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Espírito Santo Conference headquarters facade in 2016.

Photo courtesy of Espírito Santo Conference Archives, accessed on December 11, 2019, https://bit.ly/2RSdVLl.

Espírito Santo Conference

By Lucas Vítor Alves Rodrigues Sena, and Leônidas Verneque Guedes

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Lucas Vítor Alves Rodrigues Sena

Leônidas Verneque Guedes

Espírito Santo Conference (AES) is an administrative unit of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) located in the territory of the Southeast Brazil Union Conference (USeB). It is headquartered on 1110 Carlos Moreira Lima Avenue, Zip Code 29053-380, Bento Ferreira neighborhood, in the city of Vitória, capital of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

The AES covers the north-central region of the state of Espírito Santo. The field has a total of 27,814 Adventists, distributed in 42 pastoral districts and 297 congregations. With an estimated population of 1,929,643 inhabitants, the average in the region is one Adventist per 29 inhabitants. The AES manages four school units of the Adventist Educational Network, totaling 1,840 students. The units are: Vitória Adventist Academy (CAV), located in the city of Vitória, with 1,003 students; Serra Adventist Academy (EAS), in Serra, with 303 students; Barra do São Francisco Adventist Academy (EABSF), in Barra do São Francisco, with 248 students; and Espírito Santo Academy (EDESSA), a boarding school located in the city of Colatina, with 286 students.1

Hope Channel Brazil is openly broadcast in four cities of Espírito Santo Conference, which are: Nova Venécia (channel 7), with a potential reach of 50 thousand people; Pancas (channel 9), with a potential reach of 20 thousand people; Pinheiros (channel 7), potentially reaching 27,000 inhabitants; and Vitória (channel 47), with a potential reach of 362,097 inhabitants in the capital. In addition to Hope Channel Brazil open signal, New Time Radio stations also operate in the cities of Vitória and Nova Venécia. In Vitória the radio can be heard on the frequencies 730 AM and 95.9 FM, and in Nova Venécia on the 100.3 FM.2

To proceed with all the necessary activities in the field, Espírito Santo Conference has 347 employees carrying out administrative and ecclesiastical procedures. Of these, 55 are ordained and licensed ministers. The other ones work at the conference office and in the educational area.3

The Origin of the Work in the Conference Territory

Adventist work in Espírito Santo began in 1895, when the canvasser Albert Stauffer visited the village of Santa Maria do Jetibá, in the south of the state. The region was inhabited predominantly by German Lutheran immigrants who came from the Pomerania region, in Northern Germany. When Stauffer arrived in the region, he offered for sale the book Der Grosse Kampf (The Great Controversy), causing great movement in the colony.4 After much resistance on the part of Lutherans, in December 1895, 23 people were baptized by pastor Huldreich Graf in Santa Maria do Jetibá. Among them, the parents of the pioneers Pastor Gustavo Storch and Guilherme Denz, professor at Brazil College (IAE), present Brazil Adventist University, São Paulo campus (UNASP-SP). On the same day of the baptism, the church of Santa Maria do Jetibá was organized,5 which is considered the third Adventist church to emerge in Brazil.6

In 1897, some Adventist families who lived in Santa Maria do Jetibá moved to the village of Serra Pelada, a district in the city of Afonso Cláudio, in the south of Espírito Santo. There were among the families: the Grünewalds, the Keflers, the Storchs, the Krügers, and others. The locality was considered a Germany in miniature, since, in the region, both the Pomeranian and German dialects were spoken, and very rarely, the Portuguese language. In the same year, a church was established in Serra Pelada, on the property belonging to the Kefler family.7

Three years after the organization of the Santa Maria do Jetibá church, a new church was organized in the town of Santa Joana, which nowadays belongs to the city of Itarana, in the southern region of the state. The region, inhabited predominantly by Italian immigrants, had its church organized by Pastor F. W. Spies, after the baptism of four people. By the end of 1899, 12 churches had already been established in the Brazilian territory, with Santa Joana church being the eleventh in the list.8 In 1904 an elementary school started to operate in the church of Santa Maria do Jetibá.9 Its first teachers and leaders were Pastor Waldemar Ehlers and his wife, Mary. Soon after the Ehlers, Pastor Joseph Lindermann and his wife, Adelia, also directed the small school.10

In the early 1910s, some Adventists began to arrive in the Laranjinha stream region, which currently belongs to the city of Laranja da Terra. The Becker and Kühl families settled there and gave rise to the fourth Adventist church in Espírito Santo.11 In addition to the creation of this church, two years later the Manteiga stream congregation was organized, with about thirty members.12 In the following year, in May 1913, the village temple on the bank of the brook was inaugurated,13 and at the end of the year a school was inaugurated at the same address as the Serra Pelada church, with Jacob Peterson as the first teacher. At that time the school had 36 students enrolled, but soon the amount rose to 41. An interesting fact is that the school year was only six and a half months long. In the remaining months the students helped their parents working in the fields.14

In 1915 Pastor F. R. Kümpel met Sabbath keepers in the north of the state of Espírito Santo. Professor Carlos Specht was doing missionary work in the region, studying the Bible with people who were waiting to be baptized.15 In the same year the Baixo Guandu church started to operate, with the family of Heinrich Ludwig as founder.16 Two years later (1917), with the Germans migration to other locations, the church of Santa Maria do Jetibá, the first to be established in the state, was closed. The land where the temple was located was sold, but there were still Adventist families in the region.17 Still in 1917, Adventists arrived in the Ribeirão stream valley, in the village of Sobreiro. This was the case, for example, with Henrique Völz and his family, who came from Santa Maria do Jetibá. Franz Kefler came in the following year (1918), and little by little other families began to arrive in the region.18

The Conference Organizational History

Until the end of 1918, Adventists from Espírito Santo were served by Brazilian Union Conference (present Central Brazil Union Conference–UCB).19 On January 11, 1919, North Brazil Union Mission (present USeB) was officially organized, with Henry Meyer as president.20 With the organization of the union, five new missions were established, including Espírito Santo Mission, with headquarters in a house located on 16 Pedro Palácios street, in Vitória. Its goal was to serve Adventists from all over the state of Espírito Santo. Its first president was Pastor John Boehm.21

In 1919 the city of Vitória received the first Adventist missionaries: Pastor John Boehm, Evangelist Pedro Alexandre, and canvassers Paulo Schultz and Júlia Apolinário. In March of that year, Pastor Boehm met people “interested in the truth,” in addition to a worship service room that had been offered to them by a gentleman.22 Even so, Adventists in Vitória started their first meetings under a quixabeira tree, at Inhoá beach, in the city of Vila Velha, today belonging to the metropolitan region of Vitória and separated from the capital by a bridge. The first convert in the region is considered to be a man named Albino, and shortly thereafte two men named Cândido Pestana and Ormindo Correia. After them some families also converted to Adventism in the city of Vitória. At the beginning of the 1920s, this group started to meet at the same address where the mission headquarters operated.23

At the beginning of 1927, Espírito Santo Mission had seven organized churches and 590 members.24 In 1928, to facilitate the administrative work of the Adventist Church in southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo Mission started to manage ecclesiastical activities in the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro (Federal District of Brazil at that time). With this reorganization, the administrative unit was renamed Rio-Espírito Santo Mission, headquartered in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. That year the mission served eight churches and 831 members.25 In the meantime, the church members in Vitória continued to gather in a hall on 53 Capixaba Avenue, in Vitória,26 and the mission headquarters moved to this address in 1929, returning to Espírito Santo.27

Finally, on February 28, 1931, the Rio-Espírito Santo Mission office and the temple of Vitória Adventist Church were inaugurated in their own building, located on 46 Graciano Neves Street, in the city center of Vitória. The church operated on the first floor of the building, and on the second, the administration of the Rio-Espírito Santo Mission operated,28 which in early 1932 had 13 organized churches and 967 Adventists.29 In the same year an elementary school started to operate in the church of Vitória. Its first director was Filonila Assunção, graduated in the first class from Brazil College (CAB), present Brazil Adventist University, São Paulo campus (UNASP-SP).30

From 1933 Adventist work expanded to the north of the state. That year a missionary arrived in the city of Colatina, staying at the home of the Italian immigrant Sabino Nardi. The staying lasted one night, and it was enough for the family to have contact with the Adventist message.31 In the following year (1934), the churches of Sabiá and Graça Aranha were established, the latter located on the banks of the Graça Aranha stream, 30 km away from Colatina. Both were formed by migrants who had come from Serra Pelada, in the south of the state. Among the pioneers of the congregations were the Lüdtke, Storch, Kühl, and Becker families.32

From 1941 Rio-Espírito Santo Mission began to serve an even larger territory. Before operating in the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro and all of Espírito Santo, the administrative headquarters started to cover the northeast and east regions of the state of Minas Gerais and the southern region of the state of Bahia, more precisely to the south of the Jequitinhonha River.33 Adventists in Espírito Santo also took an important step in establishing Adventist education in the state. In December 1949 the metropolitan region of Vitória had three Adventist elementary schools: the one from Vitória, whose teacher was Ordula Vieira do Nascimento;34 the one from Vila Velha, which had Dilma Gomes as a teacher;35 and the one from Campo Grande, in Cariacica, with Alice Storch as a teacher.36 The missionary advance in the 1940s led Rio-Espírito Santo Mission to reach 25 organized churches and 2,390 baptized members in January 1950.37

The year 1955 inaugurated a new phase in the growth of the Adventist Church in Rio-Espírito Santo Mission. Since most of the field's territory was the state of Espírito Santo, the administrative unit had its status changed from mission to conference, changing its name to Espírito Santo Conference. In this reorganization, the southern region of Bahia started to be served by Bahia-Sergipe Mission (present Bahia Conference), and Espírito Santo Conference began to direct the SDA work in the northeast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, in the far east of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Espírito Santo.38

The reorganization of the Espírito Santo field encouraged the church in the region. In Colatina, in 1956, Pastor Souza Lima held a series of meetings at Cine Danúbio, located in front of the city hall headquarters. Initially about six hundred people participated daily, however, attendance in the series of meetings decreased when the pastor addressed the Ten Commandments theme. Even so, as a result, a young man was baptized and through his influence the group of Adventists grew, and they decided to build a temple so that they could worship God.39

In 1960 evangelistic work was intensified in the metropolitan region of Vitória. In September of that year, Pastor Manuel Banqué started a series of meetings in the IBES neighborhood, in the city of Vila Velha. The evangelistic series brought good results and on the first day of baptisms, 17 people were baptized.40 In November 1960 Espírito Santo was considered the state with the largest number of Adventists in Brazil. That year there was already one Adventist per 320 inhabitants, in Espírito Santo. The state had about one million inhabitants, and there were 3,100 SDA members throughout the territory.41 The work continued advancing and at the end of 1961, Espírito Santo Conference performed 775 baptisms.42

In 1962 the conference purchased a 48-bushels farm in the rural area of Colatina for the price of Cr $5 million (approximately US $9,000), plus Cr $945,984.70 (approximately US $1,700.00) with transmission expenses, in addition to an amount in interest due on payment. The funds to pay for expenses came from Adventists in Espírito Santo, from friends in the United States, from the reserve funds of the conference itself, and from the sale of 124 lots that were part of the land itself. Espírito Santo Academy (EDESSA) was established in this place,43 which in April 1962 already had its farm in full operation.44

In 1965, during the Sixth Biennial Assembly of Espírito Santo Conference, the report presented by the leadership showed that the field had considerably expanded. In 1963, 866 people were baptized, and in 1964 another 1,058 baptisms were performed, totaling 1,924 new members. Even with a financial crisis affecting the region, the conference managed to balance the finances, which helped in the expansion of the field.45 At the end of 1965, Espírito Santo Conference had 59 organized churches and 8,634 Adventist members, more than the double registered in 1960.46

At the end of 1970, the Adventist Church took the opportunity of Christmas festivities to project itself in the media through music, in the state of Espírito Santo. The Maranata Choir, from the Campo Grande church, in Cariacica, performed on three radio programs, on a TV program on Christmas Eve, and on Christmas day itself. On TV Vitória, the program was “Esdras Leonor;” the programs on Espírito Santo Radio were “Hora do Trabalho” (Working Time) and “Hora do Ângelus” (Angelus Time); and the last program in which they performed was broadcast in German on Capixaba Radio, presented by the German consul in Vitória.47

As Espírito Santo Conference covered a territory that went beyond the state of Espírito Santo, in 1972, its status changed to East Conference. The name was consistent with its coverage area, which was from the southern region of the Jequitinhonha River, in Bahia, to the east of Minas Gerais and to the northeast region of Rio de Janeiro, in addition, of course, to Espírito Santo. In January 1972, when the reorganization took place, the conference served 58 organized churches and 13,865 members in its territory.48 In September of that year, the Adventist Church celebrated its 75th anniversary in the state of Espírito Santo. To commemorate the occasion, East Conference held a large camp meeting in the church of Serra Pelada, in Afonso Cláudio. The program included the presence of pioneers and the children of pioneers, as well as about two thousand people from all the churches in Espírito Santo.49

Within 1973 and 1974, worker Lindeberg de Araújo held a series of meetings in the cities of Nova Venécia and Linhares, in the north of the state. Evangelism stood out due to the advance preparation of the city, the engagement of the churches, and because it was carried out in a mobile auditorium. When the meetings started, more than one hundred people were taking the Bible Correspondence School course from the program “A Voz da Profecia” (The Voice of Prophecy).50 On the first day of baptisms held in the series in Nova Venécia, 50 people were baptized, and in September 1973, evangelism continued in the same way in Linhares.51

In 1973 East Conference inaugurated a Rolling Clinic, as part of the work of the medical missionary front.52 With a team of two physicians, a dentist, a nurse, a secretary, and a driver, the clinic was based in the Serra Pelada district, in the south of the state. Until October 1974, 15 villages had been served, totaling 23,800 medical appointments and 43,854 diagnoses. Furthermore, 2,750 dental extractions and 6 major surgeries were performed. As many people were interested in the Adventist message, the clinic team established a Sabbath School with 400 people, including members and interested people. In the village of São Luís de Miranda, another place served by the clinic, the team established a Bible-studies class with about one hundred fifty people, directed by Pastor Josué Barbosa.53 The medical front continued developing in the AES territory, and in 1975 negotiations began to establish a medical clinic in the capital, which later became Vitória Adventist Hospital.54

In the educational area, work also progressed. In 1975 Espírito Santo Academy, which was already in full operation, received a donation of Cr $600,000 (approximately US $66,000.00) from the Ministry of Education of Brazil to carry out its expansion project.55 Along with the federal government grant, the academy also received Cr $3.2 million (approximately US $353,000.00) from the EZE, an evangelical philanthropic institution in Germany, for its renovation and restructuring works.56

In 1976 the Adventist message reached some cities that were considered challenging for evangelism in Espírito Santo. The city of São Mateus, the second one founded in Brazil, in the north coast of the state,57 was considered “extremely conservative,” and proud to “be the seat of the bishopric.” In June 1976 the city hosted a series of meetings attended by about eight hundred people. As a result, at the end of the year, 60 people were baptized, and 150 were enrolled in the Sabbath School.58 Pinheiros was another reached city that in September 1976 had already 93 baptized people as a result of another series of meetings held in it, in addition to 110 people enrolled in the Sabbath School.59 Due to this work and the growth in the amount of members, the following year a church was organized.60

In 1978 evangelistic series were carried out in several other cities, such as Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Marataízes, Boa Vista, and Jerônimo Monteiro. Evangelism also reached Ponto Belo, in the city of Mucurici, in the countryside of the state, through an evangelistic series led by Pastor Josué Barbosa de Oliveira, in July 1978.61 In November the series had its first results when 55 people were baptized. At the second baptism, another 35 people were baptized.62 Thus, due to the evangelistic work done in the region during the 1970s, the East Conference was serving 67 organized churches and 18,217 Seventh-day Adventists in January 1980.63

Until 1980 the East Brazil Union Mission (UEB, presently USeB) comprised five mission fields: Rio-Minas Conference (presently Rio de Janeiro Conference), East Conference, Northeast Brazil Mission, Bahia-Sergipe Mission (presently Bahia Conference), and Minas Gerais Mission (presently Central Minas Conference). The UEB, until then, served 279 organized churches, many groups, and 84,387 Adventists,64 of whom 29,712 were added to the Seventh-day Adventist Church within 1976 and 1980.65 Some of these administrative units assisted churches in up to two or three states, such as the East Conference itself, which covered territories in four different states.66 All of this made it difficult to monitor and care for the members. Therefore, the possibility of a reorganization began to be studied.

Thus, within January 2 and 5, 1980, the Eleventh Ordinary Assembly of the East Brazil Union Mission decided to completely reorganize mission fields of the union. The five fields continued, but with a geographical reconfiguration: Rio de Janeiro Conference, covering the entire state of Rio de Janeiro; Minas Gerais Mission, covering the entire state of Minas Gerais; Northeast Brazil Mission, managing the Adventist work in the states of Alagoas, Sergipe, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte; Bahia Mission, serving Adventists in the state of Bahia; and the East Conference, assisting the Adventist church in Espírito Santo.67 The East Conference remained with this nomenclature until 1981. In January 1982 the field received its former name, Espírito Santo Conference, living up to the territory covered. That year the conference served 43 organized churches and 11,706 Adventist members.68

In March 1982 the Espírito Santo field achieved another victory. After five years of construction work, Vitória Adventist Hospital was inaugurated, which later became known as Espírito Santo Adventist Hospital (HAES). To manage the hospital, Physician Daniel Reis was chosen as the medical director and Pastor Floriano Keller as the administrative director.69 In January 1983 the hospital started to be administered directly by the UEB.70

In 1984 the state of Espírito Santo was considered the “most evangelized in Brazil.” However, there were still cities without any Adventist presence, and that was a challenge to be overcome. The city of Aracruz was among them, with 30,000 inhabitants. In June 1984 the conference committed itself to evangelization, starting a series of meetings with the help of Adventists from the city of São Gabriel da Palha. In August 1985, after a lot of work, the Aracruz church was inaugurated, with a capacity for 250 people. At the inauguration nine people were baptized, and the series of meetings continued in the new temple.71 However, Espírito Santo Conference did not turn out its efforts only toward Aracruz. Within October and December 1985, ten new churches were inaugurated by the field, in compliance with an expansion goal set by the administration. One of the churches, Santa Tereza, received funds from an American couple for its construction.72

In September 1986, after just over fifty years of operation on Graciano Neves street, in the city center of Vitória, the present AES headquarters was inaugurated. Since then the institution operates on 1110 Carlos Moreira Lima Avenue, in the Monte Belo neighborhood, in the capital of Espírito Santo.73 By the end of 1986, the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo served 59 organized churches and 15,385 Adventists.74 At the end of the following year, adding the amount of the whole year, Espírito Santo Conference had another two thousand people baptized and aggregated to the church in all the field. Even with all the effort to evangelize the state, there were still some cities without an Adventist presence. To reach them the conference decided to create the “Projeto Sansão” (Samson Project), in January 1988, whose goal was to make the Adventist message reach these cities quickly.75

During that time, the Adventist educational network was also in action. Six school units were under construction in the cities of Vitória, Ecoporanga, São Gabriel da Palha, Nova Venécia, Baixo Guandu, and Linhares.76 The largest of them, Vitória Adventist Educational Center (presently Vitória Adventist Academy), was inaugurated in December 1988, with capacity for 1,200 students. Construction took about five years to complete. Its headquarters is located at the same address as Espírito Santo Conference. The original plan for this educational unit was to start offering high school from 1991.77

In order for the gospel to reach even more people, in 1989 Espírito Santo Conference started to manage Afonso Cláudio City Radio, which came to be called Afonso Cláudio Adventist Radio. The station broadcast 18 hours of programming daily, from 4 am to 10 pm.78 With evangelistic progress, at the end of 1989, the field had 75 organized churches and 19,114 members.79 Later, Afonso Cláudio Adventist Radio changed its name to Afonso Cláudio New Time Radio, becoming the first Brazilian radio station of the Adventist Media Center-Brazil.80

The 1990s started with a great evangelistic movement in the state of Espírito Santo. In January 1990 the government of Brazil granted the Adventist Church an AM radio concession to operate in Vitória. Thus, Vitória New Time Radio was inaugurated in August. Together with Afonso Cláudio's station, the two are the pioneers of the Adventist Media Center in Brazil. In the same year, another achievement took place. In the city of Guarapari, the temple of “Sítio Limão Verde” (Green Lemon Farm) was inaugurated. The church was built entirely with donations from a civil construction entrepreneur.81

In July 1991 the city of Vitória was the target of the “Projeto Semana de Oração e Louvor” (Week of Prayer and Praise Project). The “SOL” project, as it was called, was a shorter course series of meetings and was directed by Pastor Alejandro Bullón, with support from the Espírito Santo Conference.82 Still in 1991, a church was inaugurated in the city of Marilândia, in the north of Espírito Santo. The funds for the construction came from the conference and from Golden Cross, a company that, at the time, belonged to the Brazilian Adventist entrepreneur Milton Afonso.83 Until February 1993 the AES served 23,000 members across the state,84 an average of one Adventist per 107 inhabitants. Of the 23,000 members, 5,400 were baptized within 1990 and 1992. The data from the general report of the conference presented at the Triennial Assembly of the field, in February 1993, showed that 41 new churches had been inaugurated, and 61 were under construction in the mentioned period.85

Still in 1993, the field set off an evangelistic strategy to reach the last three cities of Espírito Santo and some neighborhoods in the capital, Vitória, which still did not have an Adventist presence. Thus, within March 31 and April 4, Pastor Alejandro Bullón carried out the “Revive” (Revival) evangelistic series at Camburi Beach, in the capital of Espírito Santo. About fifteen thousand people were at the location, which was also broadcast by 11 radio stations in the states of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, northern Rio de Janeiro, and southern Bahia. Through the radio, about one hundred fifty thousand people were reached. As a result of “Revive,” 53 people living in the region began to study the Bible.86

In the same year, as part of the evangelization strategy, Espírito Santo Conference, together with 11 pastoral districts in the metropolitan region of Vitória, and the district of Guarapari, started the “Projeto Jericó” (Jericó Project). Its goal was to reach the cities of Santa Leopoldina, Muniz Freire, and Alfredo Chaves. The three of them, inhabited by Italian settlers and their descendants, were the last in the state that still had no presence of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. In October 1993 the results were positive: 450 people were taking the Bible course from the “Está Escrito” (It's Written) program;87 a congregation was operating in Santa Leopoldina; 15 people held the first Adventist meeting in Muniz Freire; and a small group of Adventists was gathering in Alfredo Chaves, directed by a Bible worker.88

The work carried out in these three cities was quite successful. Thus, the field reached a target of 2,338 baptisms.89 At the end of 1995, the AES mission field had 27,683 Adventists.90 Another project carried out by the field during the 1990s was “Reencontro” (Reencounter),91 which yielded good results through the engagement of Adventists from Espírito Santo. From January to September 1998, 715 people were rebaptized across the state.92 Another tool that was used in evangelization and achieved expressive results was New Time Radio. Due to the work carried out by the radio during an Adventist Youth Congress in Nova Venécia, 15 people were baptized.93 Along with the radio and the “Reencontro” project, evangelistic campaigns were also held, resulting in 350 baptisms, until January 1999, in the pastoral districts of Serra, Castelo, Nova Venécia, and Pedro Canário.94 Because of all the work carried out, the AES reached January 2000 with 220 churches and 28,894 members.95

The year 2006 was a key year for the conference, because, in February, an Extraordinary Assembly of the AES took place at Vitória Central Adventist Church, aiming at studying the reorganization of the Espírito Santo field through the creation of a new administrative unit.96 After the assembly, East Brazil Union Conference sent the request for reconfiguration of the field to the South American Division, which authorized the formation of a survey commission to study the establishment of the new field.97 At the time, the conference had 36,889 Adventist members and 268 organized churches.98

Two years later, in May 2008, the South American Division approved the reorganization of the mission field of Espírito Santo Conference, authorizing the creation of the South Espírito Santo Conference (ASES).99 The new headquarters started operating in the city of Cariacica, in the metropolitan region, from January 2009.100 At the time, the AES took care of 41,088 members and 290 organized churches, and with the division of the field, it started to serve the churches in the central and northern regions of the state of Espírito Santo, while ASES started to administer the churches in the southern region of the state, serving 19,223 Seventh-day Adventists.101

From 2010 to 2019 Espírito Santo Conference had a good growth in the number of members. At the beginning of 2010, the AES had a total of 20,561 Adventists, due to the reconfiguration that had taken place in the field. Two years later, in 2012, the amount rose to 23,669.102 In 2014 the field had 25,061 Adventists, a mark that increased to 26,442 at the end of 2016.103 Then, in June 2018, the AES reached the mark of 27,095 members,104 and in 2019, of 27,814 members. Thus, it is understood that the reorganization that took place at the end of 2008 helped to fulfill the SDA mission and to preach the gospel throughout the state of Espírito Santo, making it one of the most Adventist states in Brazil.

Because they are in one of the most evangelized regions of Brazil, Adventists in Espírito Santo have a missionary spirit and are involved in many projects. In early 2019, for example, youth from the Vila Amélia Adventist Church, in Colatina, renovated a house that had been completely destroyed in a fire that took place in 2018. In this solidarity action, 40 people engaged in the “Missão Calebe” Caleb Mission) project105 worked for two consecutive Sundays, leaving a completely new home for the family.106 During July 2019, 20 “Calebs” from the city of Serra decided to renovate the home of a 72-year-old widow who lived with her granddaughter. It was a nine-square-meter room, located on Vista da Serra I neighborhood. The new house now has two bedrooms, a living room, kitchen, and bathroom.107

The project “Um Ano em Missão” (One Year in Mission) (OYiM)108 also brought results in the city of Colatina. In June 2019 volunteers from “OYiM” started offering guitar lessons to the community. Currently, 30 students attend this class, which also became a biblical class. This project takes place at the Adventist Church in the district of Boapaba, in Colatina. Guitar lessons, which are free, are held on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and the Bible study class, on Sabbaths.109

The “Impacto Esperança” (Hope Impact) project110 has also been a missionary action of great impact in the AES territory. In 2019 the action counted on the full engagement of the employees of the AES office and of the members themselves. At the Colatina bus terminal, participants encouraged people passing by to say “I love you” to their families. Each person who met the challenge received a copy of the book “Esperança Para a Família” (Hope for the Family).111 In the city of Aracruz, a merchant took away all the clothes on display in the window of her store, and instead of clothes, she put the copies of the book. About three hundred copies were delivered to customers.112

As seen in its historical journey, Espírito Santo Conference is marked by pioneerism and permanent evangelistic work carried out until the present day. Its leaders believe that the good results obtained during these years and the progress of Adventist work in the region are primarily due to God’s blessings, and secondly, to the great desire and commitment to serve His cause shown by Adventists in the state. Thus, they believe that, supported by God, they will move forward in the mission of preaching the gospel “to every nation, tribe, language, and people.”

Chronology of Administrative Leaders113

Presidents: John H. Boehm (1919-1925); Chester Clarence Schneider (1925-1928); Henrique G. Stoehr (1928-1931); Germano Streithorst (1931-1937); Henrique G. Stoehr (1937, 1938); Karl H. F. Tulaszewski (1938-1942); Abraham Classen Harder (1942-1948); Ernesto Roth (1948-1954); Manoel Ost (1954-1958); Ernesto Roth (1958-1963); Palmer Harder (1963-1968); José F. Oliveira (1968, 1969); Paulo S. Seidl (1969-1974); José Bellesi Filho (1974-1976); Palmer Harder (1976-1980); Alfredo Oschengo Holtz (1980-1983); Alcy Tarcísio de Almeida (1983-1995); Elso Kapisch (1995-1998); Ignácio Luís Kalbermatter (1998-2001); Maurício Pinto Lima (2001-2006); Gilmar Zahn (2006-2009); Jair Soares de Lima (2009-2014); Hiram Rafael Silveira Kalbermatter (2014-2017); Luís Mário de Souza Pinto (2017-Present).

Secretaries: Henrique G. Stoehr (1922-1926); G. F. Ebinger (1926, 1927); Otto M. Groeschel (1927-1934); Edwin Langenstrassen (1934-1937); Maximilian Fuhrmann (1937, 1938); Ernesto Ebinger (1938-1944); Jorge Frederico Walting (1944-1948); G. F. Ebinger (1948-1951); Antônio Ramos Dourado (1951-1956); Dourival Souza Lima (1956); Manoel Banqué (1956-1961); Palmer Harder (1961-1963); Wanderley da Silva Macedo (1963); Robert E. Northrop (1965-1970); Gilvan F. Silva (1970-1972); Luiz Henrique Perestrelo (1972-1975); Germano Böell (1975); Fabrício Mendes Cruz (1975-1983); Saul Pereira Baía (1983-1985); José Elias Zanotelli (1985-1987); Mário Valente (1987-1989); Hermínio Vitorino de Andrade (1989); Elso Kapisch (1989-1995); Edson Luiz Pereira (1995-1998); Maurício Pinto Lima (1998-2001); Silas Gomes de Oliveira Neto (2001, 2002); Gilmar Zahn (2002-2006); Jair Soares de Lima (2006-2009); Paulo Falcão Bezerra (2009-2014); Paulo Furtunato de Oliveira (2014-2018); Thiarlles Boeker Portes (2018, 2019); Moisés de Oliveira (2019-Present).

Treasurers: Henrique G. Stoehr (1922-1926); G. F. Ebinger (1926, 1927); Otto M. Groeschel (1927-1934); Edwin Langenstrassen (1934-1937); Maximilian Fuhrmann (193, 1938); Ernesto Ebinger (1938-1944); Jorge Frederico Walting (1944-1948); G. F. Ebinger (1948-1951); Antônio Ramos Dourado (1951-1956); Dourival Souza Lima (1956); Manoel Banqué (1956-1961); Palmer Harder (1961-1963); Wanderley da Silva Macedo (1963); Robert E. Northrop (1965-1970); Gilvan F. Silva (1970-1972); Luiz Henrique Perestrelo (1972-1975); Germano Böell (1975); Fabrício Mendes Cruz (1975-1983); Saul Pereira Baía (1983-1986); Hermínio Vitorino de Andrade (1986-1996); Heliomar Wilson Possmoser (1996-2006); Hermes Demarche (2006-2009); João da Silva Custódio (2009-2011); Daniel Lopes Toledo (2011-2019); Elias Dias (2019-Present).114

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Notes

  1. Leônidas Verneque Guedes (USeB executive secretary), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA assistant editor), September 19, 2019.

  2. Novo Tempo [Hope Channel Brazil], “Onde Ouvir” [Where to listen], accessed on December 2, 2019, https://bit.ly/2Rauem3; IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística [IBGE – Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics], “Cidades e Estados” [Cities and States], accessed on May 28, 2020, https://bit.ly/2ZHmQ66.

  3. Leônidas Verneque Guedes (USeB executive secretary), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA associate editor), September 19, 2019.

  4. Leonidas Verneque Guedes, Olhando Para Trás, Nos Movemos Para a Frente: 100 anos de história da União Sudeste Brasileira [Looking Back, We Move Forward: 100 years of history of the Southeast Brazil Union Conference], Maringá, PR: Massoni Printing Office and Publishing House, 2019, 40.

  5. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 18.

  6. Ibid., 22.

  7. Ibid., 35.

  8. Márcio Tonetti, “Conheça as 12 primeiras igrejas adventistas fundadas no Brasil” [Meet the first 12 Adventist churches established in Brazil], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 8, 2018, accessed on December 2, 2019, https://bit.ly/34FDQcE.

  9. Jael Enéas de Araújo, “Uma data mais que centenária” [A more than centennial date], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1, year 101 (January 2006): 27.

  10. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 24.

  11. Ibid., 69.

  12. Ibid., 56.

  13. Ibid., 57.

  14. Ibid., 37.

  15. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 123; F. R. Kümpel, “Missão Rio-Espírito Santo” [Rio-Espírito Santo Mission], Revista Mensal [Monthly Review] 10, no. 12 (December 1915): 4.

  16. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 102.

  17. Ibid., 24.

  18. Ibid., 82.

  19. “Brazilian Union Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1919), 162.

  20. “North Brazil Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1920), 187.

  21. “Espírito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1920), 188.

  22. “Por favor o irmão Pages...” [Please Brother Pages...], Revista Mensal [Monthly Review], vol. 14, no. 3, March 1919, 9-10.

  23. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 114.

  24. “Espirito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1927), 187.

  25. “Rio-Espirito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1928), 197.

  26. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 115.

  27. “Rio-Espirito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1929), 205.

  28. Américo Coelho, “O Templo de Victoria” [The Victoria Temple], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 26, no. 4 (April 1931): 7-8.

  29. “Rio-Espirito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1932), 239.

  30. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 118.

  31. Ibid., 126.

  32. Ibid., 124-125.

  33. “Rio-Espirito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1941), 184.

  34. “Escola Primária Adventista da cidade de Vitória...” [Adventist Elementary School in the city of Vitória...], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], vol. 44, no. 12, December 1949, 13.

  35. “Escola Primária Adventista de Vila Velha...” [Vila Velha Adventist Elementary School...], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], vol. 44, no. 12, December 1949, 13.

  36. “Escola Primária Adventista de Campo Grande...” [Campo Grande Adventist Elementary School...], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], vol. 44, no. 12, December 1949, 14.

  37. “Rio-Espirito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1950), 160-161.

  38. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1956), 143.

  39. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 133.

  40. Manoel Banqué, “Evangelismo – Tarefa Máxima” [Evangelism – Maximum Task], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 3, year 56 (March 1961): 32-33.

  41. Rubens Segre Ferreira, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 55 (November 1960): 36.

  42. Geraldo Geza Ivanicska, “Em Cada Igreja, Escolas Filiais” [In Each Church, Branch Schools], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 5, year 57 (May 1962): 24.

  43. Mizael Lüdtke, Origem e Desenvolvimento da Igreja Adventista no Espírito Santo [Origin and Development of the Adventist Church in Espírito Santo], São Paulo, SP: Brazil College, 1989, 148-149.

  44. Rodolpho Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 4, year 57 (April 1962): 26.

  45. Palmer Harder, “Ecos da VI Bienal da Associação Espírito-Santense da I.A.S.D” [Echoes of the VI Biennial of Espírito Santo Conference of the S.D.A], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 8, year 60 (August 1965): 20.

  46. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1965-1966), 197-198.

  47. Ervino Regetz, “Aproveitando os Talentos” [Using the Talents], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 2, year 66 (February 1971): 26-27.

  48. “East Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1973-1974), 229.

  49. Arnoldo Rutz, “75 anos do Surgimento da Mensagem Adventista na União Este-Brasileira da IASD” [75 years since the Adventist Message emerged in East Brazil Union Mission of the SDA], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1, year 68 (January 1973): 19.

  50. “The Voice of Prophecy is the oldest evangelical program on Brazilian radio, starting in 1943. Since its beginning, it has had the musical participation of the Arautos do Rei [The King’s Heralds] quartet. Currently, the program also has its version for TV, and is presented by Pastor Gilson Brito, who has been in the pastoral ministry for over 30 years. Biblical sermons that present the message of hope and salvation.” Novo Tempo [Hope Channel Brazil], “A Voz da Profecia” [The Voice of Prophecy], accessed on January 28, 2020, https://bit.ly/2RzGrRh.

  51. “Evangelismo Econômico e Frutífero” [Economic and Fruitful Evangelism], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 03, year 69, March 1974, 30-31.

  52. “‘Aqui se trabalha’” [‘Here people work’], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 08, year 70, August 1975, 9.

  53. Moisés Dias de Carvalho, “Relatório da Unidade Móvel de Saúde” [Mobile Health Unit Report], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 69 (October 1974): 25-26.

  54. “Notícias da UEB” [News from the UEB], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 04, year 70, April 1975, 16-17.

  55. “Verba para o Edessa” [Additional Sum for Edessa], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 70, October 1975, 14.

  56. “Resumo” [Summary], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 70, October 1975, 17.

  57. Eliane Lordello, “O Porto de São Mateus (ES): historicidade e atualidade” [São Mateus Harbor (ES): historicity and topicality], Vitruvius, January 2018, accessed on December 9, 2019, https://bit.ly/341eB35.

  58. “Notícias da União Este” [News from East Union Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 12, year 71, December 1976, 16-17.

  59. “U.E.B. Notícias” [The U.E.B. News], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 09, year 71, September 1976, 23.

  60. Aloízio Gabriel, “Inauguração do Templo de Pinheiros – ES” [Inauguration of the Temple in Pinheiros – ES], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 7, year 72 (July 1977): 35.

  61. Jordão Magno do Ouro, “Notícias da Associação Leste” [News from the East Conference], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 8, year 73 (August 1978): 29-30.

  62. “Ponto Belo, ES: Uma Vitória da Fé” [Ponto Belo, ES: A Victory of Faith], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 07, year 74, July 1979, 20.

  63. “East Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 261.

  64. “East Brazil Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 260-263.

  65. “Quadrienal da Unieste Altera Geografia dos Seus Campos” [Quadrennial of the East Brazil Union Mission Changes Geography of Its Fields], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 03, year 75, March 1980, 20-21.

  66. “East Brazil Union Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980), 260-263.

  67. “Quadrienal da Unieste Altera Geografia dos Seus Campos” [Quadrennial of the East Brazil Union Mission Changes Geography of Its Fields], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 03, year 75, March 1980, 20-21.

  68. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1982), 276.

  69. “Mais Um Hospital” [One more Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 05, year 77, May 1982, 32-33.

  70. Ivacy Furtado de Oliveira, “Quadrienais Assinalam Progresso na UEB” [Quadrennials Mark Progress at the UEB], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 2, year 79 (February 1984): 22-24.

  71. “Igreja Presente” [Present Church], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 80, October 1985, 26.

  72. “Novos Templos” [New Temples], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 04, year 81, April 1986, 31-32.

  73. “Nova Sede Administrativa” [New Administrative Headquarters], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 12, year 86, December 1986, 28-29.

  74. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1987), 281.

  75. Rubens Lessa and Mercedes Silva, “Associação Espírito-Santense” [Espírito Santo Conference], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1, year 84 (January 1988): 24.

  76. Idem.

  77. “Vitória tem novo Centro Educacional” [Vitória has a new Educational Center], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 01, year 85, January 1989, 27.

  78. “Emissora adventista vai bem” [Adventist broadcaster is doing well], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 05, year 86, May 1990, 20.

  79. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1990), 269.

  80. Novo Tempo [Adventist Media center - Brazil], “História” [History], accessed on April 9, 2020, https://bit.ly/2WQlu5B.

  81. “Empresário doa templo” [Entrepreneur donates temple], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 07, year 86, July 1990, 23.

  82. “SOL emociona e ilumina capixabas” [SOL thrills and illuminates Vitória inhabitants], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 09, year 87, September 1991, 18.

  83. “O envolvimento é grande” [The engagement is great], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 09, year 87, September 1991, 28.

  84. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1993), 261.

  85. “Realizada a trienal capixaba” [Triennial held in Espírito Santo], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 05, year 89, May 1993, 26.

  86. Alejandro Bullón, “Evangelismo na praia dá certo” [Evangelism at the beach works], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 7, year 89 (July 1993): 34.

  87. “The It is Written program was created in 1956, with Pr. George Vandeman as its founder and speaker. It is a worldwide program that spreads the good news about life, death, resurrection and the soon return of our Lord Jesus Christ to Earth. It presents the Living Christ who supplies the deepest needs of every human being. Today, the program is broadcast in about 100 countries and seven languages.” Está Escrito Brasil [It is written Brazil], Facebook post, n.d., accessed on January 22, 2020, https://bit.ly/2QXxBMS.

  88. “Espírito Santo cumpre a missão evangelística” [Espírito Santo fulfills the evangelistic mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 89, October 1993, 35.

  89. “Associação Espírito-Santense realiza trienal” [Espírito Santo Conference holds triennial], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 03, year 92, March 1996, 26.

  90. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1996), 280.

  91. Isadora Schmitt and Michelson Borges, “Mutirão evangelístico” [Evangelistic Taskforce], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 11, year 100 (November 2005): 26.

  92. “Reencontro em Vitória” [Reencounter in Vitória], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 09, year 94, September 1998, 16.

  93. “Ondas de fé” [Faith waves], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 10, year 94, October 1998, 28.

  94. “Semeadura e colheita” [Sowing and harvesting], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 03, year 95, March 1999, 17.

  95. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2000), 264.

  96. East Brazil Union Conference Minute, December 2005, vote no. 2005-152.

  97. South American Division Minute, May 2006, vote no. 2006-141.

  98. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2006), 257-258.

  99. Rubens Lessa, “Impacto Esperança” [Hope Impact], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], no. 1202, year 103 (July 2008): 22-23.

  100. South American Division Minute, May 2008, vote no. 2008-103.

  101. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2009), 268.

  102. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2013), 300.

  103. “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2017), 337.

  104. Seventh-day Adventist Online Yearbook, “Espirito Santo Conference,” accessed on December 10, 2019, https://bit.ly/36xk4kb.

  105. “Caleb Mission project is a volunteer program, social service, and a witnessing that challenges the Adventist youth to dedicate their vacations to evangelism in places where there’s no Adventist presence, to strengthen the small congregations and gain new people for the kingdom of God.” Seventh-day Adventist Church (Brazil) website, “Missão Calebe 2020” [Caleb Mission 2020], accessed on February 4, 2020, http://bit.ly/2HRpvRi

  106. Ayanne Karoline, “Família que teve casa incendiada recebe moradia restaurada por Calebes” [Family that had its house on fire receives a home restored by Calebs], Notícias Adventistas [Adventist News], January 29, 2019, accessed on December 10, 2019, https://bit.ly/2P8kLKD.

  107. Ayanne Karoline, “Estudantes se unem e constroem casa para idosa que vive em barraco” [Students come together and build a house for an elderly woman living in a shack], Notícias Adventistas [Adventist News], July 24, 2019, accessed on December 11, 2019, https://bit.ly/2YCdZjz.

  108. “The project One Year in Mission promotes the participation of young Adventists in the mission to evangelize urban centers in eight countries in South America, uniting their talents, resources and professional knowledge with the needs of the community.” Seventh-day Adventist Church (Brazil) website, “Um Ano Em Missão” [One Year in Mission], accessed on February 4, 2020, https://bit.ly/2sCFyNL

  109. Ayanne Karoline, “Curso solidário de violão vira classe bíblica no ES” [Solidarity guitar course becomes biblical class in the ES], Notícias Adventistas [Adventist News], October 14, 2019, accessed on December 11, 2019, https://bit.ly/35dVpAz.

  110. The project “Hope Impact is a program that encourages the practice of reading and provides a mass annual distribution of books on the part of the Seventh-day Adventist in the South American territory.” Seventh-day Adventist Church (Brazil) website, “Impacto Esperança” [Hope Impact], accessed on February 4, 2020, https://bit.ly/34dZROO.

  111. Ayanne Karoline, “Jovens desafiam famílias a dizer ‘eu te amo’” [Young people challenge families to say ‘I love you’], Notícias Adventistas [Adventist News], May 24, 2019, accessed on December 10, 2019, https://bit.ly/38otgc8.

  112. Ayanne Karoline, “Comerciante troca roupas de sua loja por livros e surpreende clientes” [Merchant exchanges clothes from his store for books and surprises customers], Notícias Adventistas [Adventist News], May 25, 2019, accessed on December 10, 2019, https://bit.ly/2rC5cBU.

  113. “Espirito Santo Mission,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1920), 188; “Espirito Santo Conference,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 2018), 260. For a more detailed check on all administrative leaders of this Conference, see yearbooks from 1920 to 2018.

  114. For more information about Espírito Santo Conference, access the Web site https://aes.adventistas.org/, or the social media Facebook: Adventistas Capixabas–AES; Twitter: @imprensa_aes; and YouTube: @videosaes.

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Sena, Lucas Vítor Alves Rodrigues, Leônidas Verneque Guedes. "Espírito Santo Conference." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=DIFG.

Sena, Lucas Vítor Alves Rodrigues, Leônidas Verneque Guedes. "Espírito Santo Conference." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Date of access September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=DIFG.

Sena, Lucas Vítor Alves Rodrigues, Leônidas Verneque Guedes (2021, April 28). Espírito Santo Conference. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=DIFG.