Aos Missionarios Voluntarios do Brasil” [To Brazilian Missionary Volunteers], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1931, 10.

  33. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 51.

  34. Ibid., 52.

  35. Leo B. Halliwell, “Aos Missionarios Voluntarios do Brasil” [To Brazilian Missionary Volunteers], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1931, 10.

  36. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 51-52.

  37. Leo B. Halliwell, “Aos Missionarios Voluntarios do Brasil” [To Brazilian Missionary Volunteers] Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1931, 10.

  38. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 54; Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 356.

  39. Luzeiro [Light], “Leo and Jessie Halliwell,” accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.luzeiro.org/historia/.

  40. Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 21.

  41. Luzeiro, “Leo and Jessie Halliwell,” accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.luzeiro.org/historia/; Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 356.

  42. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 65-66.

  43. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 356; O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 67.

  44. Michelson Borges, A Chegada do Adventismo ao Brasil [The Arrival of Adventism in Brazil], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2001, 194, 196.

  45. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Haliwell in Amazonia], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 117-125.

  46. Leilah Landim, “Associações filantrópicas ou de assistência” [Philanthropic or charitable associations]. In Estatísticas do Século XX [20th Century Statistics], Rio de Janeiro, RJ: IBGE, 2006, 65.

  47. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope), Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 357.

  48. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil), Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 35.

  49. Ibid.

  50. Ministério das Relações Exteriores [Ministry of Foreign Affairs], “Regulamento da Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul” [Regulation of the National Order of Cruzeiro do Su], accessed February 6, 2019, https://bit.ly/2TEx2qg; D. Peixoto Silva, “Enquanto Descansam, Carregam Pedras...” [While Resting, They Carry Stones ...], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1960, 6.

  51. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell in Amazonia [Leo Halliwell in the Amazon], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 153-155.

  52. Ibid., 127-128.

  53. Ibid., 128-129.

  54. Ibid., 129-130.

  55. Ibid., 131-139.

  56. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Whatsapp message to the author, February 20, 2019.

  57. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope), Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 360.

  58. Ibid.

  59. Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 21.

  60. O. S. Streithorst, Leo Halliwell na Amazônia [Leo Halliwell in the Amazon], Santo André, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 1979, 73.

  61. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil), Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 75.

  62. Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 23.

  63. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 41.

  64. Carlos Alberto, “O Começo de um sonho” [The Beginning of a Dream], Família Boock, May 29, 2006, accessed February 8, 2019, https://bit.ly/2I1yjX3.

  65. Carlos Alberto, “Pastor, enfermeiro, ‘doutor’ e DENTISTA,” [Pastor, Nurse, Doctor and DENTIST], Família Boock, May 30, 2006, accessed February 8, 2019, https://bit.ly/2HZTusu.

  66. Carlos Alberto, “Luzeiro V, Uma fortaleza!” [Light V, A fortress], Família Boock, May 30, 2006, accessed February 8, 2019, https://bit.ly/2SzzpgK; Carlos Alberto, “Atendimento Espiritual” [Spiritual Assistance], Família Boock, May 30, 2006, accessed February 8, 2019, https://bit.ly/2SDHTmX.

  67. Carlos Alberto, “O Começo de um sonho” [The Beginning of a Dream], Família Boock, May 29, 2006, accessed February 8, 2019, https://bit.ly/2I1yjX3.

  68. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil), Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 77.

  69. Pororoca is a dangerous natural phenomenon produced by the encounter of river currents with oceanic waters. The name “Pororoca” comes from an indigenous language, Tupi, which means “bang.”

  70. Carlos Alberto, “Luzeiro VI, meu Xodó” [Luzeiro VI, my darling], Família Boock, May 30, 2006, accessed February 21, 2019, https://bit.ly/2NiDoci.

  71. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 99-100.

  72. Ibid., 77.

  73. Golden Cross International Health Care is a healthcare operator in Brazil, founded in 1971 by Dr. Milton Soldani Afonso.

  74. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 79.

  75. Ibid., 101.

  76. Ibid., 102.

  77. Ibid., 103.

  78. Carlos Alberto, “No lugar do Jegue, a Clínica!” [In place of Donkey, the Clinic!], Família Boock, May 30, 2006, accessed February 21, 2019, https://bit.ly/2tvKxgj.

  79. Ana Paula Ramos, Desafio nas Águas [Challenge in the Waters), Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2009, 93.

  80. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 34.

  81. Ibid., 39.

  82. The Transamazon Highway (BR-230) is the third largest highway in Brazil. 4,260 kilometers long, it links the city of Cabedelo, Paraíba to Lábrea, Amazonas, crossing seven Brazilian states: Paraíba, Ceará, Piauí, Maranhão, Tocantins, Pará, and Amazonas.

  83. “Mobile Clinics,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1972, 240.

  84. Ana Paula Ramos, Desafio nas Águas [Challenge in the Waters], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2009, 73.

  85. Ibid., 109.

  86. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 110; Ana Paula Ramos, Desafio nas Águas [Challenge in Waters], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2009, 72.

  87. Ana Paula Ramos, Desafio nas Águas [Challenge in Waters], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2009, 66.

  88. Ibid., 72.

  89. Ibid., 115.

  90. “Central Amazon Association,” Seventh-day Adventist (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1950, 267.

  91. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 110.

  92. Ibid., 111.

  93. Luzeiro, “Luzeiro XXVI,” accessed February 11, 2019, http://www.luzeiro.org/luzeiro-26/.

  94. Luzeiro, “Luzeiro XXX,” accessed February 11, 2019, http://www.luzeiro.org/luzeiro-30/.

  95. Brad Mills, Director ADRA Brazil Regional Amazon, email to author, February 25, 2019.

  96. ADRA Brazil, “Projeto Luzeiro” [Luzeiro Project], accessed February 11, 2019, https://bit.ly/2GCWtoi.

  97. Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 23.

  98. Paulo S. Seidl, “Viajando Pelo Rio São Francisco” [Traveling the São Francisco River], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1947, 10-11.

  99. Ibid.

  100. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 46.

  101. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Lights: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 84; Assembleia Legislativa de Minas Gerais [Minas Gerais Legislative Assembly], “Legislação Mineira” [Minas Gerais Legislation], accessed February 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2tyWCS2.

  102. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Lights: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 45.

  103. Ibid., 49.

  104. Ibid., 53.

  105. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope), Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 347.

  106. João Batista de Oliveira, “A Lancha Pioneira no Rio Araguaia” [The Pioneer launch on the Araguaia River), Monograph, IAE, 1990, 1; Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 23.

  107. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança [A Land of Hope], Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011, 347.

  108. Ibid., 348.

  109. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 57.

  110. Ibid., 55.

  111. Ibid., 62.

  112. Ibid., 63.

  113. Idem.

  114. Leo B. Halliwell, “Our Medical Launch Work in South America,” ARH, January 23, 1958, 23.

  115. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Luzeiros: conheça a surpreendente história das lanchas missionárias adventistas no Brasil [Luzeiros: Get to know the amazing story of Adventist mission launches in Brazil], Niterói, RJ: Ados, 2010, 68.

  116. Ibid., 69.

  117. Ibid., 71.

  118. Ibid., 72.

  119. Ibid., 16.

  120. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Whatsapp message to the author, Feburary 20, 2019.

  121. Ibid.

  122. Brad Mills, Director ADRA Brazil Regional Amazon, email to author, February 12, 2019.

  123. Abdoval Cavalcanti, Whatsapp message to the author, February 20, 2019.

  124. Ibid.

  125. “La Auxiliadora I,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1950, 170; “La Auxiliadora I,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1969, 223.

  126. “La Auxiliadora II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1962, 321; “La Auxiliadora II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1964, 206.

  127. “Luminar,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1950, 170; “Luminar I,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1986, 536.

  128. “Luminar II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1964, 206; “Luminar II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1997, 510.

  129. “Luminar IV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1964, 206; “Luminar IV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1994, 495.

  130. “Luminar V,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1986, 536; “Luminar V,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1994, 495.

  131. “Luzeiro,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1943, 155; “Luzeiro I,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2000, 549.

  132. “Luzeiro II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1943, 155; “Luzeiro II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1965-1966, 210.

  133. “Luzeiro III,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1950, 170; “Luzeiro III,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1973-1974, 399.

  134. “Luzeiro IV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1953, 176; “Luzeiro IV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  135. “Luzeiro V,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1962, 321; “Luzeiro V,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1992, 505.

  136. “Luzeiro VI,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1962, 321; “Luzeiro VI,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2004, 575.

  137. “Luzeiro VIII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1982, 496; “Luzeiro VIII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  138. “Luzeiro IX,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2001, 524; “Luzeiro IX,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  139. “Luzeiro X,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2002, 541; “Luzeiro X,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  140. “Luzeiro XIV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980, 466; “Luzeiro XIV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  141. “Luzeiro XV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1979, 469; “Luzeiro XV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2001, 524.

  142. “Luzeiro XVI,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980, 466; “Luzeiro XVI,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1984, 519.

  143. “Luzeiro XVIII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1986, 536; “Luzeiro XVIII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1995, 497.

  144. “Luzeiro XIX,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2002, 541; “Luzeiro XIX,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  145. “Luzeiro XX,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1982, 496; “Luzeiro XX,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  146. “Luzeiro XXI,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1986, 536; “Luzeiro XXI,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2001, 525.

  147. “Luzeiro XXII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1990, 544; “Luzeiro XXII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1999, 544.

  148. “Luzeiro XXIII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1994, 495; “Luzeiro XXIII,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  149. “Luzeiro XXV,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2002, 541.

  150. “Luzeiro, 2001 I,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2002, 541; “Luzeiro, 2001 I,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  151. “Luzeiro, 2001 II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2002, 541; “Luzeiro, 2001 II,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005, 585.

  152. “Luzeiro d’Oeste,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1973-1974, 399; “Luzeiro d’Oeste I,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2000, 549.

  153. “Luzeiro d’Oeste 2,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1981, 473; “Luzeiro d’Oeste 2,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1983, 515.

  154. “Luzeiro d’Oeste 3,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1982, 496.

  155. “Luzeiro do Araguaia,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1977, 448; “Luzeiro do Araguaia,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2002, 541.

  156. “Luzeiro do Sul,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1964, 206; “Luzeiro do Sul,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1992, 505.

  157. “Luzeiro do Sul,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1981, 473.

  158. “Luzeiro Paulista,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980, 466; “Luzeiro Paulista,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1994, 495.

  159. “Maranatha,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1964, 206; “Maranatha,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1970, 418.

  160. “Mensajero Adventista,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1963, 192.

  161. “Pioneira,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1954, 178.; “Pioneira,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1976, 439.

  162. “Samaritana,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1956, 152.; “Samaritana,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1976, 439.

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Sousa, Rodolfo Figueiredo de. "Rolling Clinics." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. October 23, 2021. Accessed May 20, 2022. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=6IB2.

Sousa, Rodolfo Figueiredo de. "Rolling Clinics." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. October 23, 2021. Date of access May 20, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=6IB2.

Sousa, Rodolfo Figueiredo de (2021, October 23). Rolling Clinics. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved May 20, 2022, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=6IB2.