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Silvestre Adventist Hospital facade

Photo courtesy of Silvestre Adventist Hospital Archives.

Silvestre Adventist Hospital

By Leônidas Verneque Guedes, and Yanka de Araújo Pessoa

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Leônidas Verneque Guedes

Yanka de Araújo Pessoa

Silvestre Adventist Hospital (Hospital Adventista Silvestre or HAS) is a medical missionary institution of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Brazil. HAS was the first private hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro.1 The institution is part of the Adventist Health International network. It operates two facilities in the territory of the Southeast Brazil Union Conference (USeB). The first facility is located at Ladeira do Ascurra 274, Cosme Velho, 22241-320 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Rio de Janeiro is the capital city of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The second facility is located at Desembargador Ferreira Pinto 721, 24800-205, Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil.

In addition to the hospital units mentioned, HAS also maintains three more medical centers: the Cosme Velho Unit, located at Ladeira do Ascurra 274, Cosme Velho, Rio de Janeiro (adjacent to the hospital); the Botafogo Unit, located at Dezenove de Fevereiro 140, Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro; and the Itaboraí Unit, located at Januário Caffaro 27, Itaboraí. These three medical centers and the two HAS units in Rio de Janeiro and Itaboraí comprise the Silvestre Adventist Health Network.2

HAS was the second medical missionary unit of the Seventh-day Adventist Church to be established in Brazil. As of 2020, the institution had a total of 1,125 staff members of whom 1,107 were hospital employees. HAS has a total area of 51,000 square meters of land and operates on a built-up area of 15,000 square meters of floor space.

Developments That Led to the Establishment of the Institution

In 1922, American minister Chester C. Schneider arrived in Brazil and later became the leader of the Sabbath School, youth, Pathfinder, and Missionary Volunteer departments.3 of the East Brazil Union Conference (UEB, currently the Southeast Brazil Union Conference, USeB). Schneider had a dream of founding a hospital to carry out Adventist medical missionary work in the region,4 which came to fruition when a church member offered to finance his medical studies in 1934-1935. He requested leave from his work as an Adventist pastor to dedicate himself exclusively to studies. When, in his fourth year of college, Schneider discovered that for his diploma to be validated he needed to become a Brazilian citizen, he did so. He graduated in 1938 and shortly thereafter returned to the United States to study at the College of Medical Evangelists in Loma Linda, California, for two years.

After completing his studies in Loma Linda, Schneider returned to the city of São Paulo, where he began the construction of Casa de Saúde Liberdade (São Paulo Clinic, now the São Paulo Adventist Hospital), which opened in March 1942.5 Building and maintaining health care facilities was not easy at that time. In addition to barriers foreign doctors faced in Brazil, the Adventist Church did not have the resources to invest in the construction of new institutions.6 On the other hand, caution preserved the Church from possible financial problems arising from new ventures during the Great Depression.7

Later in 1942, Schneider moved to Rio de Janeiro, the capital of Brazil at the time, and started looking for land on which to build a medical center. The place selected was a large house built in the 19th century with three floors and fourteen rooms located at Almirante Alexandrino 31, Santa Teresa, overlooking the Guanabara Bay.8 The clinic, which opened in November 1942, promoted a new model of medicine emphasizing natural treatments that focus on nutrition, hydrotherapy, and physiotherapy, as well as helping people to know Jesus through their experience at the clinic.9

The Institution Foundation

Even with the establishment of the Rio de Janeiro Clinic, Schneider continued to look for a larger plot of land for the construction of a hospital. The site chosen was a three-hectare plot in the Silvestre region between the neighborhoods of Cosme Velho and Santa Teresa in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Its address was Ladeira dos Guararapes 263, Santa Teresa, 22241-220 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.10 It was purchased by the UEB, with the support of the General Conference, in 1944, the same year in which the construction began.11 The construction work on the new hospital received donations from Adventist hospitals in Glendale, Loma Linda, and Paradise Valley, California, and Portland, Oregon, in the United States, as well as from the Pacific Union Conference.12

In 1948, under a tree that was thirty meters from where the Silvestre Adventist Hospital building would be located, Schneider and Catarina, his wife, prayed asking God for guidance in realizing the dream of having an Adventist hospital in the city.13 In July of the same year, the Rio de Janeiro Clinic moved to a new site and was renamed: the Sanatório Hospital Silvestre (Rio de Janeiro Sanitarium and Hospital). The selected location was considered ideal by the church leadership: “300 meters above the city level, just half an hour by tram.”14

A year later, Schneider returned to the United States to improve his skill in natural treatments. Dr. Galdino Nunes Vieira was left as the director of the hospital during that period.15 In 1950, Silvestre Hospital (HS) was officially inaugurated with an operating room and fifty beds.16 Several surgeries were performed in the facilities and the surgeons praised the environment as well as the equipment available.17

At that time, HS served the impoverished neighborhood daily, including in serious accidents, providing free assistance. Military personnel, doctors, lawyers, farmers, deputies, merchants, industrial workers, and Adventist church members and workers also availed themselves of its services. In 1951, Schneider returned to the hospital. He was the first doctor to dedicate himself full time to the institution in its early years from 1948 until his death in 1956.18

Institution History

In 1955, Doctor Edgar Berger took over the medical management of the hospital. In its first fifteen years of existence, the institution faced some financial difficulties, but stood firm in its goal of definitively establishing the Adventist medical service in the city.19 At first, HS employees attended services in different Adventist churches and companies around the city of Rio de Janeiro. Those on duty could not attend services or participate in Sabbath School classes. In order to offer spiritual support to these professionals, Berger organized a class for on-call workers on Saturday. The meetings were held provisionally in the main hall of the hospital on Saturdays, Tuesdays, and Fridays. On November 2, 1957, the first Adventist congregation of the Silvestre Hospital was organized, consisting of workers, volunteers, and their families, totaling fifty-eight people.20

In support of its mission, the Silvestre Hospital also invested in training medical professionals for its staff. At the time, the leadership of South American Division encouraged the training of Adventist nurses since the number of health centers was increasing on the continent and there were few medical professionals in the region who were members of the Adventist Church. In 1954, D. Lois Burnett, representative of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, found that Adventist nurses in Argentina were facing difficulties in finding jobs in Brazil, as their professional training was not approved by the local government. To alleviate this problem, Silvestre Hospital Nursing Assistants School was created.21

The first Silvestre Hospital Nursing Assistants School graduation ceremony took place on July 31, 1958, with twenty-two students. The event, also called Recepção de Toucas (Hats Welcome Ceremony), started with the words of the school's director, Júlia Estrella.22 The ceremony was attended by Berger, who was also president of the school; Dulce Rodrigues Picanço, federal inspector; Oldemar I. Beskow, physician at Silvestre Hospital; Shirley Smith, chief nurse at the hospital; and Marta R. de Beskow, the school secretary.23

The establishment of the Nursing Assistants School filled a gap in the Adventist work regarding the preparation of young people to carry out medical missionary work in Brazil. This was possible thanks to the support of the SAD and East Brazil Union Mission.24 For many years, the school adopted a tuition-free system for the training of nursing assistants. The hospital bore the costs for the students, while student practicums were conducted in the hospital’s wards25 and they were obligated to work for the institution after graduation.26

The 1960s were marked by major advances for HS. In 1960, all of the institution’s beds were occupied and it boasted modern equipment. The facility included two operating rooms and recovery rooms for surgery patients. In addition, an expansion project was being considered by the SAD, with a proposed budget of approximately US$ 45,000.00.27 On March 15 of the same year, HS received an important visit from the president of the Brazil who attended the graduation ceremony of the HS Nursing Assistants School.28 Another fact was the organization of a Public Relations department, directed by Jorge Pereira Lôbo.29

On July 31, 1960, the nursing school operated with forty students. One of these students started to work on the Luminary medical missionary launch,30 on the São Francisco River. That same year, the Nursing Assistant course was recognized by the government of Brazil.31 Furthermore, the institution maintained exchange programs with Casa de Saúde Liberdade (São Paulo Clinic) in São Paulo and with the Luminary launch on the São Francisco River.32 By 1960, HAS provided 548 treatments, 601 surgical interventions, 113 deliveries, and consulted with 446 patients. In order to continue progress, a new X-ray machine was installed in 1960, considered the most modern of its day. To solve the recurring problems of power shortages, a surplus generator from Brazil College (CAB) in São Paulo was acquired.33 Beginning on February 28, 1961, the maternity department taught childbirth courses entitled, “Childbirth without Pain.” In the first two months of 1961, twenty-four children were born in the HS maternity ward.34

In 1961, a new chapel was installed on the first floor of the hospital where regular congregation meetings started to take place.35 In 1962, the ninth class of the Nursing Assistants School started with sixteen young people. By then, fifty-seven professionals had graduated from the school, and almost all of them worked for the Church. In the following year, 1963, seeking to assist in the prevention of diseases, the hospital started offering a yearlong nutrition course.36 That year also the organization of a new medical team and the launch of the “Health Guarantee” plan.37 This medical insurance plan for patients is valid in all the Adventist medical units in Brazil, and is considered the first private health plan in the country.38

Due to the limited number of beds, hospital leaders realized the need to expand.39 On March 10, 1964, a new hospital wing of the institution was inaugurated. State officials, representatives of the General Conference, SAD, and the South Brazil and North Brazil Union Conferences, in addition to some hospital volunteers were present at the ceremony.40 In addition to this inauguration, the new dormitory at the nursing school was also scheduled inaugurated in August of that year. Even with the enlargement of the hospital, it soon needed another expansion. Consequently, the plan for the fifth floor of HS started to be prepared.41

By 1965, HS was a mature and reputable medical facility. The Health Guarantee plan reach about five thousand insured persons. In Every Friday afternoon a group from the Center for Scientific Studies met to discuss the hospital’s most difficult medical cases. SAD also began a new master plan for the hospital, which included the construction of a new eight-story building.42 The hospital’s leadership planned to start the construction of the new unit as early as June of that year.43 Another highlight of the year was the fourteenth Recepção de Toucas (Hats Welcome Ceremony) during which five women and one man graduated from the HS Nursing School and received the nursing hat.44 This was the seventh anniversary of the nursing school and 109 students had already completed the course.45

More significantly, in 1965 a new partnership was established between HS and the staff of Cardiac Surgery Service at the Fluminense Federal University, which started to perform surgeries on the premises of HS. This staff had already performed 328 surgeries, of which forty-six had already taken place at Silvestre Hospital by 1964. On average, Silvestre conducted ten congenital heart defect operations per month. Consequently, HS received newspaper coverage in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo due to a highly complex cardiac surgery performed on a girl named Sandra Regina. For five days, the largest television broadcaster at the time transmitted a total of five reports about the case, which was considerable broadcasting time.

Milestones for Silvestre Hospital continued in 1966. Service to the least favored was expanded, resulting in an investment of Cr$ 5 million (approximately US$ 2,250,000.00) in social assistance in March of that year.46 In the same month, the first “Week of Scientific Debates at Silvestre Hospital” took place, in which internationally renowned doctors and specialists from the United States, Paraguay, and Germany were present.47 HS also celebrated its eighteenth anniversary.48 The average use of hospital beds at this time was 91.8%. Technological advances included the implementation of an oxygen plant with tubes supplying the gas to the hospital rooms.49 HS installed its own telegraphic address, which improved communication with the hospital.50

Between March 7 and 13, 1966, the institution hosted the firs medical-missionary council of the South American Division.51 On September 24 and 25 of the same year, a graduation ceremony was held for the twenty-six students of the fifteenth and sixteenth classes of the nursing school.52 In 1967, the HS celebrated its nineteenth anniversary with the visit of Dr. B. H. Ashworth, director of the Electronic Computers Center in London, which assisted with scientific research and the organization of almost 600 hospitals in England. On the occasion of his visit to HS, the physician gave lectures on the usefulness of electronic computers in the medical service.53

HS had a clinical analysis laboratory, which operated 24 hours a day, and a blood bank on the second floor of the building for the exclusive use of the hospital.54 In 1967, a new laboratory was opened. In addition to the hospital’s board members, SAD and UEB leaders were present at the ceremony. The laboratory was considered one of the best in the state of Guanabara (territory now in the city of Rio de Janeiro). Laboratory director, Mário de Cenzo, was among committee of planners who designed the new laboratory.55 At the end of that year, the hospital's board was working to ensure that the HS would soon have 100 beds and a new chapel.56 While expansion continued to be planned in 1968, the HS became the first hospital to conduct a pancreas transplant in the world, and to transplant a kidney from a girl to her brother. Both operations were complete successes. From then on, the unit began to perform heart transplants.57 In the following year, 1969, according to its plan for progress and modernization, the hospital received a new X-ray machine from Germany.58

On May 30, 1971, the first baptism ceremony in Silvestre Hospital took place. Eleven people, including employees of other institutions, were baptized in an improvised baptistery, highlighting the relevance of the missionary work carried out by the institution.59 Also in 1971, HS began to build a gym for employees to use, indicating that it was concerned with health prevention through physical activities. This new facility also aimed to promote social activities for young Adventists in the region.60 The gym was inaugurated and delivered to the employees’ association on June 20. In the following month, a new wing on the second floor was inaugurated with nine beds. The rooms were air-conditioned, self-illuminated, provided telephones, and a visitors’ lounge.61

Besides the advances in missionary work and in the physical structure of the hospital, the medical research area also had its accomplishments. From November 29 to December 2, 1971, HS held its second Medical Journey with Dr. Zildomar Deucher, one of the institution's physicians, who chaired the meetings. Among the speakers were some of the greatest representatives of Brazilian medicine: Euryclides de Jesus Zerbini and Adib Jatene, professors from the University of São Paulo (USP); Heonir Rocha, from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA); and physicians from Silvestre Hospital.62

The 1970s were marked by many important events for the institution. In 1972, the direction and administration of the hospital underwent changes.63 One of the goals of the new leadership was to encourage the practice of full-time dedication by medical students and new Adventist physicians.64 Another goal of the management was to extend the influence of HS and the Adventist Church to the homes of people who attended the hospital. In support of these goals, the name of the institution was changed to Hospital Adventista Silvestre (Silvestre Adventist Hospital or HAS), in order to be recognized as an Adventist institution.65

Construction began for the radiology and hemodynamics centers that would eventually include 3,312 square meters on three floors also began in 1972. These new centers were expected to increase the hospital’s service capacity to 100 beds. Meanwhile, the construction work on the new Silvestre Adventist Hospital was proceeding quickly.66 When the completed, the new building would have eight floors. The construction was budgeted at Cr$ 3 million (approximately US$ 518,000.00). In addition to finishing the hospital’s construction work, the administration also installed a magnetic chip computer in order to more effectively manage the Health Guarantee department and its 11,000 associates, besides improving the emergency services.67 By 1972, the hospital staff consisted of ninety nurses and students, resident doctors, administrators, and support staff.68

In 1973, HAS acquired a minicomputer to serve the accounting department. The medical residency service, a program recognized by the Regional Council of Medicine, was organized in 1974.69 The new seven-story wing housing the pharmacy, laboratories, surgery section, sterilization service, X-ray machines, emergency room, reception, outpatient clinic, library, meeting room, and a morgue was completed in 1977. Dedicated on August 30, 1977, it also included an intensive care unit with twelve beds in the post-operative care section and an electronic control center for measuring blood pressure, heart rate, among other functions.70 The symbolic ribbon was untied by the president of the Brazil National Institute of Social Welfare and by the representative of the mayor of the city of Rio de Janeiro.71 In July 1978, HAS hosted the first Brazilian Congress of Adventist Medical Students.72 On the same occasion, the Nursing Assistants School celebrated its twentieth anniversary. By this time, more than 300 nursing assistants had been trained by the school, and by 1991 this number would double to 600 students.73

In 1979, heavy rains devastated the states of Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Bahia, and Espírito Santo. The administration of Silvestre Adventist Hospital sent teams to the most affected places: three doctors and three nurses to the northern region of Minas Gerais, and two doctors and two nurses to Bahia. The doctors stayed in these places for fifteen days, while the nurses stayed for two months, serving about 2,000 people. All expenses were borne by HAS.74 In February 1988, the state of Rio de Janeiro suffered once again from floods due to heavy rains that hit the region. At the time, many houses in the local communities were dragged to the flat part of the city. These landslides killed many people. Responding to the devastation, HAS, in partnership with the Adventist Development and Relief Agency International (ADRA), assisted the affected population. The hospital provided twenty beds to serve those who needed hospitalization.75

In 1981, Silvestre Adventist Hospital had 128 beds, 730 employees, and 155 doctors. Of this total, 11 were non-medical workers and 27 were medical workers. At that time, HAS inaugurated two offices in Copacabana, in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, with specializations in neurology and psychiatry. The administration also purchased a 9,000 square meter property for future development.76 On November 6, 1981, HAS was honored with a “Motion of Congratulations to the Hospital's Clinical Staff” by state deputies of the legislative assembly of the state of Rio de Janeiro (ALERJ).77 That year, the hospital was responsible for 75% of cardiovascular surgeries in the state of Rio de Janeiro.78 In August 1987, ground was broken for a new hospital in the city of Nova Friburgo. It would operate as the Healthy Life Center with thirty beds.79

In 1992, HAS participated in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Eco-92), based in Rio de Janeiro. It staffed a conference booth offering visitors health literature and free blood pressure checks.80 By then, HAS had 854 employees and a well-structured network of intensive care units. These included the Neonatal Intensive Care Center (Cetin), which received newborns and children who were up to 1 month old; an intensive care unit (ICU) for children who were from 1 month to 12 years old; and a third ICU specialized in the treatment of children with heart disease. The unit also offered color doppler echocardiography examination, which made it possible to diagnose various heart pathologies, among other cutting-edge resources.81

HAS celebrated the fiftieth anniversary in 1994. To commemorate the date, the hospital promoted events such as the first Nursing Care Quality Course, the International Week of Scientific Debates on Neurosurgery, and the International Symposium on Video-Endoscopic Surgery. Through its representatives, the hospital was also present at the Brazilian and South American congresses on video-endoscopic surgery. The community outreach remained constant during this period, with HAS offering courses in natural medicine and free radicals,82 and the Christian Summer School for Children.83 The latter was conducted by the HAS chaplaincy. Both children from the surrounding neighborhoods and the employee's children of the hospital attended.84

In 1997, HAS implemented a community outreach campaign with the theme “Total Health.” In March, a team of doctors and nurses, and the HAS chaplain assisted 669 people in distributing 800 copies of books, magazines, and Bibles to the community. The program was supported by the city of Rio de Janeiro, the Grupo Encontro (Encounter Group), and members of the hospital church.85 In 1998, HAS was one of the only four Brazilian hospitals to have a myocardial revascularization laser device.86

In late 2005, Silvestre Adventist Hospital inaugurated a 24-hour emergency center for non-complex surgeries, in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. At first, this medical center started with eight beds and a mobile emergency unit. It started accepting patients in February 2006.87 Due to its exponential development, after sixty-six years of operation, HAS was renamed the Silvestre Adventist Health Network in 2008. In honor of the health network launch, the Silvestre Adventist Choir was formed, composed of doctors, employees, and collaborators from diverse areas of the institution. In addition, an international symposium was held with French doctors.88

On March 9, 2009, a new laboratory unit for clinical and pathological analysis and a new medical center were inaugurated in the city of Itaboraí, in the state of Rio de Janeiro.89 In September, the first Solidary Medical Center (CMS) was opened. With a 100 square meter facility, offered specialties including pediatrics, physiotherapy, gynecology, clinical medicine, and preventive guidance. CMS was built to serve the communities of Guararapes, Cerro-Corá, and Vila Cândida, in the Cosme Velho neighborhood, in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, with a population of about 9,000 inhabitants.90 In 2011, the unit received the Revelation Hospital in Transplants award from the Government of Rio de Janeiro. The ceremony was held on March 5 at the Guanabara Palace and was attended by the state governor.91

HAS started a liver transplant program in 2012. With this new modality, the hospital received a second Revelation in Transplantation award, sharing the first place ranking of this procedure with another institution.92 In the last week of May, the hospital, in partnership with the Botafogo Adventist church, held a course “How to Stop Smoking in Five Days,” which was attended by fifty people.93 In early 2013, HAS performed the 100th liver transplant and in September it reached the same mark in kidney transplants, reinforcing its preeminence in the area.94 In April 2014, Itaboraí Medical Center became the HAS Itaboraí Unit, with thirty-four beds, two surgical centers, infirmary, outpatient clinic, emergency rooms, and examination rooms such as computerized tomography and ultrasonography.95

In addition to continuous expansion and modernization of its physical plant and equipment, HAS developed a philanthropic project that, by 2013, had already benefited more than 200 patients with bariatric surgery. The project, created in 2002, fought against morbid obesity through a lifestyle reorientation program.96 In the transplant sector, the hospital continued its record of excellence. Between 2011 and 2016, the hospital performed 400 transplants with a success rate of 85%, well above the national average of 67% and more than any other hospital in Brazil.97 In January 2019, the institution received the maximum certification from the National Accreditation Organization: ONA Level 3—Accreditation with Excellence. The certification was granted after a careful evaluation conducted by Qualisa Management Institute (IQG), according to the Brazilian Accreditation Manual— Version 2018.98

The Institution’s Historical Role

For many years, Silvestre Adventist Hospital has been a leader in surgeries and transplants, not only in the city of Rio de Janeiro, but throughout the country. Due to this fact, it is very well recognized throughout Brazil and internationally. For example, in 1968 while still the small Silvestre Hospital, it was one of the two hospitals chosen to serve Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom in case of need during her visit to Brazil.99

The medicine practiced at HAS is guided by biblical principles of health combined with scientific knowledge. Thus, patients, companions, and people in contact with the hospital receive Christian influences. HAS has also sought to establish partnerships with Adventist medical and educational institutions such as Loma Linda University Medical Center in the United States and River Plate Adventist University in Argentina. Furthermore, professionals from the institution attend volunteer missionary programs in Africa, Asia, and the Amazon.100

To fulfill its mission, HAS seeks to promote physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being following the example of Jesus, and since its establishment it has placed a priority on this. Through the program Lugar de Paz (Peaceful Place), the hospital chaplaincy supports patients, visiting them in their inpatient units and offering a reflective, informative reading service, meditations, prayers, and spiritual welcome in the chapel for companions and employees.101 The results can be seen in the life of each patient who leaves HAS with renewed hope and perspective, which is often witnessed through baptism.

Conclusion

Since its establishment in 1942, Silvestre Adventist Hospital has served with unwavering missionary focus. Its missionary philosophy involves offering people quality health care, combining physical restoration with salvation. In order for this mission to continue to be successful, HAS officers and employees remain focused on God's guidelines for medical missionary work, seeking the best ways to serve all people so that they come to know the advent message.

List of Names

Clínica de Repouso White (Rio de Janeiro Clinic, 1942-1947), Sanatório Hospital Silvestre (Rio de Janeiro Sanitarium and Hospital, 1948-1950); Hospital Silvestre (Silvestre Hospital, 1951-1971); Hospital Adventista Silvestre (Silvestre Adventist Hospital, 1972-present).

List of leaders

General Director: Clarence Chester Schneider (1942-1949), Galdino N. Vieira (1950-1951), R. Ersmchar (1952-1955), Edgar Mário Berger (1956-1991), Zildomar Deucher (1972-1985), Gideon da Costa Marques (1986-2003), Rogério de Araújo Gusmão (2003-2014), Ranieri Carvalho Leitão (2014-).

Managing director: Max Fuhrmann (1948-1958), N. H. Meyer (1960-1964), Ida Bergold (1966-1971), Ruy H. Nagel (1972-1980), Alípio B. Rosa (1980-1983), Siloé J. Almeida (1984-1986), Alípio B. Rosa (1986-1995), Irineu Stabenow (1995-2003), Hermes Demarche (2003-2005), Leonildo do Carmo Reis (2005-2008), Leonardo do Rosário Pombo (2008-2011), Silvanio Zahn (2011-2015), Elói Marcondes de Lima Cézar (2015-).102

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Lobo, Jorge Pereira. “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1958.

Lobo, Jorge Pereira. “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1960.

Lobo, Jorge Pereira. “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1961.

Lobo, Jorge Pereira. “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], June 1961.

Lobo, Jorge Pereira. “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1961.

Lobo, Jorge Pereira. “Notícias do Hospital Silvestre” [News from Silvestre Hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1951.

Lobo, Jorge Pereira. “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 64, no. 5 (May 1969): 29.

Minha, Julio. “De todo o Brasil” [From All Over Brazil]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1943.

“Missão saúde” [Health Mission]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1997.

Mota, Franciele. “Trabalho de peso” [Substantial Work]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 2013.

“Na Necessidade, a ADRA Esteve Presente” [In Need, ADRA was Present]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1988.

“Nótulas do Este” [East Notes]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1965.

“Novo hospital adventista” [New Adventist hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], June 2014.

“O Hospital Silvestre está...” [Silvestre Hospital is...]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1959.

“O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1965.

Patrocínio, Maria Angélica T. “Um aniversário no Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [An anniversary at Silvestre Adventist Hospital]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1978.

Pola, Joel. “União Este” [East Brazil Union Mission]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], October 1971.

Pola, Joel. “União Este” [East Brazil Union Mission]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1971.

Pola, Joel. “União Este” [East Brazil Union Mission]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1972.

Quint, Ademar. “Cantinho da voz” [Voice Little Corner]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1961.

“Rápidas” [Brief News]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1998.

Rede Adventista Silvestre de Saúde [Silvestre Adventist Health Network]. Accessed April 27, 2020. http://www.redeadventistasilvestre.com/.

Rede Silvestre [Silvestre Network]. “Silvestre conquista certificação máxima da ONA” [Silvestre Achieves Maximum Certification From the ONA]. Silvestre Adventist Health Network. April 9, 2019. Accessed January 29, 2020. https://bit.ly/37HnKAE.

“Resumo” [Summary]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1977.

“Retrospectiva e missão” [Retrospective and Mission]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 2006.

Seventh-day Adventist Church (Brazil). Accessed February 4, 2020. http://www.adventistas.org/pt/.

Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook. Washington, DC: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949.

“Todos contra o tabagismo” [Everyone Against Smoking]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 2012.

“Um hospital em ritmo de desenvolvimento” [A Hospital in a Quick Pace of Development]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1972.

Vieira, Carlos Nunes. “Mais auxiliares de enfermagem para o serviço médico adventista” [More Nursing Assistants for Adventist Medical Service]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1967.

Vieira, Carlos Nunes. “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1965.

Vieira, Carlos Nunes. “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1965.

Vieira, Carlos Nunes. “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1965.

Vieira, Carlos Nunes. “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1966.

Vieira, Carlos Nunes. “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1967.

Vieira, Carlos Nunes. “1º Concílio Médico-Missionário da Divisão Sul-Americana” [1st Medical-Missionary Council of the South American Division]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1966.

“Viúva de Médico Pioneiro Visita o Brasil” [Pioneer Doctor’s Widow Visits Brazil]. Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1977.

Notes

  1. Franciele Mota, “Trabalho de peso” [Substantial work], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 2013, 26-27.

  2. “Unidades” [Units], Rede Adventista Silvestre de Saúde [Silvestre Adventist Health Network], accessed April 27, 2020, https://bit.ly/2KGa8fb.

  3. The definitive organization of a youth department took place at the General Conference Council in 1907. “In the summer of that year, about 200 workers met [...] in a youth convention in order to choose a name for the department.” They decided to call it the “Seventh-day Adventist Young People’s Missionary Volunteer Department” or simply M. V. “História” [History], Seventh-day Adventist Church (Brazil) Website, accessed February 4, 2020, https://bit.ly/2K1fnW5.

  4. “Catarina Schneider relembra pioneirismo do esposo” [Catarina Schneider Recalls Her Husband's Pioneerism], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1977, 29.

  5. “Hospital Silvestre-Nasceu para curar e testemunhar” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital-Born to heal and witness], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1981, 36; Marino de Oliveira Francisco, “Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Monograph: Brazil College, 1985, 2.

  6. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: the growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America] (Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011), 456-457.

  7. The 1929 crisis, also known as the Great Depression, was caused by what “happens in the booms of free markets…wages were left behind, profits grew disproportionately, and the prosperous took a bigger slice of the national pie. But as the mass demand could not keep up with the rapidly growing productivity of the industrial system..., the result was overproduction and speculation. This, in turn, caused the collapse.” Eric Hobsbawn, Era dos Extremos: o breve século XX, 1914-1991 [Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991] (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1995), 104.

  8. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: the growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America] (Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011), 458.

  9. Leonidas Verneque Guedes, USeB executive secretary, e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira, ESDA associate editor, September 9, 2019; Elmar Storck Borges, “Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Monograph: Brazil College, 1990, 4; Julio Minha, “De todo o Brasil” [From All Over Brazil], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1943, 8.

  10. Leonidas Verneque Guedes (USeB executive secretary), e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira (ESDA associate editor), September 9, 2019.

  11. “Hospital Silvestre—Nasceu para curar e testemunhar” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital—Born to Heal and Witness], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1981, 36; Arnaldo B. Christianini, “A luz vem do oriente” [The Light Comes From the East], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1969, 14.

  12. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America] (Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011), 460.

  13. “Catarina Schneider relembra pioneirismo do esposo” [Catarina Schneider Recalls Her Husband's Pioneerism], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1977, 29; “Viúva de Médico Pioneiro visita o Brasil” [Pioneer Doctor’s Widow Visits Brazil], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1977, 28.

  14. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America] (Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011), 459.

  15. “Hospital Silvestre—Nasceu para curar e testemunhar” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital—Born to Heal and Witness], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1981, 36; Arnaldo B. Christianini, “A luz vem do oriente” [The Light Comes From the East], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1969, 14; Elmar Storck Borges, “Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Monograph: Brazil College, 1990, 4.

  16. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America] (Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011), 460; “Rio de Janeiro Sanitarium and Hospital,” Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook (Washington, D.C: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1949), 307.

  17. Jorge Pereira Lobo, “Notícias do Hospital Silvestre” [News From Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1951, 11.

  18. “Catarina Schneider relembra pioneirismo do esposo” [Catarina Schneider Recalls Her Husband's Pioneerism], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1977, 30.

  19. Leonidas Verneque Guedes, USeB executive secretary, e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira, ESDA associate editor, September 9, 2019.

  20. Jorge Pereira Lobo, “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1958, 33.

  21. Floyd Greenleaf, Terra de Esperança: o crescimento da Igreja Adventista na América do Sul [A Land of Hope: The Growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in South America] (Tatuí, SP: Brazil Publishing House, 2011), 577.

  22. Julia Estrella, “Recepção de Toucas da primeira turma de alunas da Escola de Auxiliares de Enfermagem ‘Hospital Silvestre’” [Hats Welcoming Ceremony of the First Class of ‘Silvestre Hospital’ Nursing Assistants School], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1959, 26; “O Hospital Silvestre está...” [Silvestre Hospital is...], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1959, 31.

  23. Julia Estrella, “Recepção de Toucas da primeira turma de alunas da Escola de Auxiliares de Enfermagem ‘Hospital Silvestre’” [Hats Welcoming Ceremony of the First Class of “Silvestre Hospital” Nursing Assistants School], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1959, 26.

  24. Oldemar Beskow, “Nossa obra avança no Brasil” [Our Work Advances in Brazil], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1959, 27.

  25. “Escola de Auxiliares de Enfermagem do HAS: Objetivos” [HAS Nursing Assistants School: Objectives], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1980, 31.

  26. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “Mais auxiliares de enfermagem para o serviço médico adventista” [More Nursing Assistants for Adventist Medical Service], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1967, 28.

  27. Rubens Ségre Ferreira, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review] 55, no. 5 (May 1960): 37.

  28. Rubens Ségre Ferreira, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1960, 32.

  29. E. Berger, “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital] Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1960, 33.

  30. “Missionary launches are used to provide services to those who live on the banks of rivers and places that are difficult to access. They are equipped for medical and dental care, also counting on the presence of an Adventist pastor to give spiritual assistance to families.” Centro Nacional da Memória Adventista [National Center of Adventist History], “Lanchas Missionárias no Brasil” [Missionary Launches in Brazil], accessed February 27, 2020, https://bit.ly/396w2mo.

  31. “Decreto nº 47.735, de 2 de Fevereiro de 1960” [Decree no. 47.735, of February 2, 1960], Câmara dos Deputados [Chamber of Deputies], accessed January 28, 2020, https://bit.ly/36uJ0YR.

  32. Jorge Pereira Lobo, “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1960, 36.

  33. “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1960, 36.

  34. Jorge Pereira Lobo, “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], June 1961, 34.

  35. Ademar Quint, “Cantinho da voz” [Voice Little Corner], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1961, 33.

  36. Rodolfo Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1962, 27.

  37. Elmar Storck Borges, “Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Monograph: Brazil College, 1990, 4.

  38. Silvestre Adventist Health Network, “História de Fundação do Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [Foundation History of Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Borda Digital [Digital Edge], July 9, 2018, accessed January 28, 2020, https://bit.ly/2RYtFKW.

  39. Jorge Pereira Lobo, “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1961, 33.

  40. Rodolfo Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1964, 27.

  41. Rodolfo Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1964, 27.

  42. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital reports], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1965, 28.

  43. “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1965, 36.

  44. “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital reports], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1965, 27.

  45. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1965, 29.

  46. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1966, 31.

  47. Rodolpho Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1966, 31.

  48. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “1º Concílio Médico-Missionário da Divisão Sul-Americana” [1st Medical-Missionary Council of the South American Division], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1966, 19.

  49. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital Reports], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1966, 31.

  50. Rodolpho Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1966, 31.

  51. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “1º Concílio Médico-Missionário da Divisão Sul-Americana” [1st Medical-Missionary Council of the South American Division], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1966, 19.

  52. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “Mais auxiliares de enfermagem para o serviço médico adventista” [More Nursing Assistants for Adventist Medical Service], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1967, 27.

  53. Carlos Nunes Vieira, “O Hospital Silvestre informa” [Silvestre Hospital reports], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1967, 31.

  54. Rodolpho Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1966, 32.

  55. Rodolfo Belz, “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1967, 33.

  56. Rodolfo Belz, “Crescem as Instituições” [Institutions Grow], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1967, 31.

  57. Rodolpho Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1969, 32.

  58. Jorge Pereira Lobo, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1969, 29.

  59. Joel Pola, “União Este” [East Brazil Union Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], October 1971, 30.

  60. Anísio Chagas, “União Este” [East Brazil Union Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1971, 36.

  61. Joel Pola, “União Este” [East Brazil Union Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1971, 30.

  62. “Hospital Silvestre” [Silvestre Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1972, 22-23.

  63. “Hospital Silvestre—Nasceu para curar e testemunhar” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital—Born to Heal and Witness], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1981, 36; “Um hospital em ritmo de desenvolvimento” [A Hospital in a Quick Pace of Development], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1972, 20-21.

  64. “Um hospital em ritmo de desenvolvimento” [A Hospital in a Quick Pace of Development], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1972, 21.

  65. “Hospital Adventista Silvestre—Uma Imagem Positiva” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital—A Positive Image], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1973, 16.

  66. Joel Pola, “União Este” [East Brazil Union Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1972, 29.

  67. “Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1972, 31.

  68. “Um hospital em ritmo de desenvolvimento” [A Hospital in a Quick Pace of Development], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1972, 21.

  69. Franciele Mota, “Trabalho de peso” [Substantial work], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 2013, 26-27.

  70. “Hospital Adventista Silvestre—Uma Imagem Positiva” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital—A Positive Image], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 1973, 16; “Resumo” [Summary], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1977, 22.

  71. “Hospital Silvestre Inaugura Novas Instalações” [Silvestre Hospital Inaugurates New Facilities], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], October 1977, 27.

  72. “Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], June 1978, 22.

  73. “Hospital Silvestre cumpre a sua missão” [Silvestre Hospital Fulfills Its Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1992, 22; Maria Angélica T. Patrocínio, “Um aniversário no Hospital Adventista Silvestre” [An Anniversary at Silvestre Adventist Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 1978, 19.

  74. “ASA Socorre Flagelados na Unieste” [ASA Helps Victims in the East Union], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], June 1979, 29-30.

  75. “Na Necessidade, a ADRA Esteve Presente” [In Need, ADRA was Present], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1988, 19.

  76. “Hospital Silvestre—Nasceu para curar e testemunhar” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital—Born to Heal and Witness], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], December 1981, 36.

  77. “Congratulações a Corpo Clínico do HAS” [Congratulations to the HAS Clinical Staff], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1982, 28.

  78. Franciele Mota, “Trabalho de peso” [Substantial Work], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 2013, 26-27.

  79. “Comunicação: Notícias e Mensagens da Divisão Sul-Americana” [Communication: News and Messages From the South American Division], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], August 1988, 36.

  80. Wilson de Almeida and Marcos De Benedicto, “Adventistas participam de Eco-92” [Adventists Participate in Eco-92], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1992, 19.

  81. “Hospital Silvestre cumpre a sua missão” [Silvestre Hospital fulfills its mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 1992, 22.

  82. “Hospital Silvestre: 50 anos de qualidade em saúde” [Silvestre Hospital: 50 Years of Quality in Health], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], January 1995, 17.

  83. “The Christian Summer School for Children is a very effective means of evangelism with children. They are attracted by the joyful and differentiated program, full of activities and participation.” “Escola Cristã de Férias” [Christian Summer School for Children], Seventh-day Adventist Church (Brazil), accessed February 4, 2020,  https://bit.ly/2ty0XIS.

  84. “Escola Cristã de Férias” [Christian Summer School for Children], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], March 1997, 23.

  85. “Missão saúde” [Health Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 1997, 25.

  86. “Rápidas” [Brief News], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 1998, 7.

  87. “Retrospectiva e missão” [Retrospective and Mission], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 2006, 25.

  88. Jael Enéas, “Hospital Adventista Silvestre vira rede e faz retrospectiva” [Silvestre Adventist Hospital Becomes a Network and Does a Retrospective], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], February 2009, 33.

  89. Otoniel Fonseca, “Rede Adventista Silvestre de Saúde abre nova unidade” [Silvestre Adventist Health Network Inaugurates a New Unit], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], May 2009, 33.

  90. Felipe Lemos, Marcos Daniel Peres, and Jael Eneas, “Responsabilidade social” [Social Responsability], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 2009, 34.

  91. “Homenagem” [Tribute], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 2012, 29.

  92. Franciele Mota, “Trabalho de peso” [Substantial Work], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 2013, 26-27.

  93. “Todos contra o tabagismo” [Everyone Against Smoking], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], July 2012, 32.

  94. “100º transplante” [100th Transplant], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], November 2013, 40.

  95. “Novo hospital adventista” [New Adventist Hospital], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], June 2014, 26.

  96. Franciele Mota, “Trabalho de peso” [Substantial Work], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], September 2013, 26-27.

  97. “400 transplantes” [400 transplants], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 2017, 10.

  98. Rede Silvestre [Silvestre Network], “Silvestre conquista certificação máxima da ONA” [Silvestre Achieves Maximum Certification From the ONA], Silvestre Adventist Health Network, April 9, 2019, accessed January 29, 2020, https://bit.ly/37HnKAE.

  99. Rodolpho Belz, “Nótulas do Este” [East Notes], Revista Adventista [Adventist Review], April 1969, 32.

  100. Leonidas Verneque Guedes, USeB executive secretary, e-mail message to Carlos Flavio Teixeira, ESDA associate editor, September 9, 2019.

  101. “Lugar de Paz” [Peaceful Place], Rede Adventista Silvestre de Saúde [Silvestre Adventist Health Network], accessed July 16, 2019, https://bit.ly/2xRwAeJ.

  102. For more information about Silvestre Adventist Hospital, access the website: http://www.redeadventistasilvestre.com/, or the social media Facebook: Rede Adventista Silvestre; and Instagram: @redesilvestre.

×

Guedes, Leônidas Verneque, Yanka de Araújo Pessoa. "Silvestre Adventist Hospital." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=AGJ6.

Guedes, Leônidas Verneque, Yanka de Araújo Pessoa. "Silvestre Adventist Hospital." Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. April 28, 2021. Date of access September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=AGJ6.

Guedes, Leônidas Verneque, Yanka de Araújo Pessoa (2021, April 28). Silvestre Adventist Hospital. Encyclopedia of Seventh-day Adventists. Retrieved September 21, 2021, https://encyclopedia.adventist.org/article?id=AGJ6.