Paraguay Union of Churches Mission

By Angel Jesús Torrel Shapiama, Silvia C. Scholtus, and Eugenio Di Dionisio

×

Angel Jesús Torrel Shapiama

Silvia C. Scholtus

Eugenio Di Dionisio

First Published: November 12, 2021

The Paraguay Union of Churches Mission (UP), an administrative unit of the Seventh-day Adventist Church within the territory of the South American Division (SAD), has its administrative offices located at 899 Av. Kubitschek, on the corner of Herminio Giménez St., Caballero neighborhood, in the city of Asunción, Paraguayan Republic.1

Territory and Statistics

The UP coordinates the progress of the work throughout the Paraguayan nation, whose population is about 7,057,742,2 of which 90 percent of the non-indigenous population speaks Guaraní.3 The number of Adventists members is 12,622, or about 1 Adventist for every 559 inhabitants. The entire UP territory is organized into 28 pastoral districts that include a total of 154 congregations (61 organized churches and 93 groups).4

Beyond supervising churches, the UP is also responsible for educational, medical,5 media, and healthcare institutions. Its primary level schools are: Paraguay Adventist Academy (EACE), located at 136 Eusebio Ayala Ave., downtown, Ciudad del Este, Alto Paraná Department (currently 115 students); Curuguaty Adventist School (EACU), located at Bazán de Pedraza near 399 Carlos A. López St., Virgen de Fátima neighborhood, Curuguaty, Department Canindeyú (currently 195 students); Encarnación Adventist Academy (EAE), located at 255 Jorge Memmel St. near Captán Pedro Juan Caballero, Catedral, Encarnación, Itapúa (currently 155 students); Cruce Guaraní Adventist Academy (EACG), located at Ruta 10 Las Resistencias, Kilometer 342, Anahí neighborhood, Canindeyú Department (currently 164); Azotey Adventist Academy (EAA), located at Ruta 3 General Aquino, Kilometer 380, Azotey neighborhood, Concepción Department (currently 90 students); Pedro Juan Caballero Adventist Academy (EAPJC), located at 457 José de J. Martínez St., on the corner of Cerro León - Mariscal Estigarribia St., Pedro Juan Caballero, Amambay Department (currently138 students); and Paloma Adventist Academy (EALP), located at 1430 Defensores del Chaco St., Las Mercedes, La Paloma, Canindeyú Department (currently 135 students).

Schools with both elementary and high school programs include: Asunción Adventist Academy (CADA), located at 440 Carandayty St., Pinozá, Asunción, with 379 students; East Paraguay Adventist Academy (CADEP), located at Route 2 kilometer 278 or CC 459, Route no. 7, Kilometer 48, Yguazú neighborhood, Alto Paraná Department (currently 204 students, 71 of them are boarding); and Hohenau Adventist Academy (CAH), located at Route 6, 38,5 kilometers, Armonia, Hohenau neighborhood, Itapúa Department (currently 151 students).

The union also has the Paraguay Adventist University (UniADV), “an institution of higher education that trains people in the knowledge of truth, service, and innovation, in order to restore in them the image of God.”6 UniADV offers bachelor's degrees in administration, nursing, psychology, and teaching, and a master's degree in higher education.7 It is located at 440 Carandayty St., Asunción, Paraguay with a current enrollment of 1038 students.9 In summary, Adventist education10 in Paraguay employs 213 instructors who teach about 1,800 students at all educational levels.11

The Adventist medical institutions are: Asunción Adventist Sanitarium, located at 380 Silvio Pettirosi with Pai Perez, Asunción (33 beds);12 Hohenau Adventist Sanatorium (SAH), located at Route VI, Km. 38.5, Hohenau, Itapúa (25 beds);13 Rio Verde Adventist Community Center located at Rio Verde, Pozo Colorado, Presidente Hayes Departament;14 and Vida Sana Community Center, located at 1410 Cerro Cora St., on the corner of Pai Perez, Asunción.15 All of the institutions “are part of a worldwide network of institutions dedicated to integral health, serving society and the church. Mainly recognized for promoting a healthy lifestyle, providing qualified and personalized care, seeking physical restoration, but without neglecting the spiritual aspect, thus improving the patient quality of life."16

Another active institution serving the church is ADRA Paraguay,17 located at 520 Juscelino Kubitschek Ave., Asunción. It has assisted 26,003 people through 2015.18 Finally, the Paraguay Union has Alto Parana New Time Radio (100.3 FM), located at Route 7, km 48, Yguazú neighborhood, Alto Paraná Department,19 and Asuncion New Time Radio (97.9 FM), located at 899 Kubitschek Ave., Asunción, Paraguay.20

The total number of church employees in the Paraguay Union is 765, including 29 with ministerial credentials, 10 with ministerial licenses, 10 with missionary credentials, and 23 as licensed missionaries.21 The rest serve in operational and administrative functions in the various church institutions.

Organizational History

In the mid-1890s, Berta Künzle and her children sailed from Nueva Helvecia, where they lived, to the city of Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay. During the voyage they heard passengers discussing certain individuals who kept the Sabbath and believed in the soon return of Christ. At the port of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Mr. Alpensbach, a friend and book salesman, gave them periodicals to take to her husband, Guillermo Deggeller, who lived in Altos, Paraguay. Upon reading them, the family discovered that they presented the Sabbath as the biblical rest day, and without further instruction about it, they began to observe it. Roberto Habenicht, pastor and physician, visited them in 1903 and studied the Bible with them. The mother, Berta, the daughters Cecilia, Fanny, Luisa, and Guillermina, and a Mrs. Ostreich with her children Germán and Berta, all decided to be baptized.22 Fanny, Cecilia, and Guillermina served as missionaries in different parts of South America, working as canvassers and evangelists.23

As it was the case in several countries in South America, knowledge of the Adventist message reached Paraguay first through publications.24 Such was the impact of those printed pages that spoke about the observance of the Sabbath, that in 1895, a man named Carlos Hein, a Lutheran, converted to Adventism in Uruguay and sent a periodical called Der Cristliche Hausfreund [The Christian Friend] and a German Bible to his brother, Samuel Hein. After reading it, Samuel shared it with his neighbors. The first literature evangelist to visit Paraguay was Lionel Brooking.25

In Argentina, F. W. Westphal, superintendent of the Adventist work in South America, learned about the interest in Adventist teachings in Paraguay and decided to send more printed material. As a result, the people in Paraguay requested a pastor to teach them about the Bible. Elwin Winthrop Snyder would be sent to Paraguay along with his wife, who would work as a Bible instructor.26

When, on August 1, 1900, Snyder disembarked at the port of Asunción, he became the first Adventist pastor in the country.27 He had previously arrived in Buenos Aires in early 1892, along with the first literature evangelists, C. Nowlen and A. Stauffer. Toward the end of 1901, a baptism of five converts took place in Colonia Nacional28 (now the city of Fulgencio Yegros, Caazapá department, Paraguay).29 It was in that locality Samuel Hein had received the Hausfreund magazine from Nueva Helvecia, Uruguay.30

In 1902, during an evangelistic series, John McCarthy and Roberto H. Habenicht convinced a group meeting at the home of a man named Manuel J. Brouchy, in Posadas, Argentina, about the Adventist message. Afterward, the two missionaries crossed the Paraná river and stayed for two weeks in the home of Manuel's brother, Eugenio H. Brouchy, in Villa Encarnación, Paraguay. When McCarthy returned a year later, on September 20, 1903, he baptized the family of Eugenio Brouchy, including his wife, Esperanza, and his children, Eugenio and Pedro. McCarthy then held evangelistic meetings in Brouchy’s home.31 At the end of that year, the first church in Paraguay organized in the city of Encarnación, as a result of the series conducted by McCarthy.32 Then, in 1905, the brothers Luis Ernst and Ignacio Kalbermatter arrived to continue the preaching of the gospel.33

In a session of the South American Union Mission, held March 15-25, 1906, in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina, the South American Union Conference organized, with Joseph W. Westphal as president. The delegates also established missions and conferences with their respective directors. One of those was the Alto Paraná Mission (now the North Argentina Conference), initially covering the province of Misiones, Argentina, and Paraguay with Luis Ernst as the first president.34 At that time, the entire mission had only 100 members and three churches.35 Its headquarters were located during the years 1906 to 1909 in Encarnación, Paraguay.

The next year, 1907, became a significant one for Adventism in Paraguay. The new mission president, along with Ignacio Kalbermatter,36 after doing evangelism in Asunción, Paraguay, organized a church with 12 members. Another notable event that year was the establishment of the first Adventist school in Paraguay. Emma Köhli, Pastor Ernst’s wife, and a resident of Colonia González, Paraguay, decided to open a school to teach children to read and sing.37 In that same year, J. W. Westphal started visiting the Spanish-speaking countries. From Argentina he traveled to Paraguay on horseback, accompanied by Luis Ernst, through the territory of the Alto Paraná Mission, where they visited the missionary Ignacio Kalbermatter.38 Finally, from November 15 to 22 of that year, the first annual meeting of the Alto Paraná Mission convened in Santa Ana, Misiones.39

In the beginning, the work in the Alto Paraná Mission and in Paraguay was not easy as many missionaries encountered resistance and dangerous situations. Revolutions started to take place in the country. Political and economic instability in Paraguay also hampered sales of Adventist publications. Nonetheless, Pastor Ernst observed, “Literature dispersed and the battles for freedom fought and won, and the message took root more deeply in the territory of Alto Paraná. … The truth is gaining its way, with providences that show the hands of God at work.”40

An example of God's guidance occurred at the end of 1909 when administrative meetings convened in Encarnación for the delegates from Misiones and Paraguay. On the last Saturday of that congress, leaders invited all the young people present to attend Camarero Academy (currently River Plate Adventist University in Argentina), where they could enroll in a nursing program and then be sent to the cities to start medical evangelistic work. Five young men stood up, including Adela Toledo and Pedro M. Brouchy. The latter was part of the family Pastor Snyder had baptized in 1903. After accepting the call, Pedro would become "a nurse by profession, a preacher by vocation, a precursor and a pioneer of the Adventist work in what was the Alto Paraná Mission."41

During the years 1906 to 1911, the Alto Paraná Mission continued to include the Republic of Paraguay and the territory of Misiones, Argentina. The headquarters remained in Encarnación, Paraguay, until 1909. Later, in 1910, the field’s offices would transfer to Posadas, capital of the current province of Misiones, Argentina, and Julio Ernst would succeed his brother, Luis, as president. G. E. Hartman would serve as mission secretary.42

In 1912, the northern area of the province of Corrientes, Argentina, became part of the mission.43 That same year, Julio Ernst, Luis A. Rojas, and F. Taborda would join the mission staff. Paraguay now had seven churches and 198 members.44 In 1913, the Alto Paraná Mission territory underwent restructuring, and until 1915, the Chaco and Formosa regions formed part of the Alto Paraná Mission. Then, the following year, the mission would organize another church in the city of Asunción, Paraguay.45 Later, from 1916 to 1933, the Republic of Paraguay was part of the mission’s territory along with the Argentine provinces of Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, and Misiones.

By 1920, many people in Asuncion, through the leadership and influence of Mateo Leytes, a nurse by profession, accepted baptism. One of them was a shoemaker who, after his conversion, began selling the missionary periodical El Atalaya [The Watchtower]. It led to a number of baptisms. Another time, Leytes held evangelistic meetings outside of the city limits. Some locals complained and persuaded the police to ban them. Leytes approached some of the city officials, individuals whom he had treated as a nurse and who respected him. They immediately ordered the police not only not to block the meetings but, on the contrary, to do everything possible to protect them against possible interference.46

Until 1924, the Alto Paraná Mission, which included Paraguay and the Misiones territory in northern Argentina, had a membership of 471.47 In 1926 the mission headquarters moved to the city of Corrientes, capital of the province of Corrientes, Argentina. From there, the work in Paraguay would continue under the direction of Ignacio Kalbermatter.48

Almost 10 years later, the committee of the Austral Union Conference (now the Argentina Union Conference) convened a meeting to solve some territorial problems in the union. The committee dissolved the Northwestern Argentine Mission (MNA) and transferred some provinces belonging to it to other administrative units.49 In other words, the Northwestern Argentine Mission joined the Alto Paraná Mission, forming the North Mission (MN) in December 1933. From 1934 onward, it administered the church in the Argentine provinces of Los Andes, Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Formosa, Corrientes and Misiones, as well as all of Paraguay.50

The first president of the North Mission was W.A. Ernenputsch, with Hugo P. Beskow as secretary and treasurer.51 Until November 1934, the mission area was 762.61 km2, with a population of about 2,740,365, 15 organized Adventist churches, 19 groups, and 780 church members52 (1 Adventist for every 3,513 inhabitants). The MN headquarters was located at 1645 Carlos Pellegrini, Corrientes, Argentina.53

Since then, the work in the MN54 hasn’t stopped. A new development in Paraguay was a medical-missionary program. In 1945, two nurses graduating from the River Plate Adventist Sanatorium opened a clinic with treatment rooms in Asunción called "Fisioterapia Mayo” [Mayo Physiotherapy]. Although small, the medical center attracted the attention of the public as well as physicians in Asunción.55 That same year the MN headquarters transferred to 851 España Ave., Corrientes, Argentina.56

At the end of 1947, the Austral Union Conference, which until then administered six units in its territory, during its annual session in December proposed and voted that the MN be reorganized just to include only those territories located on Argentine soil. Consequently, the restructuring separated the Republic of Paraguay from the North Mission, thus organizing the Paraguay Mission (MP).57 It would start operation during January 1948 with Edward J. Kanna as president and treasurer and Benjamin Treiyer as secretary. Arnol Treiyer, Miguel Esparcia, Bert Elkins, Samuel Brack, and Alejandro Arn would join its staff. The mission began with five organized churches, three groups and 190 members. Its first headquarters was located at 429 Fulgencio Yegros, Asunción.58

“The first committee meeting of this new organization was held in Asunción on January 15, 1948, with almost all the members present. In addition, the following individuals attended: Ner Soto, secretary-treasurer of the Austral Union Conference; P.M. Brouchy and Romualdo Kalbermatter, president and secretary-treasurer, leaders of the North Mission.”59

However, in that same year, Paraguay went through some difficult times. The country had just gone through the Pynandí Revolution (Second Paraguayan Civil War in 1947),60 a conflict that affected the country politically, socially, and economically. But despite such challenges, the members in Asunción managed to finish the construction of the Central Church in 1948.61 The dedication of the new building occurred almost in conjunction with the organization of the MP, thus marking a new era in which the mission would conduct extensive evangelism from the new church. On that Saturday, attendees included Walter Schubert of the South American Division; A. Aeschlimann, president of the Austral Union Conference; Eduardo J. Kanna, president of the Paraguay Mission; R. Kalbermatter, secretary-treasurer of the North Mission; and Pedro M. Brouchy and Niels Wensell, former presidents of the North Mission. Many recounted how God has led the Adventist work since its message reached Paraguay almost 50 years before.62

Another important outcome of the construction of the church in Asunción was the broadcasting of its evening services by Radio Teleco de Asunción on both its long and shortwave stations. The programs especially impressed the station staff. Paraguay was becoming more open to the Adventist message.63

Although Adventist education in Paraguay took its first steps at the beginning of the twentieth century, its development tended to lag behind that of other South American countries.64 However, beginning in the 1950s, it began to grow. In February 1951, a church school opened in the capital as the Progreso Adventist Academy. It operated behind the church at 429 Yegros Street,65 the same place as the mission headquarters. While the school started without official government accreditation, it had 12 students, most of them non-Adventists.66 So, in 1953, another elementary school started in the city of Encarnación, Itapúa Department.67 Although it struggled with various financial difficulties, it survived.

In 1950, church members around the world contributed to a special offering to construct a sanitarium in the city of Asunción. However, the country's political situation prevented its immediate fulfillment. Only in 1954, and in response to a request from the General Conference, Dr. I. E. Bailie came from the United States to Paraguay to serve as the director of a sanitarium.68 Meanwhile, it took a few years to get government accreditation. Thus, after a long wait, the small clinic in Asunción became the most modern medical facility in the city. The Asuncion Adventist Sanitarium (SAA) opened July 29, 1959, with civic, religious, and community leaders in attendance.69 At the time of its inauguration, the SAA had 10 hospital beds, physicians’ offices, a medical laboratory, an X-ray department, and a surgery suite.70 In 1959, the MP transferred its headquarters to 373 Fulgencio Yegros.

Later, the Paraguay Mission moved in 1973 to 861 Fulgencio Yegros, Asunción.71 In that same year, the MP administration received a request from the residents of the Colonias Unidas area to build another Adventist sanatorium similar to that in Asunción. The church and the community joined efforts to make the dream come true. First, the German Hohenau Society, represented by Lord Eitel Kegler, donated part of its property for the sanitarium, and the Hohenau city government provided the heavy machinery to clear the land, until then a virgin forest.” The mission president, Benoni Cayrus, on his part, obtained money, materials, and labor from local families. Other donations from abroad also came, and in 1965 the Hohenau Adventist Sanitarium and Hospital (SAH) was officially established. The first medical director of the Institution was Dr. Carlos Drachenberg, and the first administrator was Basilio Zawadsky.72 During February 1969 the Hohenau Adventist Academy was also officially inaugurated.73

In 1970, a Japanese pastor, Yuji Eida, along with his wife, arrived from Brazil, responding to a call from the church to serve the 6,000 members of the Japanese community in Paraguay.74 Through the efforts of J. N. Nozaki,75 a Japanese-American missionary physician, the Eida family acquired a house. From their home, the missionary couple held religious services and provided spiritual guidance to the Japanese-speaking youth who came to live with them.76 Beginning on January 1, 1972, a 15-minute Japanese version of the program "Una Luz en el Camino [A Light on the Way]” was broadcast by radio once a week in Paraguay. Pastor Eida had charge of the project at the request of the Austral Union Conference.77

By 1973, Pastor Eida and the Japanese Adventist community helped acquire a farm (located in an urbanized area) as a site for a school to educate both young Japanese and Spanish speakers.78 On October 16, 1975, it began to function as a boarding school along with an elementary school under the name of Paraguay Adventist Academy, which later became the Private School 1197--Asunción Adventist Academy (CADA).79 In 1979, the MP's headquarters relocated to Kubitschek 899, Asunción. In that same year, a major evangelistic series conducted by Pastor Daniel Belvedere resulted in 216 baptisms.80

The following year, on February 25, 1980, CADA began its activities at the high school education level, offering three programs.81 Finally, in 1990, CADA moved to Carandayty 440, Pinozá, Asunción.82 On May 31 of that same year, in another region of the country, leaders laid the cornerstone of the East Paraguay Adventist Academy (CADEP) and inaugurated the water system sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and ADRA. 83 Thus, two years later, when construction finished, on March 2, 1992, CADEP classes began at the preschool level and six grades on the elementary level.84

As the new millennium commenced, the mission faced new challenges. By then Tomas G. Recalde directed the MP, and it had 8,553 members. Membership reached almost 10,000 at the end of the year, of whom 1,497 joined as new converts in 2000 for a net growth of 12.41 percent during that year. The mission had 43 organized churches and 39 groups.85 Media played an increasingly important role as Paraguay New Time Radio began broadcasting from Asunción.86 Likewise, in the area of printed publications, since 2007 Paraguay had been participating in the evangelistic project “Hope Impact,"87 fostered by the SAD. And in 10 years since its first printing, the mission has distributed nearly 1,024,250 books throughout its territory.88

By 2009, the MP had 15,318 members,89 and was still part of the Austral Union Conference, which, until then, took care of the work in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. However, in order to offer better focus on the development of the church in each of the countries, leadership decided that each member country of the Austral Union Conference would begin to administer its own union. For that reason, Paraguay would become a union mission attached to the SAD.90 Consequently, between November 8-12, 2009, the SAD and its leaders meeting in the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, elected new directors for Uruguay and Paraguay. For the latter union, SAD chose Ignacio Luis Kalbermatter to be president, along with Luis Martínez and Nilson Fontana as secretary and treasurer, respectively.91 Finally, as of January 1, 2010, the Argentina Union Conference, the Uruguay Union of Churches Mission, and the Paraguay Union of Churches Mission became officially established.92

Shortly after this new restructuring, in 2012 the UP moved to Kubitschek 520, Asunción, at ADRA Paraguay headquarters. However, it would be temporary, since, on March 7, 2017, the union completed its new headquarters. Construction lasted exactly two years and involved the entire Adventist community. On the same date, leaders inaugurated the new building of the Paraguay Adventist University and the Asunción Adventist Academy.93

As the Paraguay Union continuously proclaims the Three Angels Messages, it seeks to involve new generations, It holds small group meetings to study the Bible at home;94 remodels or builds new churches to make the Seventh-day Adventist Church a physical presence in the community;95 and invites children and adolescents to participate in the Adventurer or Pathfinder clubs. Paraguay has more than 70 Adventurers clubs,96 and at present, it has established a total of 100 Pathfinder clubs.97

Finally, in 2020, Paraguayan youth participated in the missionary project “One Year in Mission,” in the cities of Philadelphia and Loma Plata, and at the end of the year they hope to start a new congregation in each of those cities. “One Year in Mission” is part of the project sponsored by the SAD in association with the UP in which young people serve God and the community exclusively for one year.98

More than 120 years have passed since the Adventist message reached the Paraguayan nation through men and women from abroad. Every effort, every endeavor, and every penny invested has been worth it. Today, the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Paraguay has a beautiful history to remember, from the first meetings in Encarnación until the first churches and establishment of its medical and educational institutions. Such events reveal how God guides His work and its workers. The church in Paraguay has demonstrated that they are “Connected to Save” and thus keep alive its passion to proclaim that Christ is coming soon!99

Chronology of Administrative Leaders100

Presidents: Luis Ernst (1906-1909); Julio Ernst (1910-1915); Santiago Mangold (1916-1920); Otto Schnepper (1921-1922); Ignacio Kalbermatter (1923-1926); Otto Schnepper (1927-1928); W.A. Ernenputsch (1928-1935); Carl Becker (1936-1937); Niels Wensell (1937-1945); I. M. Vacquer (1945); Pedro M. Brouchy (1945-1947);101 Eduardo J. Kanna (1948-1952); Víctor Aeschlimann (1953-1955); Jorge Iuorno (1956-1960); Benoní I. Cayrus (1960-1964); Erwin Hise (1965-1972); Walter Weiss (1972-1974); Daniel Arn (1974-1979); Eduardo Cayrus (1980-1985); David Valenzuela (1986-1990); José María Hage (1991-1995); Tomás G. Recalde (1996-2003); Iván Samojluk (2004-2005); Fernando Müller (2005-2009); Ignacio Luis Kalbermatter (2010-2017);102 Evandro Carlos Fávero (2017-Present).103

Secretaries: N. Z. Town (1906); Arthur Fulton (1907-1908); G. E. Hartman (1909-1917); J. A. Westermeyer (1918); D. J. Weiss (1919-1928); Santiago Weiss (1929-1930); E. R. Kunstmann (1931); V. L. Gambetta (1932); S. R. Penis (1933); H. P. Beskow (1934); Juan Zevallos R. (1935-1937); Alfredo Bellido (1938-1941); Claudio Krieghof (1942-1943); D. J. Weiss (1944); Romualdo Kalbermatter (1945-1947); Benjamin Treiyer (1948); D. E. Iuorno (1951-1952); Eduardo J. Kanna (1953); Bert Elkins (1954-1955); Eduardo Giménez (1956-1958); L. D. Cleveland (1959-1960); Eduardo Giménez (1961); Peter Fritz (1962-1963); Basilio Zawadzki (1964); R. E. Cayrus (1965-1971); Guillermo Caballero (1972-1973); Isolino Poelstra (1974-1976); Benito Kalbermatter (19977-1981); Amilcar Quispe (1982-1983); Hugo Ramírez (1984); Placido Alcón (1985-1987); Basilio Zawadzki (1988-1990); Carlos Giménez (1991-1994); Hernán Olmedo Nissen (1995-1999); Marcelo B. Fucks (2000); Miguel Ángel Torales (2001-2003); Hernan O. Buchhammer (2004-2009); Luis Martínez (2010-2012); Benjamín Belmonte (2013); Claudio R. Leal (2014-2017); Jaime Samuel Pérez Párraga (2017-Present)

Treasurers: N. Z. Town (1906); Arthur Fulton (1907-1908); G. E. Hartman (1909-1911); Julio Ernst (1913-1915); Santiago Mangold (1916-1917); J. A. Westermeyer (1918); D. J. Weiss (1919-1928); Santiago Weiss (1929-1930); E. R. Kunstmann (1931); V. L. Gambetta (1932); S. R. Penis (1933); H. P. Beskow (1934); Juan Zevallos R. (1935-1937); Alfredo Bellido (1938-1941); Claudio Krieghof (1942-1943); D. J. Weiss (1944); Romualdo Kalbermatter (1945-1947); Eduardo J. Kanna (1948-1953); Bert Elkins (1954-1955); Eduardo Giménez (1956-1958); L. D. Cleveland (1959-1960); Eduardo Giménez (1961); Peter Fritz (1962-1963); Basilio Zawadzki (1964); R. E. Cayrus (1965-1971); Guillermo Caballero (1972-1973); Isolino Poelstra (1974-1976); Benito Kalbermatter (19977-1981); Amilcar Quispe (1982-1983); Hugo Ramírez (1984); Placido Alcón (1985-1987); Basilio Zawadzki (1988-1990); Carlos Giménez (1991-1994); Hernán Olmedo Nissen (1995-1999); Marcelo B. Fucks (2000); Miguel Ángel Torales (2001-2003); Hernan O. Buchhammer (2004-2009); Nilson Fontana (2010-2011); Paulo Fabricio Dias Jr. (2012-2017); Juliano Marcimiano de Almeida (2018- ).104

Sources

“A Brother in Uruguay...”. ARH, October 2, 1900.

“ADRA Paraguay inauguró nuevas oficinas para servir mejor a la comunidad [ADRA Paraguay inaugurated new offices to better serve the community].” La Revista Adventista, March 2011.

ADRA Paraguay Site. https://adra.org.py/

Adventistas Paraguay. “Inauguración sede Unión Paraguaya--CADA/UNAPY [Inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters--CADA / UNAPY]” (video). Inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters and CADA / UNAPY, March 16, 2017. Accessed March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/39qUWgQ.

Adventists Paraguay. “Informe 2013 de la Unión Paraguaya [2013 Report of the Paraguay Union Of Churches Mission]” (video). Report of the activities in the Paraguay Union in 2013, November 5, 2013. Accessed February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2PqX93w.

Aeschlimann, Víctor C. “Progresos en el Paraguay [Progress in Paraguay].” La Revista Adventista, January 1956.

Andross, M. E. Story of the Advent Message. Takoma Park, Washington, D. C: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1926.

ASN. “Ignacio Kalbermatter se despide de Paraguay [Ignacio Kalbermatter says goodbye to Paraguay].” News--Adventists (Online), May 2, 2017.

Beach, Walter Raymond. “From Home Base to Front Line.” ARH, April 2, 1970.

Bizama, Federico. “Fruitful Efforts.” South American Bulletin, May 1926.

Brouchy, Pedro M. “Memorias de un misionero adventista [Memories of an Adventist Missionary].” Unpublished manuscript, available at the White Research Center, River Plate Adventist University, Entre Ríos, Argentina.

Brouchy Pedro. “La obra en el Paraguay” [The work in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, August 1948:

“CADA celebra 40 años de compromiso con la Educación [CADA celebrates 40 years of commitment to education].” News–Adventists (Online), October 19, 2015.

“Congreso quinquenal [Five-year Congress].” La Revista Adventista, January 2015.

Countrymeters. https://countrymeters.info/

D. O. “Notable despertar del Evangelio [Remarkable awakening of the gospel].” La Revista Adventista, January 1977.

Daniele, G. A. Daniel. “Progreso y futuro promisorio [Progress and a promising future].” La Revista Adventista, July 1978.

Di Dionisio, Eugenio. “Tercer encuentro de profesores [Third teachers meeting].” La Revista Adventista, November 1987.

Díaz, Danitza. “Jóvenes de Un Año en Misión son capacitados antes de iniciar su ministerio [One Year in Mission youth are trained before starting their ministry].” News–Adventists (Online), February 11, 2020.

Diaz, Danitza and Sheyla Paiva. “Iglesia Adventista en Paraguay celebra ‘Encuentro nacional de gratitud’ [Adventist Church in Paraguay celebrates the ‘National Celebration of Gratitude’].” News–Adventists (Online), August 10, 2019.

Diaz, Danitza and Sheyla Paiva. “Nuevas iglesias adventistas son inauguradas en Paraguay [New Adventist churches are inaugurated in Paraguay].” News–Adventists (Online), August 7, 2019.

Education NT. “Paraguai: História da Educação Adventista [Paraguay: History of Adventist Education]” (video). History of Adventist education in Paraguay involving Japanese immigrants, March 25, 2018. Accessed on February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2PstYNP.

Elkins, Bert. “Results of the Effort in Encarnación.” South American Bulletin, December 1950.

Elkins, Bert. “Villa Rica.” South American Bulletin, September-October 1954).

Ernenputsch, W. A. “Reunión regional en Colonia Hohenau [Regional meeting in Colonia Hohenau].” La Revista Adventista, August 21, 1933.

Ernenputsch, W. A. “The North Mission.” South American Bulletin, November 1934.

Ernst, Julio. “Informe del Superintendente [Superintendent's Report].” La Revista Adventista, March-April 1916.

Ernst, Julio. “Report of the Upper Parana Mission.” The General Conference Bulletin 7, May 29, 1913.

Fagundes, Dayane. “Electo nuevo presidente de la Unión Paraguaya [Elected new president of the Paraguay Union].” News--Adventists (Online), May 8, 2017.

Fernandes, Mauren. “Sudamérica tiene más de 19 mil clubes de Conquistadores y Aventureros” [South America has more than 19,000 Pathfinder and Adventurer clubs].” Adventist--News (Online), May 11, 2018.

Fighur, R. R. “Paraguay.” La Revista Adventista, July 24, 1944.

Flecha, Victor Jacinto. “La Guerra Civil de 1947|Ñorairõ paraguaigua apytépe 1947-pe [The Civil War of 1947 | Ñorairõ paraguaigua apytépe 1947-pe].” Paraguayan Culture (Online), May 28, 2011.

Fulton, Arturo. “The Upper Mission.” ARH, October 29, 1908.

García, Carla. “La lengua guaraní, Orgullo de un País [The Guaraní language, pride of a country].” ONU News (Online), February 21, 2019.

Greenleaf, Floyd. Tierra de esperanza: El crecimiento de la Iglesia Adventista Sudamericana (A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America). Trans. Claudia Blath. Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2011.

“Grupos pequeños para grandes resultados [Small groups for great results]. La Revista Adventista, June 2012, 2012.

Gullón, Roberto. “Un congreso inspirador [An inspiring congress].” La Revista Adventista, January 1985.

Hohenau Adventist Academy. Instagram post, July 20, 2019. https://www.instagram.com/.

Hohenau Adventist Sanitarium. http://sah.org.py/.

Hope Impact 10 years. http://www.adventistas.org/impacto10anos/es/.

“Items of Interest.” South American Bulletin, January 1948.

Kalbermatter, Benito C. “Mensaje adventista en la comunidad japonesa [Adventist message in the Japanese community]. La Revista Adventista, October 1980.

Kalbermatter, Cecilia Degeller de. “Los comienzos de la obra en Paraguay [The beginnings of the work in Paraguay].” La Revista Adventista, August 1958.

Kalbermatter, Ignacio. “Faithful Souls in Paraguay.” South American Bulletin, February 1927.

Kanna, E. J. “Glimpses of the work in Paraguay.” South American Bulletin, July-August 1949.

“La Unión Paraguaya celebró su primer congreso [The Paraguay Union held its first congress].” La Revista Adventista, July 2010.

Lemos, Felipe. “DSA elege líderes das Uniões Uruguaia e Paraguaia [SAD elects leaders for the Uruguay and Paraguay Unions].” Revista Adventista, December 2009.

Leytes, Mateo. “La obra médica-misionera en Paraguay [Medical-missionary work in Paraguay].” La Revista Adventista, December 1914.

Mangold, Santiago. “Paraguay, South America.” ARH, April 8, 1920.

Mangold, Santiago. “Paraguay.” La Revista Adventista, August 1916.

“Marcas de Esperanza” [Marks of Hope]. La Revista Adventista, May 2013.

McCarthy, John. “Notes from the Argentine Republic.” ARH, November 5, 1903.

Murray, W. E. “Changes in the Austral Union.” South American Bulletin, March 1934.

Murray, W. E. “Paraguay.” South American Bulletin, May-June 1951.

“News Notes from the World Divisions.” ARH, September 9, 1976.

“News Notes.” South American Bulletin, Third Quarter, 1945.

“Nueva sede para la Unión Paraguaya [New headquarters for the Paraguay Union].” La Revista Adventista, September 2014.

“Nuevas uniones en las repúblicas de Paraguay y Uruguay [New Unions in the Republics of Paraguay and Uruguay].” La Revista Adventista, January 2010.

“Nuevo templo en Pedro Juan Caballero [New church in Pedro Juan Caballero].” La Revista Adventista, July 2013.

Olson, L. H. “Forty years of progress in South America.” South American Bulletin, May-June 1956.

Olson, L. H. “Paraguay Sanitarium Opens Its Doors.” South American Bulletin, October-December, 1959.

Peverini, H. J. “Medical Work Discussed at South American Council.” ARH, December 12, 1974.

Peverini, H. J. “South American Division.” ARH, June 15, 1972.

Plenc, Daniel Oscar. Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America]. 2nd ed. Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008.

Plenc, Daniel, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra. Foundational missionaries of South American Adventism. Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, Entre Ríos, 2020. Kindle edition.

Plenc, Daniel O., Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra. Misioneros fundacionales del adventismo sudamericano (Foundational missionaries of South American Adventism). 3rd ed. Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2016.

Portal of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. https://www.educacionadventista.com/.

Portal of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. https://www.adventistas.org/es/.

Posse, Hugo D. “Congreso de la Asociación Paraguaya [Paraguay Conference Congress].” La Revista Adventista, June 1982.

Quispitongo, Veronica and Analía Roa. “Más de tres mil personas celebraron los 120 años de adventismo en Paraguay [More than 3,000 people celebrated 120 years of Adventism in Paraguay].” News–Adventists (Online), September 26, 2018.

Rice, H. E. “When He Saw the Multitude, He had Compassion.” South American Bulletin, October-December, 1959.

Rojas, Luis. “Paraguay.” La Revista Adventista, November 1912.

Scholtus, Silvia C. Liderazgo femenino en los inicios de la Iglesia Adventista del Séptimo Día en la División Sudamericana [Female leadership at the beginning of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the South American Division]. 3rd ed. Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2019.

Servín, Gabriel. “Desafío en Asunción [Challenge in Asunción].” La Revista Adventista, June 1980.

Seventh-day Adventist Online Statistics. http://www.adventiststatistics.org/.

Seventh-day Adventist Online Archives. http://documents.adventistarchives.org/.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Various years. https://www.adventistyearbook.org/.

Snyder, E. W. “Conferencia General de San Jerónimo [San Jerónimo General Conference]. La Revista Adventista, May 1904.

Snyder, E. W. “The Work in Paraguay.” ARH, June 11, 1901.

Snyder, E. W. and C. Nowlen. “Work in South America.” The Home Missionary, April 1892.

Soto, Ner. “A Visit to Paraguay.” South American Bulletin, November-December, 1948.

Soto, Ner. “Paraguay Mission Organized.” South American Bulletin, May-June 1948.

Soto, Ner. “Worker's Meeting.” South American Bulletin, July-August 1951.

“South American Union Conference.” ARH, June 16, 1900.

Tabuenca, José. “Paraguay.” La Revista Adventista, August 1975.

Tarr, Willmore. “A Journey Through the South American Division.” ARH, September 16, 1971.

Town, N. Z. “La primera reunión general en Paraguay [The first general meeting in Paraguay].” La Revista Adventista, 1910.

Treiyer, Benjamín. “Dedication of the Church in Asunción.” South American Bulletin, September-October 1948.

River Plate Adventist University Editorial–UniADV. Facebook post, February 21, 2018. https://www.facebook.com/

Utz, Mario H., and Nilda T. Potes. La Iglesia Adventista en el Paraguay [The Adventist Church in Paraguay]. Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2013.

Valle, Arturo S. “Un nuevo día ha amanecido [A new day has dawned].” La Revista Adventista, November 1977.

Weiss, Walter. “Paraguay Today: Concerned About Educating Its Youth.” ARH, September 19, 1974.

Weiss, Walter. “Presente y futuro de la obra en el Paraguay [Present and future of the work in Paraguay].” La Revista Adventista, November 1973.

Wensell, Niels. “Bendiciones en la Misión del Norte [Blessings in the North Mission].” La Revista Adventista, June 14, 1943.

Wensell, Niels. “Comienzo, desarrollo y progreso de la obra médica en el Paraguay [Beginning, development and progress of medical work in Paraguay].” La Revista Adventista, December 1986.

Westphal, Francisco H. Hasta el fin del mundo: liderando la misión em Sudamérica [Until the end of the world: leading the mission in South America] (Libertador San Martín: Libertador San Martín: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2018). Kindle edition.

Westphal, J. W. “Alto Parana Mission.” ARH, April 18, 1907.

Westphal, J. W. “La Reunión General de Santa Ana, Misiones [The General Meeting of Santa Ana, Misiones].” La Revista Adventista, April 1908.

Westphal, J. W. “Misión Alto Paraná [Upper Parana Mission].” La Revista Adventista, January 1912.

Westphal, J. W. “The South American Union Conference.” ARH, May 24, 1906.

Yoshida, Naomi. “Retired Minister Organizes Japanese Church in Paraguay.” Pacific Union Recorder, May 24, 1971.

Notes

  1. “Paraguay Union of Churches Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, ID.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 25.

  2. As of June 30, 2017, the country had a population of 6,811,000; “Paraguay Union of Churches Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 251; According to sources from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs until February 6, 2020 at 09:22:52, there were 7,057,742 inhabitants; Countrymeters, “Población de Paraguay” [Paraguay population], accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/39bAcZL.

  3. Paraguay is unique in that the vast majority of its citizens speak an indigenous language at all levels, because, in addition to being widely used, it is officially recognized along with Spanish and has the same legal authority; Carla García, “La lengua guaraní, orgullo de un país [The Guaraní language, pride of a country],” ONU News, February 21, 2019, accessed February 13, 2020, http://bit.ly/3bCNd0i; W.E. Murray, “Paraguay,” South American Bulletin, May-June,1951: 4, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Hbkm5n.

  4. Seventh-day Adventist Online Statistics, “Paraguay Union of Churches Mission (2010-Present)--Annual Charts and Statistics,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2S1OGpq.

  5. Mateo Leytes, “La obra médica-misionera en Paraguay [Medical-missionary work in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, December 1914, 14.

  6. UniADV Paraguay, “Quienes Somos [Who we are],” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2S7r42N.

  7. UniADV Paraguay, “Home,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2H69A05.

  8. Educación Adventista [Adventist Education], “Paraguay,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o.

  9. Eugenio Di Dionisio, “Tercer encuentro de profesores [Third teachers meeting],” La Revista Adventista, November 1987, 14.

  10. “La Educación Adventista se basa en principios bíblicos y valores permanentes. Está comprometida no solamente con la calidad pedagógica y el desempeño académico de los estudiantes, sino con su formación integral. […] Es una de las mayores redes confesionales del mundo [Adventist Education is based on biblical principles and enduring values. It is committed not only to the pedagogical quality and academic performance of students, but also to their comprehensive training. […] It is one of the largest confessional networks in the world],” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/385ggaV.

  11. Educación Adventista [Adventist Education], “Paraguay,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o.

  12. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Asuncion Adventist Sanitarium,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/384SjQN.

  13. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Hohenau Adventist Sanitarium,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2UuQDfJ.

  14. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Rio Verde Adventist Community Center,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/386NhmT.

  15. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Vida Sana Community Center,” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/386Frdd.

  16. Sanatorio Adventista de Hohenau [Hohenau Adventist Sanitarium], “Información Útil [Useful Information],” accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/374PU7J.

  17. “Adventist Development and Relief Agency International, ADRA, is an NGO present active in more than 120 countries (in Paraguay ADRA has been present since 1972). Its reason for existing is to follow the example of Christ, living to help communities more vulnerable and work for them through the intervention areas.” Accessed February 6, 2020, http://bit.ly/2OtfCfB.

  18. “ADRA Paraguay inauguró nuevas oficinas para servir mejor a la comunidad [ADRA Paraguay inaugurated new offices to better serve the community],” La Revista Adventista, March 2011, 25.

  19. “Alto Parana New Time Radio (Radio Nuevo Tiempo Alto Parana),” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 682.

  20. Ibid.

  21. Seventh-day Adventist Online Archives, “2019 Annual Statistical Report, Denominational Employees,” accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2ScXIA0.

  22. Cecilia Deggeller de Kalbermatter, “Los comienzos de la obra en Paraguay [The beginnings of the work in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, August 1958, 13.

  23. See the biographies of Fanny and Cecilia Deggeller in: Silvia C. Scholtus, Liderazgo femenino en los inicios de la Iglesia Adventista del Séptimo Día en la División Sudamericana [Female Leadership in the Beginning of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the South American Division], 3rd ed. (Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2019); Guillermina Deggeller's biography appears in: Daniel O. Plenc, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra, Misioneros fundacionales del adventismo sudamericano (Foundational missionaries of South American Adventism). 3rd ed. (Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2016).

  24. Portal of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, “Historia de América del Sur [South American History],” accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2ScYEEu.

  25. Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 58.; “A Brother in Uruguay...” ARH, October 2, 1900, 640, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/2vh56RN; Daniel Plenc, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra, [Foundational missionaries of South American Adventism (Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate University Editorial, Entre Ríos, 2020), Kindle edition; E.W. Snyder, “The Work in Paraguay,” ARH, June 11, 1901, 382, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/3boTOeV.

  26. “A Brother in Uruguay...”, ARH, October 2, 1900, 640, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/2vh56RN; Francisco H. Westphal, Hasta el fin del mundo: liderando la misión em Sudamérica [Until the end of the world: leading the mission in South America] (Libertador San Martín: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, 2018). Kindle edition.

  27. E.W. Snyder, “The Work in Paraguay,” ARH, June 11, 1901, 382, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/3boTOeV; E.W. Snyder, “Asunción, Paraguay,” The Missionary Magazine, January 1902, 41, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/2HexXZz.

  28. E. W. Snyder, “Asunción, Paraguay,” The Missionary Magazine, January 1902, 41, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/2HexXZz.

  29. “The Fulgencio Yegros colony was established by law on December 17, 1891, and it received several names over time. The settlers from Corrientes and Ticumperú called it ‘Villarrica,’ but by decree it had its name changed to ‘Puesto Naranjo.’ It was later named ‘San Fernando del Espíritu Santo’. The French settlers, coming from Picardy, called the colony ‘La Nouvelle Picardie.’ The German and Swiss settlers arrived in 1888. From 1891 it was called 'Colonia Nacional' and later 'Colonia Juan G. González,' to finally bear the name of one of the heroes of national independence, Fulgencio Yegros”. Fulgencio Yegros, “Datos Generales del municipio” [General Data of the city], accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/39otyPS.

  30. Julio Ernst, “Report of the Upper Parana Mission,” The General Conference Bulletin 7, May 29, 1913, 185, accessed February 13, 2020, http://bit.ly/38BnUtC; Daniel Plenc, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra, Foundational missionaries of South American Adventism (Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, Entre Ríos, 2020), Kindle Edition.

  31. Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 120, 121, 130; Pedro M. Brouchy, “Memorias de un misionero adventista [Memories of an Adventist Missionary], unpublished manuscript, available at the White Research Center, River Plate Adventist Universit, Entre Ríos, Argentina.

  32. John McCarthy, “Notes from the Argentine Republic,” ARH, November 5, 1903, 17, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SdxM7b; Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 58; Héctor J. Peverini, En las huellas de la Providencia [In the footsteps of Providence] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988), 73; E. W. Snyder and C. Nowlen, “Work in South America,” The Home Missionary, April 1892, 91, accessed March 4, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Gxkc8j; E. W. Snyder, “Conferencia General de San Jerónimo [San Jerónimo General Conference],” La Revista Adventista, May 1904, 1.

  33. Adventists Paraguay, “Informe 2013 de la Unión Paraguaya [2013 Report of the Paraguay Union of Churches Mission]” (video of activities in the Paraguay Union of Churches Mission in 2013, November 5, 2013), accessed February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2PqX93w.

  34. J. W. Westphal, “The South America Union Conference,” ARH, May 24, 1906, 14, accessed January 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Uei6ST; Héctor J. Peverini, En las huellas de la Providencia [In the footsteps of Providence] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 1988), 238; Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 58; Arturo Fulton, “The Upper Mission,” ARH, October 29, 1908, 17, accessed February 13, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Hb5fc4.

  35. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Upper Parana Mission,” accessed on February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2UHipWw.

  36. Kalbermatter and his wife were converts of Bizama; Federico Bizama, “Fruitful Efforts,” South American Bulletin, May 1926, 7, accessed February 9, 2020, http://bit.ly/2H9lkz9.

  37. Daniel Plenc, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra, Foundational missionaries of south american Adventism (Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, Entre Ríos, 2020), Kindle edition.

  38. J. W. Westphal, “Alto Parana Mission,” ARH, April 18, 1907, 15, accessed February 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/39nltuX; Daniel Plenc, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio, and Sergio Becerra, Foundational missionaries of south american Adventism (Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos: River Plate Adventist University Editorial, Entre Ríos, 2020), Kindle edition.

  39. J. W. Westphal, “La Reunión General de Santa Ana, Misiones [The General Meeting of Santa Ana, Misiones],” La Revista Adventista, April 1908), 5; N. Z. Town, “La primera reunión general en Paraguay [The first general meeting in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, 1910, 12.

  40. “South American Union Conference,” ARH, June 16, 1900, 54, accessed February 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Hb53K0.

  41. Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 120-132.

  42. “Upper Parana Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1911), 124.

  43. J. W. Westphal, “Misión Alto Paraná [Upper Parana Mission],” La Revista Adventista, January 1912, 11; Luis Rojas, “Paraguay,” La Revista Adventista, November 1912, 11.

  44. Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 59.

  45. Julio Ernst, “Informe del Superintendente [Superintendent's Report],” La Revista Adventista, March-April 1916, 19; Luis Rojas, “Paraguay,” La Revista Adventista, August 1916, 14.

  46. Santiago Mangold, “Paraguay, South America,” ARH, April 8, 1920, 14, accessed February 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Sd7vpS.

  47. M. E. Andross, Story of the Advent Message (Takoma Park, Washington, D. C: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1926), 287, accessed February 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/2utwpZj.

  48. “Alto Parana Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1927), 185; Ignacio Kalbermatter, “Faithful Souls in Paraguay,” South American Bulletin, February 1927): 6, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Hb6pnY.

  49. W.E. Murray, “Changes in the Austral Union,” South American Bulletin, March 1934, 6, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/31LNJVk.

  50. W. A. Ernenputsch “The North Mission,” South American Bulletin, November 1934, 5, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/38kGuGo.

  51. W. E. Murray, “Changes in the Austral Union,” South American Bulletin, March 1934, 6, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/38kGuGo; W. A. Ernenputsch, “Reunión regional en Colonia Hohenau [Regional meeting in Colonia Hohenau],” La Revista Adventista, August 21, 1933, 10; R. R. Fighur, “Paraguay,” La Revista Adventista, July 24, 1944.

  52. W.A. Ernenputsch “The North Mission,” South American Bulletin, November 1934, 5, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/38kGuGo.

  53. “Alto Parana Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1935), 168.

  54. Niels Wensell, “Bendiciones en la Misión del Norte [Blessings in the North Mission],” La Revista Adventista, June 14, 1943, 12.

  55. “News Notes,” South American Bulletin, Third Quarter, 1945, 8, accessed February 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/38ird8Z; Ner Soto, “Paraguay Mission Organized,” South American Bulletin, May-June, 1948, 5, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/2UEOJcw; Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 59.

  56. “North Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1946), 150.

  57. “Items of Interest,” South American Bulletin, January 1948, 5, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SvtvuQ; Ner Soto, “Worker's Meeting,” South American Bulletin, July - August 1951, 7, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/37aw0br; “Austral Union Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949), 155-158, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/3bx8VCZ.

  58. Ner Soto, “Paraguay Mission Organized,” South American Bulletin, May-June 1948, 5, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/2UEOJcw.

  59. Ibid.

  60. “The Civil War, also known as the 1947 revolution, was the most violent of all revolutions in Paraguayan history, one full of civil wars and military uprisings, and it is the first in the framework of the Cold War, which had international intervention, and was also decisive in shaping the future of the country. When it ended, the regime persecuted not only defeated combatants but all who did not support the government;” Victor Jacinto Flecha, “La Guerra Civil de 1947 | Ñorairõ paraguaigua apytépe 1947-pe” [The Civil War of 1947 | Ñorairõ paraguaigua apytépe 1947-pe], Paraguayan Culture, May 28, 2011, accessed February 12, 2020, http://bit.ly/31Q2tCL.

  61. Daniel Oscar Plenc, Misioneros en Sudamérica: Pioneros del Adventismo en Latinoamérica [Missionaries in South America: Pioneers of Adventism in Latin America], 2nd ed. (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2008), 59.

  62. Benjamín Treiyer, “Dedication of the Church in Asunción,” South American Bulletin, September-October 1948, 2, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SDVglc.

  63. Ibid.; E. J. Kanna, “Glimpses of the work in Paraguay,” South American Bulletin, July-August, 1, 2, http://bit.ly/2tg36IY; Ner Soto, “A Visit to Paraguay,” South American Bulletin, November-December, 1948, 6, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2UIVz0v; Bert Elkins, “Results of the Effort in Encarnación,” South American Bulletin, December 1950, 5, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2w75R0j; L. H. Olson, “Forty years of progress in South America,” South American Bulletin, May-June 1956, 5, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/2HewQck; Bert Elkins, “Villa Rica,” South American Bulletin, September-October 1954, 2, 3, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/31HMhDF; Ner Soto, “Worker's Meeting,” South American Bulletin, July-August 1951, 7, accessed February 10, 2020, http://bit.ly/37aw0br.

  64. Walter Weiss, “Paraguay Today: Concerned About Educating Its Youth,” ARH, September 19, 1974, 16, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/2uMirBB.

  65. Education NT, “Paraguay: História da Educação Adventista [Paraguay: History of Adventist Education]” (video of the history of Adventist education in Paraguay involving Japanese immigrants, March 25, 2018), accessed February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2PstYNP.

  66. Adventist Education, “Historia [History],” accessed February 25, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o.

  67. Paraguay Adventist University–UniADV, Facebook post, February 21, 2018, accessed February 24, 2020, http://bit.ly/2vVVzjr.

  68. Víctor C. Aeschlimann, “Progresos en el Paraguay [Progress in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, January 1956, 12, 13.

  69. L. H. Olson, “Paraguay Sanitarium Opens Its Doors,” South American Bulletin, October-December, 1959, 3, accessed February 13, 2020, http://bit.ly/39vdlbD.

  70. H. E. Rice, “When He Saw the Multitude, He had Compassion,” South American Bulletin, October-December, 1959, 2, accessed February 13, 2020, http://bit.ly/39vdlbD; Willmore Tarr, “A Journey Through the South American Division,” ARH, September 16, 1971, 15, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/38uC9Az.

  71. “Paraguay Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1964), 190, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SNtPp1.

  72. Hohenau Adventist Sanitarium and Hospital, “Historia–Sanatorio Adventista de Hohenau [History--Hohenau Adventist Sanitarium and Hospital],” accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/3bDiXCD; H.J. Peverini, “Medical Work Discussed at South American Council,” ARH, December 12, 1974, 18, 19, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/2tWXjZ4; Niels Wensell, “Comienzo, desarrollo y progreso de la obra médica en el Paraguay [Beginning, development, and progress of medical work in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, December 1986, 2, 3, 15.

  73. Paraguay Adventist University–UniADV, Facebook post, February 20, 2019, accessed February 24, 2020, http://bit.ly/2uruYdN.

  74. Walter Raymond Beach, “From Home Base to Front Line,” ARH, April 2, 1970, 20, accessed February 24, 2020, http://bit.ly/2HPHeb9; Walter Weiss, “Paraguay Today: Concerned About Educating Its Youth,” ARH, September 19, 1974, 16, 17, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/2uMirBB. Benito C. Kalbermatter, “Mensaje adventista en la comunidad japonesa [Adventist message in the Japanese community],” La Revista Adventista], October 1980, 14.

  75. Naomi Yoshida, “Retired Minister Organizes Japanese Church in Paraguay,” Pacific Union Recorder, May 24, 1971,5, accessed February 24, 2020, http://bit.ly/3c4Ofmk; D. O., “Notable despertar del Evangelio [Remarkable awakening of the gospel], La Revista Adventista, January 1977, 17, 18.

  76. Walter Weiss, “Paraguay Today: Concerned About Educating Its Youth,” ARH, September 19, 1974, 16, 17, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/2uMirBB.

  77. H. J. Peverini, “South American Division,” ARH, June 15, 1972, 21, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/37p8308; “Presente y futuro de la obra en el Paraguay [Present and future of the work in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, November 1973, 16.

  78. Adventist Education, “Historia [History],” accessed February 25, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o; Walter Weiss, “Paraguay Today: Concerned About Educating Its Youth,” ARH, September 19, 1974, 16, 17, accessed February 14, 2020, http://bit.ly/2uMirBB; “News Notes from the World Divisions,” ARH, September 9, 1976, 20, accessed February 24, 2020, http://bit.ly/2PmYdFT.

  79. José Tabuenca, “Paraguay,” La Revista Adventista, August 1975): 18; “CADA celebra 40 años de compromiso con la Educación [CADA celebrates 40 years of commitment to education],” News–Adventists, October 19, 2015, accessed February 24, 2020, http://bit.ly/2un937k; Adventist Education, “Historia [History],” accessed February 25, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o; Arturo S. Valle, “Un nuevo día ha amanecido [A new day has dawned],” La Revista Adventista, November 1977, 17; G. A. Daniel Daniele, “Progreso y futuro promisorio [Progress and a promising future],” La Revista Adventista, July 1978, 16, 17; Education NT, “Paraguay: História da Educação Adventista [Paraguay: History of Adventist Education]” (video of the history of Adventist education in Paraguay involving Japanese immigrants, March 25, 2018), accessed February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2PstYNP.

  80. Gabriel Servín, “Desafío en Asunción [Challenge in Asunción],” La Revista Adventista, June 1980, 14; Hugo D. Posse, “Congreso de la Asociación Paraguaya [Paraguay Conference Congress],” La Revista Adventista, June 1982, 16, 17.

  81. Roberto Gullón, “Un congreso inspirador [An inspiring congress],” La Revista Adventista, January 1985, 15.

  82. Education NT, “Paraguay: História da Educação Adventista [Paraguay: History of Adventist Education]” (video of the history of Adventist education in Paraguay involving Japanese immigrants, March 25, 2018), accessed February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2PstYNP; Eduardo Cayrus, “Colegio con internado [Boarding school],” La Revista Adventista, March 1984, 17.

  83. Werner Mayr, “Centro Adventista de Formación Integrada [Adventist Integrated Training Center],” La Revista Adventista, December 1990, 14; Eugenio Di Dionisio, “Primera donación [First donation],” La Revista Adventista, April 1988, 15; Eugenio Di Dionisio, “Colocación de la piedra fundamental [Laying the cornerstone],” La Revista Adventista, February 1991, 14.

  84. Eugenio Di Dionisio, “Escuela primaria en la tierra guaraní [Elementary school in Guaraní land],” La Revista Adventista, September 1991, 14. It describes the first construction stage of the first building of the East Paraguay Adventist Academy, which consisted of offices, three classrooms, storage, bathrooms, and a covered gallery. Eugenio Di Dionisio was the first director of the development project of the East Paraguay Adventist Academy from 1985 to February 1991; Adventist Education, “Historia [History],” accessed February 25, 2020, http://bit.ly/2SpiX0o; Enrique Albrecht, “Iglesia del Colegio Adventista del Este Paraguayo [East Paraguay Adventist Academy Church],” Paraguay Mission newsletter, August 2000, 7. The local church was organized on Saturday, June 3, 2000.

  85. Seventh-day Adventist Online Statistics, “Paraguay Mission (1948-2009)--Annual Charts and Statistics,” accessed February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/380vRYt.

  86. Sheyla Paiva, “Nuevo Tiempo Paraguay celebró sus 15 años compartiendo esperanza” [Paraguay New Time Radio celebrated its 15th anniversary sharing hope],” News–Adventists, October 11, 2019, accessed February 26, 2020, http://bit.ly/2ThKgtN.

  87. The project “Hope Impact is a program that encourages the practice of reading and provides a mass annual distribution of books on the part of the Seventh-day Adventist in the South American territory.” Accessed February 4, 2020, http://bit.ly/2Uqqu1q.

  88. Hope Impact 10 years, “Mapa Interactivo–Paraguay [Interactive Map–Paraguay],” accessed March 2, 2020, http://bit.ly/2TIv2P1.

  89. Seventh-day Adventist Online Statistics, “Paraguay Mission (1948-2009),” accessed March 2, 2020, http://bit.ly/38bJhkx.

  90. “South American Division,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2010), 253, accessed February 11, 2020, http://bit.ly/39tChAv; Mario H. Utz and Nilda T. Potes, La Iglesia Adventista en el Paraguay [The Adventist Church in Paraguay] (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2013), 25-115, 239-276; Floyd Greenleaf, Tierra de esperanza: El crecimiento de la Iglesia Adventista Sudamericana (A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America) (Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires Publishing House, 2011), 709.

  91. Felipe Lemos, “DSA elege líderes das Uniões Uruguaia e Paraguaia [SAD elects leaders for the Uruguay and Paraguay Unions],” Revista Adventista, December 2009, 35, accessed March 2, 2020, http://bit.ly/3alMhfo.

  92. “Nuevas uniones en las repúblicas de Paraguay y Uruguay [New Unions in the Republics of Paraguay and Uruguay], La Revista Adventista, January 2010, 6; “La Unión Paraguaya celebró su primer congreso [The Paraguay Union held its first congress],” La Revista Adventista, July 2010, 23.

  93. Adventists Paraguay, “Inauguración sede Unión Paraguaya--CADA/UNAPY [Inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters--CADA / UNAPY] (inauguration of the Paraguay Union headquarters and CADA / UNAPY, March 16, 2017), accessed March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/39qUWgQ; “Nueva sede para la Unión Paraguaya [New headquarters for the Paraguay Union],” La Revista Adventista, September 2014, 14; “Congreso quinquenal [Five-year congress],” La Revista Adventista, January 2015, 10.

  94. “Grupos pequeños para grandes resultados [Small groups for great results],” La Revista Adventista, June 2012, 25; “Marcas de Esperanza [Marks of Hope],” La Revista Adventista, May 2013, 26.

  95. “Nuevo templo en Pedro Juan Caballero [New church in Pedro Juan Caballero],” La Revista Adventista,, July 2013, 24; Danitza Diaz and Sheyla Paiva, “Nuevas iglesias adventistas son inauguradas en Paraguay [New Adventist churches are inaugurated in Paraguay],” News–Adventists, August 7, 2019, accessed March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/39lwqxu.

  96. Mauren Fernandes, “Sudamérica tiene más de 19 mil clubes de Conquistadores y Aventureros [South America has more than 19,000 Pathfinder and Adventurer clubs],” Adventist-News, May 11, 2018, accessed March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/32QECDA.

  97. Danitza Diaz and Sheyla Paiva, “Iglesia Adventista en Paraguay celebra ‘Encuentro nacional de gratitud’” [Adventist Church in Paraguay celebrates the ‘National Celebration of Gratitude’], News–Adventists, August 10, 2019, accessed March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VGxvvN.

  98. Danitza Díaz, “Jóvenes de Un Año en Misión son capacitados antes de iniciar su ministerio [One Year in Mission youth are trained before starting their ministry],” News– Adventists, February 11, 2020, accessed March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/3aiZLbQ.

  99. Veronica Quispitongo and Analía Roa, “Más de tres mil personas celebraron los 120 años de adventismo en Paraguay [More than 3,000 people celebrated 120 years of Adventism in Paraguay],” News–Adventists, September 26, 2018, accessed March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/3csU3pJ; Danitza Diaz and Sheyla Paiva, “Iglesia Adventista en Paraguay celebra ‘Encuentro nacional de gratitud’ [Adventist Church in Paraguay celebrates the ‘National Celebration of Gratitude’],” News–Adventists, August 10, 2019, accessed on March 3, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VGxvvN.

  100. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Paraguay Union of Churches Mission,” accessed February 25, 2020, http://bit.ly/2VrXN4Z; “Upper Parana Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1907), 97; “Paraguay Union Mission of Churches,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 25. To verify all presidents, secretaries, and treasurers, consult the Yearbooks from 1917 to 2018.

  101. Pedro Brouchy, “La obra en el Paraguay [The work in Paraguay],” La Revista Adventista, August 1948, 12.

  102. ASN, “Ignacio Kalbermatter se despide de Paraguay [Ignacio Kalbermatter says goodbye to Paraguay],” News--Adventists, May 2, 2017, accessed February 7, 2020, http://bit.ly/2H6rgJ2.

  103. Dayane Fagundes, “Electo nuevo presidente de la Unión Paraguaya [Election of new president of the Paraguay Union],” News--Adventists, May 8, 2017, accessed February 7, 2020, http://bit.ly/37akHzI.

  104. More information about Argentina Union Conference can be found on the website: ua.adventistas.org, or on social networks: – Facebook: @adventistas.paraguay, Instagram: @adventistas.paraguay, Twitter: @adventistaspy and Youtube: Adventists Paraguay.

×

Shapiama, Angel Jesús Torrel, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio. "Paraguay Union of Churches Mission." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. November 12, 2021. Accessed January 31, 2023. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=6IDW.

Shapiama, Angel Jesús Torrel, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio. "Paraguay Union of Churches Mission." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. November 12, 2021. Date of access January 31, 2023, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=6IDW.

Shapiama, Angel Jesús Torrel, Silvia C. Scholtus, Eugenio Di Dionisio (2021, November 12). Paraguay Union of Churches Mission. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved January 31, 2023, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=6IDW.